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Panic of 1837 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Thu, 16 May 2013 23:55

The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices and wages went down while unemployment went up. Pessimism abounded during the time. The panic had both domestic and foreign origins. Speculative lending practices in western states, a sharp decline in cotton prices, a collapsing land bubble, international specie flows, and restrictive lending policies in Great Britain were all to blame.[1][2] On May 10, 1837, banks in New York City suspended specie payments, meaning that they would no longer redeem commercial paper in specie at full face value. Despite a brief recovery in 1838, the recession persisted for approximately seven years. Banks collapsed, businesses failed, prices declined, and thousands of workers lost their jobs. Unemployment may have been as high as 25% in some locales. The years 1837 to 1844 were, generally speaking, years of deflation in wages and prices.[3]

Causes[edit]The financial crisis was due to a period of economic expansion from mid-1834 to mid-1836. The prices of land, cotton, and slaves rose sharply in these months. The origins of this boom had many causes, both domestic and international. Because of the peculiar factors of international trade at the time, copious amounts of silver were coming into the United States from Mexico and China. Land sales and tariffs on imports were also generating substantial federal revenues. Through lucrative cotton exports and the marketing of state-backed bonds in British money markets, the United States acquired significant capital investment from Great Britain. These bonds financed transportation projects in the United States. Open British credit, through Anglo-American banking houses like Baring Brothers, fueled much of the United States's westward expansion, internal improvements, and industrial growth in the antebellum era. [4]

In 1836, directors of the Bank of England noticed that the Bank's monetary reserves had declined precipitously in recent years, possibly because of poor wheat harvests that forced Great Britain to import much of its food. To compensate, the directors indicated that they would gradually raise interest rates from 3 to 5 percent. Conventional financial theory held that banks should raise interest rates and curb lending when faced with low monetary reserves. Raising interest rates, according to the laws of supply and demand, was supposed to attract specie since money generally flows where it will generate the greatest return. In an open economy with free trade and relatively weak trade barriers, the monetary policies of the hegemon - Great Britain - are transmitted to the rest of the world. This means that when Britain raised interest rates, major banks in the United States would be forced to do the same.[5]

When New York banks raised interest rates and scaled back on lending, the effects were damaging. Since the price of a bond bears an inverse relationship to the yield (or interest rate), the increase in prevailing interest rates would have forced down the price of American securities. Importantly, demand for cotton plummeted. The price of cotton fell by 25% in February and March 1837.[6] The United States economy, especially in the southern states, was heavily dependent on stable cotton prices. Receipts from cotton sales provided funding for some schools, balanced the nation's trade deficit, fortified the US dollar, and procured foreign exchange earnings in British pound sterling, the world's reserve currency at the time. Since the United States was still a predominantly agricultural economy centered on the export of staple crops and an incipient manufacturing sector,[7] a collapse in cotton prices would have caused massive reverberations.

Within the United States, there were several contributing factors. In July 1832, President Andrew Jacksonvetoed the bill to recharter the Second Bank of the United States (BUS), the nation's central bank and fiscal agent. As the BUS wound up its operations in the next four years, state-chartered banks in the West and South relaxed their lending standards, maintaining unsafe reserve ratios.[8] Two domestic policies, in particular, exacerbated an already volatile situation. The Specie Circular of 1836 mandated that western lands could be purchased only with gold and silver coin. The circular was an executive order issued by Andrew Jackson, and favored by Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri and other hard-money advocates. The intent was to curb inflation, but the circular may have had negative consequences. Secondly, the Deposit and Distribution Act of 1836 placed federal revenues in various banks across the country. Many of these banks were located in western regions. The effect of these two policies was to transfer specie away from the nation's main commercial centers on the East Coast. With lower monetary reserves in their vaults, major banks and financial institutions on the East Coast had to scale back their loans, which was a major cause of the panic.[9]

Americans at the time attributed the cause of the panic principally to domestic political conflicts. Some blamed the policies of President Andrew Jackson who refused to renew the charter of Second Bank of the United States, resulting in the withdrawal of government funds from the bank. Martin Van Buren, who became president in March 1837, was largely blamed for the panic even though his inauguration preceded the panic by five weeks. Van Buren's refusal to use government intervention to address the crisis, according to his opponents, contributed further to the damage and duration of the Panic. Jacksonian Democrats, on the other hand, blamed the national Bank, both in funding rampant speculation and in introducing inflationary paper money. This was caused by banks issuing paper money excessively.

Effects and aftermath[edit]Virtually the whole nation felt the effects of the panic. Connecticut, New Jersey, and Delaware reported the greatest stress in their mercantile districts. In 1837, Vermont's business and credit systems had taken a hard blow. Vermont had a period of alleviation in 1838, but was hit hard again in 1839-1840. New Hampshire didn't feel the effects of the panic as much as its neighbors did. It had no permanent debt in 1838, and did not have a lot of economic stress the following years. New Hampshire's greatest hardship was the circulation of fractional coins inside the state. Conditions in the South were much worse than the conditions in the East. Though the Old South was hit hard, the Cotton Belt was dealt the worst blow. In Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina the panic caused an increase in the interest of diversifying crops. New Orleans felt a general depression in business, and its money market stayed in bad condition throughout 1843. Several planters in Mississippi had spent much of their money in advance, leading to the complete bankruptcy of many planters. By 1839, many of the plantations were thrown out of cultivation. Florida and Georgia didn't feel the effects as early as Louisiana, Alabama, or Mississippi. In 1837, Georgia had sufficient coin to carry on everyday purchases. Until 1839, citizens of Florida were able to boast about the punctuality of their payments. It was in the 1840s when Georgia and Florida began to feel the negative effects of the panic. At first the West did not feel as much pressure as the East or the South. Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois were agricultural states, and the good crops of 1837 were a relief to the farmers. In 1839, agricultural prices had fallen and the pressure had reached the agriculturalists.[10]

Within two months the losses from bank failures in New York alone aggregated nearly $100 million. "Out of 850 banks in the United States, 343 closed entirely, 62 failed partially, and the system of State banks received a shock from which it never fully recovered.".[11] The publishing industry was particularly hurt by the ensuing depression.[12]

In 1842, the American economy was able to rebound somewhat and overcome the five-year depression, in part due to the Tariff of 1842,[11] but according to most accounts, the economy did not recover until 1843.[13][14]

Most economists also agree that there was a brief recovery from 1838 to 1839, which then ended as the Bank of England and Dutch creditors raised interest rates.[15] However, economic historian Peter Temin has argued that, when corrected for deflation, the economy actually grew after 1838.[16] According to economist and historian Murray Rothbard, between 1839 and 1843, real consumption increased by 21 percent and real gross national product increased by 16 percent, despite the fact that real investment fell by 23 percent and the money supply shrank by 34 percent.[17]

Many individual states defaulted on their bonds, which angered British creditors. For a brief time, the United States withdrew from international money markets. Only in the late-1840s did Americans re-enter these markets. These defaults, along with other consequences of the recession, carried major implications for the relationship between the state and economic development. In some ways, the panic undermined confidence in public support for internal improvements. While state investment in internal improvements remained common in the South up until the civil war, northerners increasingly looked to private investment, rather than public, to finance growth. Moreover, the panic unleashed a wave of riots and other forms of domestic unrest. The ultimate result was an increase in the state's police powers, including more professional police forces.[18][19]

Intangible factors like confidence and psychology played powerful roles, helping us explain the magnitude and depth of the panic. Central banks had only limited abilities to control prices and employment at the time, making runs on banks common. When a few banks collapsed, alarm quickly spread throughout the community, heightened by partisan newspapers. Anxious investors rushed to other banks, demanding to have their deposits withdrawn. When faced with such pressure, even healthy banks had to make further curtailments - calling in loans and demanding payment from their borrowers. This only fed the hysteria even further, leading to a downward spiral or snowball effect. In other words, anxiety, fear, and a pervasive lack of confidence initiated devastating, self-sustaining feedback loops. Many economists today understand this phenomenon as an information asymmetry. Essentially, bank depositors reacted to imperfect information; they did not know if their deposits were safe, and fearing further risk, they withdrew their deposits, even as this caused more damage. The same concept of downward spiral was true for many southern planters, who speculated in land, cotton, and slaves. Many planters took out loans from banks under the assumption that cotton prices would continue to rise. When cotton prices dropped, however, planters could not pay back their loans, which jeopardized the solvency of many banks. These factors were particularly crucial given the lack of deposit insurance in banks. When bank customers are not assured that their deposits are safe, they are more likely to make rash decisions that can imperil the rest of the economy. Economists today have concluded that suspension of convertibility, deposit insurance, and sufficient capital requirements in banks can limit the possibility of bank runs.[20][21][22]

See also[edit]References[edit]Notes^Timberlake, Jr., Richard H. (1997). "Panic of 1837". In Glasner, David; Cooley, Thomas F., eds. Business cycles and depressions: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing. pp. 514''16. ISBN 0-8240-0944-4. ^Knodell, Jane (September 2006). "Rethinking the Jacksonian Economy: The Impact of the 1832 Bank Veto on Commercial Banking". The Journal of Economic History66 (3): 541. ^"Measuring Worth - measures of worth, prices, inflation, purchasing power, etc". Retrieved 27 December 2012. ^Jenks, Leland Hamilton (1927). The Migration of British Capital to 1875. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 66''95. ^Temin, Peter (1969). The Jacksonian Economy. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 122''147. ^Jenks, Leland Hamilton (1927). The Migration of British Capital to 1875. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 87''93. ^North, Douglass C (1961). The Economic Growth of the United States 1790-1860. Prentice Hall. pp. 1''4. ^Knodell, Jane (September 2006). "Rethinking the Jacksonian Economy: The Impact of the 1832 Bank Veto on Commercial Banking". The Journal of Economic History66 (3): 541. ^Rousseau, Peter L (2002). "Jacksonian Monetary Policy, Specie Flows, and the Panic of 1837". Journal of Economic History62 (2): 457''488. doi:10.1017/S0022050702000566. ^McGrane, Reginald (1965). The Panic of 1837: Some Financial Problems of the Jacksonian Era. New York: Russell & Russell. pp. 106''126. ^ abHubert H. Bancroft, ed. (1902). "The financial panic of 1837". The Great Republic By the Master Historians3. ^Thompson, Lawrance. Young Longfellow (1807''1843). New York: The Macmillan Company, 1938: 325.^"Six Year Depression 1837-1843". The History Box. ^"Panic of 1837: Van Buren's First Challenge". United States American History. ^Friedman, Milton. A Program for Monetary Stability. p. 10.^Temin, Peter. The Jacksonian Economy. p. 155.^Rothbard, Murray. A history of money and banking in the United States: the colonial era to world war II. p. 102. ^Larson, John (2001). Internal Improvement: National Public Works and the Promise of Popular Government in the Early United States. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 195''264. ^Roberts, Alasdair (2012). America's First Great Depression: Economic Crisis and Political Disorder after the Panic of 1837. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 49''84; 137''174. ^Chen and Hasan (March-April 2008). "Why Do Bank Runs Look Like Panic? A New Explanation". Journal of Money, Credit and Banking40 (2-3): 537''538. ^Diamond and Dybvig (June 1983). "Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity". Journal of Political Economy91 (3): 401''419. ^Goldstein, Itay (June 2005). "Demand-Deposit Contracts and the Probability of Bank Runs". The Journal of Finance60 (3). BibliographyBalleisen, Edward J. (2001). Navigating Failure: Bankruptcy and Commercial Society in Antebellum America. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 1''49. ISBN 0-8078-2600-6. Bodenhorn, Howard (2003). State Banking in Early America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514776-6. Curtis, James C (1970). The Fox at Bay: Martin Van Buren and the Presidency, 1837''1841. Univ. Press of Kentucky. pp. 64''151. ISBN 0-8131-1214-1. Friedman, Milton (1960). A Program for Monetary Stability. New York: Fordham Univ. Press. Goodhart, Charles (1988). The Evolution of Central Banks. MIT Press. pp. 1''19. ISBN 0-26-257073-4. Jenks, Leland Hamilton (1927). The Migration of British Capital to 1875. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 66''95. Kilbourne, Jr., Richard H. (2006). Slave Agriculture and Financial Markets in Antebellum America: The Bank of the United States in Mississippi, 1831-1852. Pickering and Chatto. pp. 57''105. ISBN 1851968903. Lepler, Jessica (May 2012). "'The News Flew Like Lightning'". Journal of Cultural Economy5 (2): 179''195. McGrane, Reginald C (1924). The Panic of 1837: Some financial problems of the Jacksonian era. Remini, Robert V. (1967). Andrew Jackson and the Bank War. W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 126''131. ISBN 0-393-09757-9. Roberts, Alasdair. America's First Great Depression: Economic Crisis and Political Disorder After the Panic of 1837 (Cornell University Press; 2012) 264 pagesRousseau, Peter L (2002). "Jacksonian Monetary Policy, Specie Flows, and the Panic of 1837". Journal of Economic History62 (2): 457''488. doi:10.1017/S0022050702000566. Schweikart, Larry (1987). Banking in the American South from the Age of Jackson to Reconstruction. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-1403-0. Smith, Walter Buckingham (1953). Economic Aspects of the Second Bank of the United States. Harvard University Press. pp. 21''178. External links[edit]

Presidential Proclamation -- World Trade Week, 2013

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Sat, 18 May 2013 08:01

The White House

Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release

May 17, 2013

WORLD TRADE WEEK, 2013

- - - - - - -

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

A PROCLAMATION

As a Nation, we need to do everything we can to create good, middle-class jobs right here in America. And one of the best ways we can do that is by boosting manufacturing and expanding trade that allows us to sell more of our goods and services all around the world. We have made important progress toward meeting that goal under our National Export Initiative, and we are taking historic steps to help our businesses access new markets abroad. But we cannot stop there. We need to keep making the investments in commerce and infrastructure that drive our economic growth and bring more Americans into a thriving middle class.

We can start by modernizing our roads, bridges, and ports. These upgrades would allow American companies to ship their goods faster and cheaper, and they would encourage businesses worldwide to set up shop here and bring more jobs to our shores. So earlier this year, I proposed the Partnership to Rebuild America -- a collaboration between the private and public sectors to break ground on our most pressing infrastructure projects.

In the past 4 years, we have focused on opening up growing markets for our businesses through historic trade agreements and enforcing trade rights so American workers can compete on a level playing field. To build on that progress, we are joining nations in Asia and the Americas to negotiate a new, high-standard trade agreement: the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Once realized, the deal would boost our exports, support American jobs, and help our companies succeed in the global marketplace. And to ramp up trade with Europe, we also plan to launch talks for a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership with the European Union.

My Administration is committed to expanding international commerce that creates jobs and grows our economy. During World Trade Week, we recognize workers, growers, and entrepreneurs nationwide who share that ambition, and we rededicate ourselves to advancing it in the year ahead.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 19 through May 25, 2013, as World Trade Week. I encourage all Americans to observe this week with events, trade shows, and educational programs that celebrate and inform Americans about the benefits of trade to our Nation and the global economy.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of May, in the year of our Lord two thousand thirteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh.

BARACK OBAMA

Presidential Proclamation -- Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013

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Source: White House.gov Press Office Feed

Sat, 18 May 2013 08:00

The White House

Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release

May 17, 2013

EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES WEEK, 2013

- - - - - - -

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

A PROCLAMATION

In every corner of our country, emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are hard at work delivering hope and care to Americans in dire circumstances. In the face of chaos and tragedy, their steady hands provide vital, life-saving services, and their calm under pressure delivers comfort to neighbors in need. During Emergency Medical Services Week, we pause to offer our gratitude to these remarkable men and women, whose dedication is fundamental to our society's well-being.

In recent weeks, we have again seen the critical role EMS professionals play in times of crisis. When explosives went off at the Boston Marathon, EMS personnel rushed toward the blasts and, with selfless disregard for their own safety, immediately tended to the injured. Alongside countless volunteers and ordinary citizens, they demonstrated the very best of the American spirit -- a spirit that EMS professionals display every day. My Administration remains dedicated to providing these courageous first responders, emergency medical technicians, 911 dispatchers, law enforcement officers, volunteers, and others throughout our health care system with the support they need to aid the American people in their darkest hours.

When Americans find themselves in times of crisis -- from car accidents to national tragedies -- our robust network of EMS professionals ensures that quality medical care is only moments away. This week, let us recommit to supporting EMS personnel and thanking them for their heroic contributions to our lives.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 19 through May 25, 2013, as Emergency Medical Services Week. I encourage all Americans to observe this occasion by sharing their support with their local EMS providers and taking steps to improve their personal safety and preparedness.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth day of May, in the year of our Lord two thousand thirteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh.

BARACK OBAMA

Real News: Lesbian kissers among the Eurovision 2013 finalists. (Euronews video)

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Sat, 18 May 2013 08:33

The lineup for this year's Eurovision Song Contest has been decided with the last 10 songs chosen from 17 candidates in the second semi-final.

Finland's lesbian kiss-boosted ''Marry me'' has made it, and it will do battle in Malmo on Saturday with a Vampire-themed entry from Romania, a 2.34 metre-high Ukrainian and Bonnie Tyler, among others.

Leading in the polls is Denmark which is entering that tried-and-tested competition favourite, a ballad. ''Only Teardrops'' is delivered by 20 year-old Emmelie de Forest, the youngest competitor.

From Azerbaijan to Iceland, Europe's television audience will be rooting for their champions. Nowhere more so than Greece, whose entry has some wry comments to make about the economic crisis there.

Some of Thursday night's hopefuls failed to make it. 21-year-old Moran Mazor from Israel failed to impress, as did Macedonia's veteran Gypsy Queen herself Esma, whose experience counted for little when the votes came in.

Our verdict on the songs from the 1st Semi-Final

From Thursday night's second semi-final, here is the full list of 10 acts that made it through to the final:

Armenia: Dorians '' Lonely PlanetAzerbaijan: Farid Mammadov - Hold MeFinland: Krista Siegfrids - Marry MeGeorgia: Nodi Tatishvili & Sophie Gelovani - WaterfallGreece: Koza Mostra feat. Agathon Iakovidis - Alcohol Is FreeHungary: ByeAlex - Kedvesem (Zoohacker Remix)Iceland: Eythor Ingi - ‰g  L­fMalta: Gianluca - TomorrowNorway: Margaret Berger - I Feed You My LoveRomania: Cezar - It's My LifeActs representing Albania, Bulgaria, Israel, F.Y.R. Macedonia, Latvia, San Marino, and Switzerland were knocked out of the competition.

Here is the euronews verdict on all of the songs from the second semi-final:

Who the hell are we to judge?The euronews jury is made up of three music-loving but unfortunately not music-playing journalists, who reserve the right to be honest while trying to remain respectful to the performers: Mark Davis (normally found listening to Pearl Jam, Jake Bugg, the Stone Roses), Thomas Seymat (Alt-J, Franck Ocean, Daft Punk) and Marie Jamet (Marvin Gaye, Pulp, Clinic).

ArmeniaDorians - Lonely PlanetTS: Dorians deliver an effective classic rock ballad, which is not a song about a travel guide. Too bad the cheesy utopian nonsensical lyrics delivered by a bouncy singer sound oh-so-very 90's. 6 points, 80-1 to win.AzerbaijanFarid Mammadov '' Hold MeMJ: A pretty boy singing a sad song, trying his best to look sad: the furrowed brow, the clenched fists, a voice that is trying so hard to contain the pain, with a metallophone giving off the sound of sadness behind him. Sad, sad, sad. And all you can do is to try not to cry with boredom.MD: ''If love was a mountain I'd climb up to the highest of them all, I'd swim across the ocean if you'd call, I'm lost in your smile. Freefalling for miles''. Farid Mammadov gives 110% in an attempt to break the record for clich(C)s in a verse. Drivel. Nul points, 150-1 to win.FinlandKrista Siegfrids '' Marry meMJ: Pure pop-juice: large-breasted and perfectly manicured blonde caked in make-up, wearing studded leather and perched on high heels, declaring her love for a guy. But in a post-feminist oh-so-modern way. Except for the white wedding dress and the knight in shining armour. Nul points, 150-1 to win.MD: Finland is a beautiful country full of adorable people. I have never had anything bad to say about Finland. Now, thanks to this song, I do. Nul points, 150-1 to win.GeorgiaNodi Tatishvili and Sophie Gelovani '' WaterfallMD: Two singers who actually complement each other quite well, singing a song that could make it onto a low-budget Disney soundtrack. It's just a tad generic and I can't imagine anyone remembering this song once Nodi and Sophie have fulfilled their part of the bargain by singing it very nicely indeed and cracking into the champagne backstage. 2 points, 66-1 to win.MJ: A typical commercial song. Two strong commercial voices, a boy and a girl. Very Disney-like indeed and just as forgettable. 2 points for singing so accurately and 80-1 to win.GreeceKoza Mostra & Agathon Iakovidis - Alcohol Is FreeTS: Balkan music band Koza Mostra teams up with folk music veteran Agathon Iakovidis for a punchy old-meets-the-new song. If all else fails, the catchy Hellenic ska of Alcohol is Free could still be the anthem of the next batch of Erasmus students heading to Greece in September. 9 points, 33-1 to win.MD: I can picture these guys as the support act at a Goran Bregovic gig. They're not quite in the same league as Brega but definitely in the same ilk. It could go either way for this unashamed drinking song: it'll either be loved for its Balkan folk craziness or ignored for its rustic lack of sophistication. I hope it's the former but I fear it'll be the latter. Obviously it will get 12 points from Cyprus. 10 points, 33-1 to win.HungaryByeAlex '' KedvesemMD: Cute animated video showing the lyrics in Hungarian so you can sing along. Or try to anyway. Interesting to see how this translates to a live performance. Song sounds something like Badly Drawn Boy and while it may not be dynamic enough to win, it's a nice little tune. 10 points (out of a maximum 12), 66-1 to win.MJ: A nice little indie song, with a jumpy rhythm backed by gentle hand-clapping. This kind of rhythm and voice remind me of one my favourite bands, the Papas Fritas, but without the nice female voice. But here the (male) singer's slightly veiled voice is nice enough to work without a girlie backup. That's my 12 points but I predict a 200-1 to win.IcelandEy¾"r Ingi Gunnlaugsson '' ‰g L­fMJ: A good old-fashioned viking blond, complete with beard and long-but-clean hair, sings what could have been a Celine Dion hit in Icelandic. It seems a song of tragedy but apparently, according to the child's drawing used in the video it has a happy ending. 4 points, 40-1 to win.MD: Everything's very folkloric about Iceland's entry. It's simple, traditional, humble and, quite frankly, difficult to say anything bad about. Having said that, it's also difficult to get excited about. If I was wistfully gazing out to sea from a mist-enshrouded cliff-top, and I spoke Icelandic, I would probably start belting out ‰g L­f at the top of my lungs. But as a non-Icelandic speaking philistine sitting on my sofa watching Eurovision, I would probably take this as an opportunity to put the kettle on. 6 points, 50-1 to win.MaltaGianluca Bezzina '' TomorrowMJ: A happy indie ballad done by a ukelele-backed. It might not be ground-breaking but at least there's sunshine and youthful exuberance! Quite refreshing when you've had to sit through dozens of Eurovision songs. 10 points (out of a maximum 12), 66-1 to win.MD: They remind me of that group Fun that all the young folk are listening to at the moment, which means they might be fashionable (I wouldn't really know to be honest). And I'm with Marie: more sunshine and happy faces please. Give Europe's jobless youth something to smile about! 8 points, 20-1 to win.NorwayMargaret Berger '' I feed you my loveMJ: A beautiful, dreamy blonde, some reverb on top of a gimmicky boom-boom-fizz-fizz dance track and the odd lyrical explosion to get the crowd going. Will Norway do it this year? It just might'... 10 points, 20-1 to win.MD: This song would not be out of place as the theme tune to a James Bond film; the singer has a voice reminiscent of Shirley Manson of Garbage (The World is not Enough). It's a little bit different to the other entries this year, it's slightly darker and as such it stands out. I think Norway have a good chance of winning with this effort. 12 points, 10-1 to win.RomaniaCesar - It's My LifeTS: Of course, it would be very easy to laugh off Cesar's song, with his insanely high-pitched countertenor voice, the 90s dancey loop, interrupted only by a totally out-of-place dubstep break. But the vocal performance is no joke. A mix so mind-blowing it might very well win.6 points, 16-1 to win.MD: Good grief, Cesar certainly has one helluva voice! He could do Phantom of the Opera all by himself, singing all the parts. Musicals for the austerity era. Like Thomas, I have no idea who thought the little dubstep cameo would be a good idea. What is it with the 15-second dubstep sequences this year? That aside, this is Cesar's show. The man was born to be on stage and this is a potential winner even if it is very weird indeed, and a little scary. 10 points, 8-1 to win.And here's our verdict on the song's that didn't make it to Saturday's final:

LatviaPeR - Here We GoTS: PeR are Latvians rapping in English. Onstage they wear the most glittery pants AND military jackets ever created and sometimes one of them even beat-boxes. There's also a keytar player. The mind boggles. 1 point, 150-1 to win.MD: Those sparkly suits are a statement that says ''Do not take us seriously!'' which is fair enough; this is Eurovision after all. There is nothing serious here, and I'm certain these guys would be an awesome booking for a wedding. The 'fun factor' will probably earn them points and I can see PeR making the final, but there's nothing substantial enough about the song to take it all the way, I fear. 4 points (out of a maximum 12), 66-1 to win. , 80-1 to win.San MarinoValentina Monetta '' CrisalideMJ: OK, so this song starts sad, la C(C)line Dion before finishing with a dancier (but still quite melancholic) flourish. A funny combination but this has got its share of good points to seduce some of the judges and certain members of the public. But perhaps not entirely. It's perhaps the kind of song that will do well but not win. A fourth-place finish maybe. 8 points, 33-1 to win.MD: Here you get two minutes of piano and string-backed ballad, to which the Italian language lends itself very well, and then a minute of Eurodance (which very few languages lend themselves to). That (presumably deliberately) reflects the lyrics of the song, which is about 'emerging from your chrysalis and becoming a butterfly'. So there's some thought behind this, which is one of the plus points Marie was talking about. And there are others, such as the video (again, it is coherent and has a point) and Valentina Monetta's voice. Unfortunately for San Marino, the tiny little microstate doesn't have a very large diaspora so will miss out on the general public's points but the fact that the song 'tells a story' might go down well with the 'professional' judges. 8 points, 40-1 to win.FYR MacedoniaEsma and Lozano '' Pred Da Se RazdeniMD: Two songs in one. The first is a West End musical done in Balkan style sing by Lozano. Then the formidable-looking Esma comes in and steals his limelight with a dancy Gitane number, while an unimpressed Lozano ignores her presence with him on stage. Not really sure the two different parts work that well together but this song could get a lot of votes from the Balkans. 4 points, 40-1 to win.MJ: Agreed, it's a little strange this song, which is cut into two parts. The stage set-up is also slightly curious, with Lozano singing on one side then switching to the other after dropping his mic (deliberately or not, it's not clear) while Esma sings her first part. Then the two meet in the middle for a sad-sounding duo. Odd. 2 points, 80-1 to win.BulgariaElitsa & Stoyan '' Samo ShampioniMJ: A rare eastern sound to the music, and an ever rarer outing for a ga¯ta (Balkan bagpipes), boosted by plenty of percussion and a wall of dance beats. It's sung in Bulgarian but there's plenty of repetition so you don't miss much by not understanding the lyrics. If nothing else, it makes you want to tap your feet. 8 points, 80-1 to winMD: It's certainly quite different to anything else I've heard thus far in this year's Eurovision list, which is certainly no a bad thing. I imagine his would be great to see live at a street carnival, what with all the drums and noise. And I'd love to have a go on a ga¯ta. I would be surprised though if this song won, as it doesn't quite fit the Eurovision mould. I wouldn't mind being wrong though. 9 points, 66-1 to win.IsraelMoran Mazor '' Rak bishvilo (Only For Him)MD: Curvacious Moran Mazor's powerful lungs belt the song out with energy in abundance. Sounds like about a million other songs, nothing really grabs the attention. Apart from Moran Mazor's curves. 3 points, 100-1 to win.AlbaniaAdrian Lulgjuraj & Bledar Sejko '' IdentitetMJ: This is riff-rock from the Balkans backed by strings. There are some 'hard-rock' guitar solos and some good old heavy-metal hairdos. It's what you might expect if you put college rock and hard rock in a mixer for a few seconds. No chance of winning though '' Lordi this is not. 6 points, 100-1 to win.MD: The first few bars sound like a Balkan U2 and then gradually it gets a little harder and heavier until it ends up with what AC/DC might sound like if they weren't quite as good as they actually are. Don't get me wrong, this Albanian song is decent, it's just that we've all heard something like it somewhere before. 4 points, 150-1 to win.SwitzerlandTakasa '' You and MeMD: You start out by thinking this song is going nowhere, then it goes there. And that's despite the road-trip video making you think that maybe, just maybe, the song will take you somewhere. On stage, without the video, this might struggle to make the final. 1 point, 150-1 to win.MJ: You do think they're driving to Malm¶ in the video because of a guide with Malm¶ written on it (uh, so obvious). You start thinking 'oh they're so happy (there are enough forced smiles and laughs to make you believe so) to go to Eurovision they made a video out of it'. But then (beware, 1st class spoiler), no. At the end of the video, they do go nowhere as Mark said. Literally in the middle of nowhere. So what about the song then? Well not much better than the video. Just an average pop-rock song, not disagreeable, sticky and repetitive enough to spoil your day but not enough to mark music history. 4 points, 200-1 to win.

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Scientists study violent winds of Uranus, Neptune | Fox News

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Sun, 19 May 2013 09:38

Shrouded in a dense layer of clouds, Uranus appears as an almost featureless world when viewed in visible light.NASA

Jet streams encircling giant gas planets don't reach deep, according to a new study.Yohai Kaspi

The Voyager 2 spacecraft photographed bands of clouds around Neptune during its flyby in 1989.NASA

In this artist's impression of Voyager 2's 1989 encounter with Neptune, the gas giant's Great Dark Spot is visible in the distance.NASA

Screaming winds of infernal violence alternate with periods of dead calm as one nears the surface of Uranus, according to a new analysis of the gas giant.

The turbulent weather patterns on gaseous planets has long been known -- think of the giant storm raging on Jupiter that makes up its famous eye. But little had been known about life on the surface of distant Uranus.

A new analysis of data taken by the spacecraft Voyager 2 during a fly-by in 1989 reveals the dynamic winds that lie on the surface of the planet, beneath an atmosphere thick enough to swallow the entire Earth.

And on the planet itself, things are surprisingly calm.

"Our analyses show that the dynamics are confined to a thin weather layer no more than about 680 miles deep," said William Hubbard, a planetary scientist with the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. "This number is an upper limit, so in reality, it is possible that the atmosphere quiets down even shallower than that."

Without a means to probe the atmosphere of gas giants directly, the researchers had to rely on indirect measurements to gather clues about weather patterns on the two planets.

"For Neptune and Uranus, the only spacecraft data we have were taken with Voyager 2's equipment more than 20 years ago, and we won't be able to get anything that lives up to today's standards anytime soon," explained Hubbard, whose research focuses on studies of the structure and evolution of Jupiter, Saturn and extra solar giant planets.

Instead, the team used deep circulation theories to predict what the gravitational fields of Neptune and Uranus should look like.

And unlike the turbulent jet streams there, Hubbard said the winds are much more subtle on Jupiter and Saturn. We'll learn more when NASA's Juno spaceship, currently en route to Jupiter, arrives at the big planet, he said.

"When we start getting detailed data from Juno, we are going to use those methods to apply to what we see on Jupiter and Saturn," he said. "We want to see how deep these weather phenomena go on those planets."

Hubbard explained that researchers believe the atmospheric disturbances are more numerous on Jupiter and Saturn but less strong compared to Uranus and Neptune, for reasons that may have to do with the planets' different compositions and their angles between the magnetic fields and rotational axis.

"In the case of Earth, our atmosphere is very thin and almost negligible from the point of view of gravity," Hubbard explained.

"In the case of giant gas planets, we are talking about deep, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres that are much denser, more like an ocean than an atmosphere."

Shut Up Slave!

U.S. Military 'Power Grab' Goes Into Effect | Long Island Press

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Fri, 17 May 2013 11:42

U.S. Troops in Afghanistan (Photo: Senior Airman Sean Martin, U.S. Air Force)

The manhunt for the Boston Marathon bombing suspects offered the nation a window into the stunning military-style capabilities of our local law enforcement agencies. For the past 30 years, police departments throughout the United States have benefitted from the government's largesse in the form of military weaponry and training, incentives offered in the ongoing ''War on Drugs.'' For the average citizen watching events such as the intense pursuit of the Tsarnaev brothers on television, it would be difficult to discern between fully outfitted police SWAT teams and the military.

The lines blurred even further Monday as a new dynamic was introduced to the militarization of domestic law enforcement. By making a few subtle changes to a regulation in the U.S. Code titled ''Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies'' the military has quietly granted itself the ability to police the streets without obtaining prior local or state consent, upending a precedent that has been in place for more than two centuries.

The most objectionable aspect of the regulatory change is the inclusion of vague language that permits military intervention in the event of ''civil disturbances.'' According to the rule:

Federal military commanders have the authority, in extraordinary emergency circumstances where prior authorization by the President is impossible and duly constituted local authorities are unable to control the situation, to engage temporarily in activities that are necessary to quell large-scale, unexpected civil disturbances.

Bruce Afran, a civil liberties attorney and constitutional law professor at Rutgers University, calls the rule, ''a wanton power grab by the military,'' and says, ''It's quite shocking actually because it violates the long-standing presumption that the military is under civilian control.''

A defense official who declined to be named takes a different view of the rule, claiming, ''The authorization has been around over 100 years; it's not a new authority. It's been there but it hasn't been exercised. This is a carryover of domestic policy.'' Moreover, he insists the Pentagon doesn't ''want to get involved in civilian law enforcement. It's one of those red lines that the military hasn't signed up for.'' Nevertheless, he says, ''every person in the military swears an oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the United States to defend that Constitution against all enemies foreign and domestic.''

One of the more disturbing aspects of the new procedures that govern military command on the ground in the event of a civil disturbance relates to authority. Not only does it fail to define what circumstances would be so severe that the president's authorization is ''impossible,'' it grants full presidential authority to ''Federal military commanders.'' According to the defense official, a commander is defined as follows: ''Somebody who's in the position of command, has the title commander. And most of the time they are centrally selected by a board, they've gone through additional schooling to exercise command authority.''

As it is written, this ''commander'' has the same power to authorize military force as the president in the event the president is somehow unable to access a telephone. (The rule doesn't address the statutory chain of authority that already exists in the event a sitting president is unavailable.) In doing so, this commander must exercise judgment in determining what constitutes, ''wanton destruction of property,'' ''adequate protection for Federal property,'' ''domestic violence,'' or ''conspiracy that hinders the execution of State or Federal law,'' as these are the circumstances that might be considered an ''emergency.''

''These phrases don't have any legal meaning,'' says Afran. ''It's no different than the emergency powers clause in the Weimar constitution [of the German Reich]. It's a grant of emergency power to the military to rule over parts of the country at their own discretion.''

Afran also expresses apprehension over the government's authority ''to engage temporarily in activities necessary to quell large-scale disturbances.''

''Governments never like to give up power when they get it,'' says Afran. ''They still think after twelve years they can get intelligence out of people in Guantanamo. Temporary is in the eye of the beholder. That's why in statutes we have definitions. All of these statutes have one thing in common and that is that they have no definitions. How long is temporary? There's none here. The definitions are absurdly broad.''

The U.S. military is prohibited from intervening in domestic affairs except where provided under Article IV of the Constitution in cases of domestic violence that threaten the government of a state or the application of federal law. This provision was further clarified both by the Insurrection Act of 1807 and a post-Reconstruction law known as the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878 (PCA). The Insurrection Act specifies the circumstances under which the president may convene the armed forces to suppress an insurrection against any state or the federal government. Furthermore, where an individual state is concerned, consent of the governor must be obtained prior to the deployment of troops. The PCA'--passed in response to federal troops that enforced local laws and oversaw elections during Reconstruction'--made unauthorized employment of federal troops a punishable offense, thereby giving teeth to the Insurrection Act.

Together, these laws limit executive authority over domestic military action. Yet Monday's official regulatory changes issued unilaterally by the Department of Defense is a game-changer.

The stated purpose of the updated rule is ''support in Accordance With the Posse Comitatus Act,'' but in reality it undermines the Insurrection Act and PCA in significant and alarming ways. The most substantial change is the notion of ''civil disturbance'' as one of the few ''domestic emergencies'' that would allow for the deployment of military assets on American soil.

To wit, the relatively few instances that federal troops have been deployed for domestic support have produced a wide range of results. Situations have included responding to natural disasters and protecting demonstrators during the Civil Rights era to, disastrously, the Kent State student massacre and the 1973 occupation of Wounded Knee.

Michael German, senior policy counsel to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), noted in a 2009 Daily Kos article that, ''there is no doubt that the military is very good at many things. But recent history shows that restraint in their new-found domestic role is not one of them.''

At the time German was referring to the military's expanded surveillance techniques and hostile interventions related to border control and the War on Drugs. And in fact, many have argued that these actions have already upended the PCA in a significant way. Even before this most recent rule change, the ACLU was vocal in its opposition to the Department of Defense (DoD) request to expand domestic military authority ''in the event of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high yield explosive (CBRNE) incidents.'' The ACLU's position is that civilian agencies are more than equipped to handle such emergencies since 9/11. (ACLU spokespersons in Washington D.C. declined, however, to be interviewed for this story.)

But while outcomes of military interventions have varied, the protocol by which the president works cooperatively with state governments has remained the same. The president is only allowed to deploy troops to a state upon request of its governor. Even then, the military'--specifically the National Guard'--is there to provide support for local law enforcement and is prohibited from engaging in any activities that are outside of this scope, such as the power to arrest.

Eric Freedman, a constitutional law professor from Hofstra University, also calls the ruling ''an unauthorized power grab.'' According to Freedman, ''The Department of Defense does not have the authority to grant itself by regulation any more authority than Congress has granted it by statute.'' Yet that's precisely what it did. This wasn't, however, the Pentagon's first attempt to expand its authority domestically in the last decade.

D(C)j vu

During the Bush Administration, Congress passed the 2007 Defense Authorization Bill that included language similar in scope to the current regulatory change. It specifically amended the Insurrection Act to expand the president's ability to deploy troops domestically under certain conditions including health epidemics, natural disasters and terrorist activities, though it stopped short of including civil disturbances. But the following year this language was repealed under the National Defense Authorization Act of 2008 via a bill authored by Vermont Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) who cited the ''useful friction'' between the Insurrection and Posse Comitatus Acts in limiting executive authority.

According to the DoD, the repeal of this language had more to do with procedure and that it was never supposed to amend the Insurrection Act. ''When it was actually passed,'' says the defense official, ''Congress elected to amend the Insurrection Act and put things in the Insurrection Act that were not insurrection, like the support for disasters and emergencies and endemic influenza. Our intent,'' he says, ''was to give the president and the secretary access to the reserve components. It includes the National Guard and, rightfully so, the governors were pretty upset because they were not consulted.''

Senator Leahy's office did not have a statement as of press time, but a spokesperson said the senator had made an inquiry with the DoD in response to our questions. The defense official confirmed that he was indeed being called in to discuss the senator's concerns in a meeting scheduled for today. But he downplayed any concern, saying, ''Congress at any time can say 'we don't like your interpretation of that law and how you've interpreted it in making policy''--and so they can call us to the Hill and ask us to justify why we're doing something.''

Last year, Bruce Afran and another civil liberties attorney Carl Mayer filed a lawsuit against the Obama Administration on behalf of a group of journalists and activists lead by former New York Times journalist Chris Hedges. They filed suit over the inclusion of a bill in the NDAA 2012 that, according to the plaintiffs, expanded executive authority over domestic affairs by unilaterally granting the executive branch to indefinitely detain U.S. citizens without due process. The case has garnered international attention and invited vigorous defense from the Obama Administration. Even Afran goes so far as to say this current rule change is, ''another NDAA. It's even worse, to be honest.''

For Hedges and the other plaintiffs, including Pentagon Papers whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg, the government's ever-expanding authority over civilian affairs has a ''chilling effect'' on First Amendment activities such as free speech and the right to assemble. First District Court Judge Katherine Forrest agreed with the plaintiffs and handed Hedges et al a resounding victory prompting the Department of Justice to immediately file an injunction and an appeal. The appellate court is expected to rule on the matter within the next few months.

Another of the plaintiffs in the Hedges suit is Alexa O'Brien, a journalist and organizer who joined the lawsuit after she discovered a Wikileaks cable showing government officials attempting to link her efforts to terrorist activities. For activists such as O'Brien, the new DoD regulatory change is frightening because it creates, ''an environment of fear when people cannot associate with one another.'' Like Afran and Freedman, she too calls the move, ''another grab for power under the rubric of the war on terror, to the detriment of citizens.''

''This is a complete erosion of the rule of law,'' says O'Brien. Knowing these sweeping powers were granted under a rule change and not by Congress is even more harrowing to activists. ''That anything can be made legal,'' says O'Brien, ''is fundamentally antithetical to good governance.''

As far as what might qualify as a civil disturbance, Afran notes, ''In the Sixties all of the Vietnam protests would meet this description. We saw Kent State. This would legalize Kent State.''

But the focus on the DoD regulatory change obscures the creeping militarization that has already occurred in police departments across the nation. Even prior to the NDAA lawsuit, journalist Chris Hedges was critical of domestic law enforcement agencies saying, ''The widening use of militarized police units effectively nullifies the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878.''

This de facto nullification isn't lost on the DoD.

The DoD official even referred to the Boston bombing suspects manhunt saying, ''Like most major police departments, if you didn't know they were a police department you would think they were the military.'' According to this official there has purposely been a ''large transfer of technology so that the military doesn't have to get involved.'' Moreover, he says the military has learned from past events, such as the siege at Waco, where ATF officials mishandled military equipment. ''We have transferred the technology so we don't have to loan it,'' he states.

But if the transfer of military training and technology has been so thorough, it boggles the imagination as to what kind of disturbance would be so overwhelming that it would require the suspension of centuries-old law and precedent to grant military complete authority on the ground. The DoD official admits not being able to ''envision that happening,'' adding, ''but I'm not a Hollywood screenwriter.''

Afran, for one, isn't buying the logic. For him, the distinction is simple.

''Remember, the police operate under civilian control,'' he says. ''They are used to thinking in a civilian way so the comparison that they may have some assault weapons doesn't change this in any way. And they can be removed from power. You can't remove the military from power.''

Despite protestations from figures such as Afran and O'Brien and past admonitions from groups like the ACLU, for the first time in our history the military has granted itself authority to quell a civil disturbance. Changing this rule now requires congressional or judicial intervention.

''This is where journalism comes in,'' says Freedman. ''Calling attention to an unauthorized power grab in the hope that it embarrasses the administration.''

Afran is considering amending his NDAA complaint currently in front of the court to include this regulatory change.

As we witnessed during the Boston bombing manhunt, it's already difficult to discern between military and police. In the future it might be impossible, because there may be no difference.

MORE FROM JED MOREY:How Morgan Stanley is Controlling Oil Prices (VIDEO)Mass Incarceration in AmericaHow Gun Control Relates to the NDAA

miltary support for civilia LEA

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Fri, 17 May 2013 14:53

-CITE- 10 USC CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -MISC1- Sec. 371. Use of information collected during military operations. 372. Use of military equipment and facilities. 373. Training and advising civilian law enforcement officials. 374. Maintenance and operation of equipment. 375. Restriction on direct participation by military personnel. 376. Support not to affect adversely military preparedness. 377. Reimbursement. 378. Nonpreemption of other law. 379. Assignment of Coast Guard personnel to naval vessels for law enforcement purposes. 380. Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials. 381. Procurement of equipment by State and local governments through the Department of Defense: equipment for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities. 382. Emergency situations involving weapons of mass destruction. AMENDMENTS 2011 - Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(C), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4369, added item 382 and struck out former item 382 "Emergency situations involving chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction". 2008 - Pub. L. 110-417, [div. A], title VIII, Sec. 885(b)(2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4561, added item 381 and struck out former item 381 "Procurement by State and local governments of law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense". 1996 - Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title XIV, Sec. 1416(a)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2723, added item 382. 1993 - Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1122(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1755, added item 381. 1989 - Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1216(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1569, in chapter heading substituted "18" for "8". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043, amended chapter analysis generally substituting, in chapter heading "CHAPTER 8 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES" for "CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY COOPERATION WITH CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS", in item 374 "Maintenance and operation of equipment" for "Assistance by Department of Defense personnel", in item 376 "Support not to affect adversely military preparedness" for "Assistance not to affect adversely military preparedness" and in item 380 "Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials" for "Department of Defense drug law enforcement assistance: annual plan". 1987 - Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1243(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1164, added item 380. 1986 - Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3053(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-76, added item 379. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 371 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 371. Use of information collected during military operations -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, provide to Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement officials any information collected during the normal course of military training or operations that may be relevant to a violation of any Federal or State law within the jurisdiction of such officials. (b) The needs of civilian law enforcement officials for information shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be taken into account in the planning and execution of military training or operations. (c) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure, to the extent consistent with national security, that intelligence information held by the Department of Defense and relevant to drug interdiction or other civilian law enforcement matters is provided promptly to appropriate civilian law enforcement officials. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, designating existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserting reference to military training, and adding subsecs. (b) and (c). SHORT TITLE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3051, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-74, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (Secs. 3051- 3059) of title III of Pub. L. 99-570, enacting section 379 of this title, amending sections 374 and 911 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 374, 525, and 9441 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 89 of Title 14, Coast Guard] may be cited as the 'Defense Drug Interdiction Assistance Act'." AUTHORITY FOR JOINT TASK FORCES TO PROVIDE SUPPORT TO LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES CONDUCTING COUNTER-TERRORISM ACTIVITIES Pub. L. 108-136, div. A, title X, Sec. 1022, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1594, as amended by Pub. L. 109-163, div. A, title X, Sec. 1022, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3427; Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 304; Pub. L. 110-417, [div. A], title X, Sec. 1022, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4586; Pub. L. 111- 84, div. A, title X, Sec. 1012, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2441; Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1012(a)-(b)(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4346, 4347; Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1004(a), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1556, provided that: "(a) Authority. - A joint task force of the Department of Defense that provides support to law enforcement agencies conducting counter-drug activities may also provide, subject to all applicable laws and regulations, support to law enforcement agencies conducting counter-terrorism activities. "(b) Availability of Funds. - During fiscal years 2006 through 2012, funds available to a joint task force to support counter-drug activities may also be used to provide the counter-terrorism support authorized by subsection (a). "(c) Annual Report. - Not later than December 31 of each year after 2008 in which the authority in subsection (a) is in effect, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report setting forth, for the one-year period ending on the date of such report, the following: "(1) An assessment of the effect on counter-drug and counter- terrorism activities and objectives of using counter-drug funds of a joint task force to provide counterterrorism support authorized by subsection (a). "(2) A description of the type of support and any recipient of support provided under subsection (a). "(3) A list of current joint task forces conducting counter- drug operations. "(4) A certification by the Secretary of Defense that any support provided under subsection (a) during such one-year period was provided in compliance with the requirements of subsection (d). "(d) Conditions. - (1) Any support provided under subsection (a) may only be provided in the geographic area of responsibility of the joint task force. "(2)(A) Support for counter-terrorism activities provided under subsection (a) may only be provided if the Secretary of Defense determines that the objectives of using the counter-drug funds of any joint task force to provide such support relate significantly to the objectives of providing support for counter-drug activities by that joint task force or any other joint task force. "(B) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirements of subparagraph (A) if the Secretary determines that such a waiver is vital to the national security interests of the United States. The Secretary shall promptly submit to Congress notice in writing of any waiver issued under this subparagraph. "(C) The Secretary of Defense may delegate any responsibility of the Secretary under subparagraph (B) to the Deputy Secretary of Defense or to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. Except as provided in the preceding sentence, such a responsibility may not be delegated to any official of the Department of Defense or any other official." [Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1004(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1556, provided that: "The authority in section 1022 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 [Pub. L. 108-136, set out above], as amended by subsection (a), may not be exercised unless the Secretary of Defense certifies to Congress, in writing, that the Department of Defense is in compliance with the provisions of paragraph (2) of subsection (d) of such section, as added by section 1012(b) of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (Public Law 111-383; 124 Stat. 4346)."] -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 372 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 372. Use of military equipment and facilities -STATUTE- (a) In General. - The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make available any equipment (including associated supplies or spare parts), base facility, or research facility of the Department of Defense to any Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement official for law enforcement purposes. (b) Emergencies Involving Chemical and Biological Agents. - (1) In addition to equipment and facilities described in subsection (a), the Secretary may provide an item referred to in paragraph (2) to a Federal, State, or local law enforcement or emergency response agency to prepare for or respond to an emergency involving chemical or biological agents if the Secretary determines that the item is not reasonably available from another source. The requirement for a determination that an item is not reasonably available from another source does not apply to assistance provided under section 382 of this title pursuant to a request of the Attorney General for the assistance. (2) An item referred to in paragraph (1) is any material or expertise of the Department of Defense appropriate for use in preparing for or responding to an emergency involving chemical or biological agents, including the following: (A) Training facilities. (B) Sensors. (C) Protective clothing. (D) Antidotes. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 104-106, div. A, title III, Sec. 378, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 284; Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title XIV, Sec. 1416(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2723.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1996 - Pub. L. 104-106 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b). Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104-201 inserted at end "The requirement for a determination that an item is not reasonably available from another source does not apply to assistance provided under section 382 of this title pursuant to a request of the Attorney General for the assistance." 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, inserting "(including associated supplies or spare parts)" and substituting "Department of Defense" for "Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps". SUPPORT FOR NON-FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF MATERIAL FOR CHEMICAL AGENT DEFENSE Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, Sec. 1034, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 308, provided that: "(a) Authority to Provide Toxic Chemicals or Precursors. - "(1) In general. - The Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the heads of other elements of the Federal Government, may make available, to a State, a unit of local government, or a private entity incorporated in the United States, small quantities of a toxic chemical or precursor for the development or testing, in the United States, of material that is designed to be used for protective purposes. "(2) Terms and conditions. - Any use of the authority under paragraph (1) shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary considers appropriate. "(b) Payment of Costs and Disposition of Funds. - "(1) In general. - The Secretary shall ensure, through the advance payment required by paragraph (2) and through any other payments that may be required, that a recipient of toxic chemicals or precursors under subsection (a) pays for all actual costs, including direct and indirect costs, associated with providing the toxic chemicals or precursors. "(2) Advance payment. - In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall require each recipient to make an advance payment in an amount that the Secretary determines will equal all such actual costs. "(3) Credits. - A payment received under this subsection shall be credited to the account that was used to cover the costs for which the payment was provided. Amounts so credited shall be merged with amounts in that account, and shall be available for the same purposes, and subject to the same conditions and limitations, as other amounts in that account. "(c) Chemical Weapons Convention. - The Secretary shall ensure that toxic chemicals and precursors are made available under this section for uses and in quantities that comply with the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, signed at Paris on January 13, 1993, and entered into force with respect to the United States on April 29, 1997. "(d) Report. - "(1) Not later than March 15, 2008, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the use of the authority under subsection (a) during the previous calendar year. The report shall include a description of each use of the authority and specify what material was made available and to whom it was made available. "(2) Each report under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex. "(e) Definitions. - In this section, the terms 'precursor', 'protective purposes', and 'toxic chemical' have the meanings given those terms in the convention referred to in subsection (c), in paragraph 2, paragraph 9(b), and paragraph 1, respectively, of article II of that convention." TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1208, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566, as amended by Pub. L. 102-484, div. A, title X, Sec. 1044, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2493, which authorized the Secretary of Defense to transfer excess personal property of the Department of Defense to Federal and State agencies, provided conditions for transfer, and terminated the Secretary's authority on Sept. 30, 1997, was repealed and restated in section 2576a of this title by Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title X, Sec. 1033(a)(1), (b)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2639, 2640. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 373 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 373. Training and advising civilian law enforcement officials -STATUTE- The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available - (1) to train Federal, State, and local civilian law enforcement officials in the operation and maintenance of equipment, including equipment made available under section 372 of this title; and (2) to provide such law enforcement officials with expert advice relevant to the purposes of this chapter. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 99-145, title XIV, Sec. 1423(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, substituting provisions authorizing Secretary of Defense, in accordance with applicable law, to make Defense Department personnel available for training, etc., for former subsecs. (a) to (c) authorizing Secretary of Defense to assign members of Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, etc., for training, etc., briefing sessions by Attorney General, and other functions of Attorney General and Administrator of General Services. 1985 - Pub. L. 99-145 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c). EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1985 AMENDMENT Section 1423(b) of Pub. L. 99-145 provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1986." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 374 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 374. Maintenance and operation of equipment -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available for the maintenance of equipment for Federal, State, and local civilian law enforcement officials, including equipment made available under section 372 of this title. (b)(1) Subject to paragraph (2) and in accordance with other applicable law, the Secretary of Defense may, upon request from the head of a Federal law enforcement agency, make Department of Defense personnel available to operate equipment (including equipment made available under section 372 of this title) with respect to - (A) a criminal violation of a provision of law specified in paragraph (4)(A); (B) assistance that such agency is authorized to furnish to a State, local, or foreign government which is involved in the enforcement of similar laws; (C) a foreign or domestic counter-terrorism operation; or (D) a rendition of a suspected terrorist from a foreign country to the United States to stand trial. (2) Department of Defense personnel made available to a civilian law enforcement agency under this subsection may operate equipment for the following purposes: (A) Detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of air and sea traffic. (B) Detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of surface traffic outside of the geographic boundary of the United States and within the United States not to exceed 25 miles of the boundary if the initial detection occurred outside of the boundary. (C) Aerial reconnaissance. (D) Interception of vessels or aircraft detected outside the land area of the United States for the purposes of communicating with such vessels and aircraft to direct such vessels and aircraft to go to a location designated by appropriate civilian officials. (E) Operation of equipment to facilitate communications in connection with law enforcement programs specified in paragraph (4)(A). (F) Subject to joint approval by the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General (and the Secretary of State in the case of a law enforcement operation outside of the land area of the United States) - (i) the transportation of civilian law enforcement personnel along with any other civilian or military personnel who are supporting, or conducting, a joint operation with civilian law enforcement personnel; (ii) the operation of a base of operations for civilian law enforcement and supporting personnel; and (iii) the transportation of suspected terrorists from foreign countries to the United States for trial (so long as the requesting Federal law enforcement agency provides all security for such transportation and maintains custody over the suspect through the duration of the transportation). (3) Department of Defense personnel made available to operate equipment for the purpose stated in paragraph (2)(D) may continue to operate such equipment into the land area of the United States in cases involving the pursuit of vessels or aircraft where the detection began outside such land area. (4) In this subsection: (A) The term "Federal law enforcement agency" means a Federal agency with jurisdiction to enforce any of the following: (i) The Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.). (ii) Any of sections 274 through 278 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1324-1328). (iii) A law relating to the arrival or departure of merchandise (as defined in section 401 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401) into or out of the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States) or any other territory or possession of the United States. (iv) Chapter 705 of title 46. (v) Any law, foreign or domestic, prohibiting terrorist activities. (B) The term "land area of the United States" includes the land area of any territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States. (c) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available to any Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement agency to operate equipment for purposes other than described in subsection (b)(2) only to the extent that such support does not involve direct participation by such personnel in a civilian law enforcement operation unless such direct participation is otherwise authorized by law. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 98-525, title XIV, Sec. 1405(9), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3056, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-77; Pub. L. 99-661, div. A, title XIII, Sec. 1373(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4007; Pub. L. 100-418, title I, Sec. 1214(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1155; Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Secs. 1210, 1216(b), (c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566, 1569; Pub. L. 102-484, div. A, title X, Sec. 1042, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2492; Pub. L. 105-277, div. B, title II, Sec. 201, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-567; Pub. L. 106- 65, div. A, title X, Sec. 1066(a)(4), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 770; Pub. L. 109-304, Sec. 17(a)(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1706.) -REFTEXT- REFERENCES IN TEXT The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i), is title II of Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (Sec. 801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables. The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i), is title III of Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (Sec. 951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of the Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables. The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iii), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties. -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2006 - Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 109-304 substituted "Chapter 705 of title 46" for "The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)". 1999 - Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 106-65, Sec. 1066(a)(4)(A), realigned margins. Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(i). Pub. L. 106-65, Sec. 1066(a)(4)(B), struck out semicolon after "law enforcement personnel;". 1998 - Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(1), (2), added subpars. (C) and (D). Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(i). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(3), inserted "along with any other civilian or military personnel who are supporting, or conducting, a joint operation with civilian law enforcement personnel;" after "transportation of civilian law enforcement personnel" and struck out "and" at end. Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(4)(A), inserted "and supporting" before "personnel". Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(4)(B), (C), added cl. (iii). Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(5), substituted "a Federal agency" for "an agency" in introductory provisions. Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(v). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(6), added cl. (v). 1992 - Subsec. (b)(2)(B) to (F). Pub. L. 102-484, Sec. 1042(1), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) to (E) as (C) to (F), respectively. Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102-484, Sec. 1042(2), substituted "paragraph (2)(D)" for "paragraph (2)(C)". 1989 - Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 101-189, Sec. 1210, substituted "and the Attorney General (and the Secretary of State in the case of a law enforcement operation outside of the land area of the United States)" for ", the Attorney General, and the Secretary of State, in connection with a law enforcement operation outside the land area of the United States" in introductory provisions. Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 101-189, Sec. 1216(b), substituted "general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States". Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101-189, Sec. 1216(c), substituted "subsection (b)(2)" for "paragraph (2)". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 substituted "Maintenance and operation of equipment" for "Assistance by Department of Defense personnel" in section catchline, and amended text generally, revising and restating former subsecs. (a) to (d) as subsecs. (a) to (c). Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100-418, which directed substitution of "general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States", could not be executed because of intervening general amendment by Pub. L. 100-456. 1986 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-570, Sec. 3056(a), inserted provision at end relating to assistance that such agency is authorized to furnish to any foreign government which is involved in the enforcement of similar laws. Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-570, Sec. 3056(b), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "(1) In an emergency circumstance, equipment operated by or with the assistance of personnel assigned under subsection (a) may be used outside the land area of the United States (or any territory or possession of the United States) as a base of operations by Federal law enforcement officials to facilitate the enforcement of a law listed in subsection (a) and to transport such law enforcement officials in connection with such operations, if - "(A) equipment operated by or with the assistance of personnel assigned under subsection (a) is not used to interdict or to interrupt the passage of vessels or aircraft; and "(B) the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General jointly determine that an emergency circumstance exists. "(2) For purposes of this subsection, an emergency circumstance may be determined to exist only when - "(A) the size or scope of the suspected criminal activity in a given situation poses a serious threat to the interests of the United States; and "(B) enforcement of a law listed in subsection (a) would be seriously impaired if the assistance described in this subsection were not provided." Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-661 added subsec. (d). 1984 - Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98-525 struck out "(19 U.S.C. 1202)" after "Tariff Schedules of the United States". EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 100-418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100-418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties. FUNDS FOR YOUNG MARINES PROGRAM Pub. L. 110-116, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8030, Nov. 13, 2007, 121 Stat. 1321, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, funds available during the current fiscal year and hereafter for 'Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities, Defense' may be obligated for the Young Marines program." Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts: Pub. L. 109-289, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8028, Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1279. Pub. L. 109-148, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8033, Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2705. Pub. L. 108-287, title VIII, Sec. 8037, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 978. Pub. L. 108-87, title VIII, Sec. 8037, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1080. Pub. L. 107-248, title VIII, Sec. 8037, Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1544. Pub. L. 107-117, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8040, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2256. Pub. L. 106-259, title VIII, Sec. 8040, Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 683. Pub. L. 106-79, title VIII, Sec. 8043, Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1240. Pub. L. 105-262, title VIII, Sec. 8043, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2307. Pub. L. 105-56, title VIII, Sec. 8047, Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1231. Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(b) [title VIII, Sec. 8048], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-71, 3009-99. COUNTER-DRUG ACTIVITIES; CONDITIONS ON TRANSFERS OF FUNDS AND DETAILING PERSONNEL; RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER LAW Pub. L. 103-337, div. A, title X, Sec. 1011(b)-(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2836, provided that: "(b) Condition on Transfer of Funds. - Funds appropriated for the Department of Defense may not be transferred to a National Drug Control Program agency account except to the extent provided in a law that specifically states - "(1) the amount authorized to be transferred; "(2) the account from which such amount is authorized to be transferred; and "(3) the account to which such amount is authorized to be transferred. "(c) Condition on Detailing Personnel. - Personnel of the Department of Defense may not be detailed to another department or agency in order to implement the National Drug Control Strategy unless the Secretary of Defense certifies to Congress that the detail of such personnel is in the national security interest of the United States. "(d) Relationship to Other Law. - A provision of law may not be construed as modifying or superseding the provisions of subsection (b) or (c) unless that provision of law - "(1) specifically refers to this section; and "(2) specifically states that such provision of law modifies or supersedes the provisions of subsection (b) or (c), as the case may be." Pub. L. 112-74, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8045(a), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 817, provided that: "None of the funds available to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year for drug interdiction or counter-drug activities may be transferred to any other department or agency of the United States except as specifically provided in an appropriations law." Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts: Pub. L. 112-10, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8045(a), Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 67. Pub. L. 111-118, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8047(a), Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3439. Pub. L. 110-329, div. C, title VIII, Sec. 8047(a), Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3631. Pub. L. 110-116, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8048(a), Nov. 13, 2007, 121 Stat. 1325. Pub. L. 109-289, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8045(a), Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1283. Pub. L. 109-148, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8052(a), Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2709. Pub. L. 108-287, title VIII, Sec. 8057(a), Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 983. Pub. L. 108-87, title VIII, Sec. 8057(a), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1085. Pub. L. 107-248, title VIII, Sec. 8058(a), Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1549. Pub. L. 107-117, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8063(a), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2261. Pub. L. 106-259, title VIII, Sec. 8062(a), Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 688. Pub. L. 106-79, title VIII, Sec. 8065(a), Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1244. Pub. L. 105-262, title VIII, Sec. 8065(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2311. Pub. L. 105-56, title VIII, Sec. 8071(a), Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1235. Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(b) [title VIII, Sec. 8080(a)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-71, 3009-104. Pub. L. 104-61, title VIII, Sec. 8096(a), Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 671. Pub. L. 103-335, title VIII, Sec. 8154(a), Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2658. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT FOR COUNTER-DRUG ACTIVITIES Pub. L. 101-510, div. A, title X, Sec. 1004, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1629, as amended by Pub. L. 102-190, div. A, title X, Sec. 1088(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1484; Pub. L. 102-484, div. A, title X, Sec. 1041(a)-(d)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2491; Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1121(a), (b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1753; Pub. L. 103-337, div. A, title X, Sec. 1011(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2836; Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2120; Pub. L. 107-107, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1212; Pub. L. 109-364, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2382; Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1015(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4347; Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1005, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1556, provided that: "(a) Support to Other Agencies. - During fiscal years 2012 through 2014, the Secretary of Defense may provide support for the counter-drug activities of any other department or agency of the Federal Government or of any State, local, tribal, or foreign law enforcement agency for any of the purposes set forth in subsection (b) if such support is requested - "(1) by the official who has responsibility for the counter- drug activities of the department or agency of the Federal Government, in the case of support for other departments or agencies of the Federal Government; "(2) by the appropriate official of a State, local, or tribal government, in the case of support for State, local, or tribal law enforcement agencies; or "(3) by an appropriate official of a department or agency of the Federal Government that has counter-drug responsibilities, in the case of support for foreign law enforcement agencies. "(b) Types of Support. - The purposes for which the Secretary of Defense may provide support under subsection (a) are the following: "(1) The maintenance and repair of equipment that has been made available to any department or agency of the Federal Government or to any State, local, or tribal government by the Department of Defense for the purposes of - "(A) preserving the potential future utility of such equipment for the Department of Defense; and "(B) upgrading such equipment to ensure compatibility of that equipment with other equipment used by the Department of Defense. "(2) The maintenance, repair, or upgrading of equipment (including computer software), other than equipment referred to in paragraph (1) for the purpose of - "(A) ensuring that the equipment being maintained or repaired is compatible with equipment used by the Department of Defense; and "(B) upgrading such equipment to ensure the compatibility of that equipment with equipment used by the Department of Defense. "(3) The transportation of personnel of the United States and foreign countries (including per diem expenses associated with such transportation), and the transportation of supplies and equipment, for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities within or outside the United States. "(4) The establishment (including an unspecified minor military construction project) and operation of bases of operations or training facilities for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities of the Department of Defense or any Federal, State, local, or tribal law enforcement agency within or outside the United States or for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities of a foreign law enforcement agency outside the United States. "(5) Counter-drug related training of law enforcement personnel of the Federal Government, of State, local, and tribal governments, and of foreign countries, including associated support expenses for trainees and the provision of materials necessary to carry out such training. "(6) The detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of - "(A) air and sea traffic within 25 miles of and outside the geographic boundaries of the United States; and "(B) surface traffic outside the geographic boundary of the United States and within the United States not to exceed 25 miles of the boundary if the initial detection occurred outside of the boundary. "(7) Construction of roads and fences and installation of lighting to block drug smuggling corridors across international boundaries of the United States. "(8) Establishment of command, control, communications, and computer networks for improved integration of law enforcement, active military, and National Guard activities. "(9) The provision of linguist and intelligence analysis services. "(10) Aerial and ground reconnaissance. "(c) Limitation on Counter-Drug Requirements. - The Secretary of Defense may not limit the requirements for which support may be provided under subsection (a) only to critical, emergent, or unanticipated requirements. "(d) Contract Authority. - In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may acquire services or equipment by contract for support provided under that subsection if the Department of Defense would normally acquire such services or equipment by contract for the purpose of conducting a similar activity for the Department of Defense. "(e) Limited Waiver of Prohibition. - Notwithstanding section 376 of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense may provide support pursuant to subsection (a) in any case in which the Secretary determines that the provision of such support would adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States in the short term if the Secretary determines that the importance of providing such support outweighs such short-term adverse effect. "(f) Conduct of Training or Operation To Aid Civilian Agencies. - In providing support pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may plan and execute otherwise valid military training or operations (including training exercises undertaken pursuant to section 1206(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Public Law 101-189; 103 Stat. 1564 [10 U.S.C. 124 note])) for the purpose of aiding civilian law enforcement agencies. "(g) Relationship to Other Laws. - (1) The authority provided in this section for the support of counter-drug activities by the Department of Defense is in addition to, and except as provided in paragraph (2), not subject to the requirements of chapter 18 of title 10, United States Code. "(2) Support under this section shall be subject to the provisions of section 375 and, except as provided in subsection (e), section 376 of title 10, United States Code. "(h) Congressional Notification of Facilities Projects. - (1) When a decision is made to carry out a military construction project described in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] written notice of the decision, including the justification for the project and the estimated cost of the project. The project may be commenced only after the end of the 21-day period beginning on the date on which the written notice is received by Congress. "(2) Paragraph (1) applies to an unspecified minor military construction project that - "(A) is intended for the construction, modification, or repair of any facility for the purposes set forth in subsection (b)(4); and "(B) has an estimated cost of more than $500,000. "(3) This subsection may not be construed as an authorization for the use of funds for any military construction project that would exceed the approved cost limitations of an unspecified minor military construction project under section 2805(a)(2) of title 10, United States Code. "(i) Definitions Relating to Tribal Governments. - In this section: "(1) The term 'Indian tribe' means a federally recognized Indian tribe. "(2) The term 'tribal government' means the governing body of an Indian tribe, the status of whose land is 'Indian country' as defined in section 1151 of title 18, United States Code, or held in trust by the United States for the benefit of the Indian tribe. "(3) The term 'tribal law enforcement agency' means the law enforcement agency of a tribal government." [Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1015(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4348, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 1004 of Pub. L. 101-510, set out above] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011], and shall apply with respect to facilities projects for which a decision is made to be carried out on or after that date."] COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK Section 1103 of Pub. L. 100-456 related to integration of United States assets dedicated to interdiction of illegal drugs into an effective communications network, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101- 189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1204(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1564. See section 1204(a) of Pub. L. 101-189 set out as a note under section 124 of this title. ENHANCED DRUG INTERDICTION AND ENFORCEMENT ROLE FOR NATIONAL GUARD Section 1105 of Pub. L. 100-456 related to funding and training of National Guard for purpose of drug interdiction and enforcement operations and for operation and maintenance of equipment and facilities for such purpose, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1207(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566. See section 112 of Title 32, National Guard. ADDITIONAL DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3057, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-77, provided that the Secretary of Defense was to submit to Congress, within 90 days after Oct. 27, 1986, a list of all forms of assistance that were to be made available by the Department of Defense to civilian drug law enforcement and drug interdiction agencies and a plan for promptly lending equipment and rendering drug interdiction-related assistance included on the list, provided for congressional approval of the list and plan, required the Secretary to convene a conference of the heads of Government agencies with jurisdiction over drug law enforcement to determine the appropriate distribution of the assets or other assistance to be made available by the Department to such agencies, and provided for monitoring of the Department's performance by the General Accounting Office. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 375 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 375. Restriction on direct participation by military personnel -STATUTE- The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that any activity (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment or detail of any personnel) under this chapter does not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in a search, seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1211, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1567.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1989 - Pub. L. 101-189 substituted "any activity" for "the provision of any support", struck out "to any civilian law enforcement official" after "any personnel)", and substituted "a search, seizure, arrest," for "a search and seizure, an arrest,". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to insure that the provision of any assistance (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment of any personnel) to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter does not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in an interdiction of a vessel or aircraft, a search and seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 376 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 376. Support not to affect adversely military preparedness -STATUTE- Support (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment or detail of any personnel) may not be provided to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter if the provision of such support will adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that the provision of any such support does not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title, IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 substituted "Support" for "Assistance" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Assistance (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment of any personnel) may not be provided to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter if the provision of such assistance will adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. The Secretary of Defense shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to insure that the provision of any such assistance does not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 377 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 377. Reimbursement -STATUTE- (a) Subject to subsection (c), to the extent otherwise required by section 1535 of title 31 (popularly known as the "Economy Act") or other applicable law, the Secretary of Defense shall require a civilian law enforcement agency to which support is provided under this chapter to reimburse the Department of Defense for that support. (b)(1) Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary of Defense shall require a Federal agency to which law enforcement support or support to a national special security event is provided by National Guard personnel performing duty under section 502(f) of title 32 to reimburse the Department of Defense for the costs of that support, notwithstanding any other provision of law. No other provision of this chapter shall apply to such support. (2) Any funds received by the Department of Defense under this subsection as reimbursement for support provided by personnel of the National Guard shall be credited, at the election of the Secretary of Defense, to the following: (A) The appropriation, fund, or account used to fund the support. (B) The appropriation, fund, or account currently available for reimbursement purposes. (c) An agency to which support is provided under this chapter or section 502(f) of title 32 is not required to reimburse the Department of Defense for such support if the Secretary of Defense waives reimbursement. The Secretary may waive the reimbursement requirement under this subsection if such support - (1) is provided in the normal course of military training or operations; or (2) results in a benefit to the element of the Department of Defense or personnel of the National Guard providing the support that is substantially equivalent to that which would otherwise be obtained from military operations or training. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, Sec. 1061, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 319.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2008 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110-181, Sec. 1061(1), substituted "Subject to subsection (c), to the extent" for "To the extent". Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 110-181, Sec. 1061(2), added subsecs. (b) and (c) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: "An agency to which support is provided under this chapter is not required to reimburse the Department of Defense for such support if such support - "(1) is provided in the normal course of military training or operations; or "(2) results in a benefit to the element of the Department of Defense providing the support that is substantially equivalent to that which would otherwise be obtained from military operations or training." 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense shall issue regulations providing that reimbursement may be a condition of assistance to a civilian law enforcement official under this chapter." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 378 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 378. Nonpreemption of other law -STATUTE- Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to limit the authority of the executive branch in the use of military personnel or equipment for civilian law enforcement purposes beyond that provided by law before December 1, 1981. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 98-525, title XIV, Sec. 1405(10), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 reenacted section without change. 1984 - Pub. L. 98-525 substituted "before December 1, 1981" for "prior to the enactment of this chapter". -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 379 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 379. Assignment of Coast Guard personnel to naval vessels for law enforcement purposes -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide that there be assigned on board every appropriate surface naval vessel at sea in a drug-interdiction area members of the Coast Guard who are trained in law enforcement and have powers of the Coast Guard under title 14, including the power to make arrests and to carry out searches and seizures. (b) Members of the Coast Guard assigned to duty on board naval vessels under this section shall perform such law enforcement functions (including drug-interdiction functions) - (1) as may be agreed upon by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security; and (2) as are otherwise within the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard. (c) No fewer than 500 active duty personnel of the Coast Guard shall be assigned each fiscal year to duty under this section. However, if at any time the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of Defense, determines that there are insufficient naval vessels available for purposes of this section, such personnel may be assigned other duty involving enforcement of laws listed in section 374(b)(4)(A) of this title. (d) In this section, the term "drug-interdiction area" means an area outside the land area of the United States (as defined in section 374(b)(4)(B) of this title) in which the Secretary of Defense (in consultation with the Attorney General) determines that activities involving smuggling of drugs into the United States are ongoing. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3053(b)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-75; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 107-296, title XVII, Sec. 1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2002 - Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (c). Pub. L. 107-296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, substituting "every appropriate surface naval vessel" for "appropriate surface naval vessels" in subsec. (a), substituting "section 374(b)(4)(A)" for "section 374(a)(1)" in subsec. (c), and inserting "(as defined in section 374(b)(4)(B) of this title)" in subsec. (d). EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 107-296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107-296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 380 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 380. Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense, in cooperation with the Attorney General, shall conduct an annual briefing of law enforcement personnel of each State (including law enforcement personnel of the political subdivisions of each State) regarding information, training, technical support, and equipment and facilities available to civilian law enforcement personnel from the Department of Defense. (b) Each briefing conducted under subsection (a) shall include the following: (1) An explanation of the procedures for civilian law enforcement officials - (A) to obtain information, equipment, training, expert advice, and other personnel support under this chapter; and (B) to obtain surplus military equipment. (2) A description of the types of information, equipment and facilities, and training and advice available to civilian law enforcement officials from the Department of Defense. (3) A current, comprehensive list of military equipment which is suitable for law enforcement officials from the Department of Defense or available as surplus property from the Administrator of General Services. (c) The Attorney General and the Administrator of General Services shall - (1) establish or designate an appropriate office or offices to maintain the list described in subsection (b)(3) and to furnish information to civilian law enforcement officials on the availability of surplus military equipment; and (2) make available to civilian law enforcement personnel nationwide, tollfree telephone communication with such office or offices. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1243(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1163; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2046.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to annual briefing of law enforcement personnel of each State by Secretary of Defense and Attorney General and establishment of offices and telephone communication with those offices regarding surplus military equipment for provisions requiring the Secretary to report to Congress on the availability of assistance, etc., to civilian law enforcement and drug interdiction agencies and to convene a conference and requiring the Comptroller General to monitor and report on the Secretary's compliance with those requirements. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 381 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 381. Procurement of equipment by State and local governments through the Department of Defense: equipment for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities -STATUTE- (a) Procedures. - (1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish procedures in accordance with this subsection under which States and units of local government may purchase equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities through the Department of Defense. The procedures shall require the following: (A) Each State desiring to participate in a procurement of equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, or emergency response activities through the Department of Defense shall submit to the Department, in such form and manner and at such times as the Secretary prescribes, the following: (i) A request for equipment. (ii) Advance payment for such equipment, in an amount determined by the Secretary based on estimated or actual costs of the equipment and administrative costs incurred by the Department. (B) A State may include in a request submitted under subparagraph (A) only the type of equipment listed in the catalog produced under subsection (c). (C) A request for equipment shall consist of an enumeration of the equipment that is desired by the State and units of local government within the State. The Governor of a State may establish such procedures as the Governor considers appropriate for administering and coordinating requests for equipment from units of local government within the State. (D) A State requesting equipment shall be responsible for arranging and paying for shipment of the equipment to the State and localities within the State. (2) In establishing the procedures, the Secretary of Defense shall coordinate with the General Services Administration and other Federal agencies for purposes of avoiding duplication of effort. (b) Reimbursement of Administrative Costs. - In the case of any purchase made by a State or unit of local government under the procedures established under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall require the State or unit of local government to reimburse the Department of Defense for the administrative costs to the Department of such purchase. (c) GSA Catalog. - The Administrator of General Services, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, shall produce and maintain a catalog of equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities for purchase by States and units of local government under the procedures established by the Secretary under this section. (d) Definitions. - In this section: (1) The term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States. (2) The term "unit of local government" means any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State; an Indian tribe which performs law enforcement or emergency response functions as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or any agency of the District of Columbia government or the United States Government performing law enforcement or emergency response functions in and for the District of Columbia or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. (3) The term "equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities" has the meaning given such term in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. In prescribing the meaning of the term, the Secretary may not include any equipment that the Department of Defense does not procure for its own purposes and, in the case of equipment for homeland security activities, may not include any equipment that is not found on the Authorized Equipment List published by the Department of Homeland Security. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1122(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1754; amended Pub. L. 110-417, [div. A], title VIII, Sec. 885(a), (b)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4560, 4561.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2008 - Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(b)(1), substituted "Procurement of equipment by State and local governments through the Department of Defense: equipment for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities" for "Procurement by State and local governments of law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense" in section catchline. Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(a)(1), in introductory provisions, struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" and inserted ", homeland security, and emergency response" after "counter-drug", in subpar. (A), inserted ", homeland security, or emergency response" after "counter-drug" in introductory provisions and struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" in cl. (i), in subpar. (C) struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" wherever appearing, and in subpar. (D) struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment shall". Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(a)(2), struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" and inserted ", homeland security, and emergency response" after "counter-drug". Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(a)(3), in par. (2) inserted "or emergency response" after "law enforcement" in two places and in par. (3) struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment suitable" and inserted ", homeland security, and emergency response" after "counter-drug" and "and, in the case of equipment for homeland security activities, may not include any equipment that is not found on the Authorized Equipment List published by the Department of Homeland Security" before period at end. -TRANS- TERMINATION OF TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. -MISC2- DEADLINE FOR ESTABLISHING PROCEDURES Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1122(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1755, directed the Secretary of Defense to establish procedures under subsec. (a) of this section not later than six months after Nov. 30, 1993. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 382 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 382. Emergency situations involving weapons of mass destruction -STATUTE- (a) In General. - The Secretary of Defense, upon the request of the Attorney General, may provide assistance in support of Department of Justice activities relating to the enforcement of section 175, 229, or 2332a of title 18 during an emergency situation involving a weapon of mass destruction. Department of Defense resources, including personnel of the Department of Defense, may be used to provide such assistance if - (1) the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General jointly determine that an emergency situation exists; and (2) the Secretary of Defense determines that the provision of such assistance will not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. (b) Emergency Situations Covered. - In this section, the term "emergency situation involving a weapon of mass destruction" means a circumstance involving a weapon of mass destruction - (1) that poses a serious threat to the interests of the United States; and (2) in which - (A) civilian expertise and capabilities are not readily available to provide the required assistance to counter the threat immediately posed by the weapon involved; (B) special capabilities and expertise of the Department of Defense are necessary and critical to counter the threat posed by the weapon involved; and (C) enforcement of section 175, 229, or 2332a of title 18 would be seriously impaired if the Department of Defense assistance were not provided. (c) Forms of Assistance. - The assistance referred to in subsection (a) includes the operation of equipment (including equipment made available under section 372 of this title) to monitor, contain, disable, or dispose of the weapon involved or elements of the weapon. (d) Regulations. - (1) The Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General shall jointly prescribe regulations concerning the types of assistance that may be provided under this section. Such regulations shall also describe the actions that Department of Defense personnel may take in circumstances incident to the provision of assistance under this section. (2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the regulations may not authorize the following actions: (i) Arrest. (ii) Any direct participation in conducting a search for or seizure of evidence related to a violation of section 175, 229, or 2332a of title 18. (iii) Any direct participation in the collection of intelligence for law enforcement purposes. (B) The regulations may authorize an action described in subparagraph (A) to be taken under the following conditions: (i) The action is considered necessary for the immediate protection of human life, and civilian law enforcement officials are not capable of taking the action. (ii) The action is otherwise authorized under subsection (c) or under otherwise applicable law. (e) Reimbursements. - The Secretary of Defense shall require reimbursement as a condition for providing assistance under this section to the extent required under section 377 of this title. (f) Delegations of Authority. - (1) Except to the extent otherwise provided by the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense may exercise the authority of the Secretary of Defense under this section. The Secretary of Defense may delegate the Secretary's authority under this section only to an Under Secretary of Defense or an Assistant Secretary of Defense and only if the Under Secretary or Assistant Secretary to whom delegated has been designated by the Secretary to act for, and to exercise the general powers of, the Secretary. (2) Except to the extent otherwise provided by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General may exercise the authority of the Attorney General under this section. The Attorney General may delegate that authority only to the Associate Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney General and only if the Associate Attorney General or Assistant Attorney General to whom delegated has been designated by the Attorney General to act for, and to exercise the general powers of, the Attorney General. (g) Relationship to Other Authority. - Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict any executive branch authority regarding use of members of the armed forces or equipment of the Department of Defense that was in effect before September 23, 1996. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title XIV, Sec. 1416(a)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2721; amended Pub. L. 105-85, div. A, title X, Sec. 1073(a)(6), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1900; Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(A), (B), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4369; Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1089, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1603.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2011 - Pub. L. 111-383, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(B), struck out "chemical or biological" before "weapons" in section catchline. Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112-81 struck out "biological or chemical" before "weapon of mass destruction" in introductory provisions. Pub. L. 111-383, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(A), substituted "section 175, 229, or 2332a" for "section 175 or 2332c". Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112-81 struck out "biological or chemical" before "weapon of mass destruction" in two places in introductory provisions. Subsecs. (b)(2)(C), (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 111-383, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(A), substituted "section 175, 229, or 2332a" for "section 175 or 2332c". 1997 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-85 substituted "September 23, 1996" for "the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997". MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES TO RESPOND TO ACT OR THREAT OF TERRORISM Pub. L. 106-65, div. A, title X, Sec. 1023, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 747, authorized the Secretary of Defense, upon the request of the Attorney General, to provide assistance to civil authorities in responding to an act of terrorism or threat of an act of terrorism within the United States, if the Secretary determined that certain conditions were met, subject to reimbursement and limitations on funding and personnel, and provided that this authority applied between Oct. 1, 1999, and Sept. 30, 2004. -End-

-CITE- 10 USC CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -MISC1- Sec. 371. Use of information collected during military operations. 372. Use of military equipment and facilities. 373. Training and advising civilian law enforcement officials. 374. Maintenance and operation of equipment. 375. Restriction on direct participation by military personnel. 376. Support not to affect adversely military preparedness. 377. Reimbursement. 378. Nonpreemption of other law. 379. Assignment of Coast Guard personnel to naval vessels for law enforcement purposes. 380. Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials. 381. Procurement of equipment by State and local governments through the Department of Defense: equipment for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities. 382. Emergency situations involving weapons of mass destruction. AMENDMENTS 2011 - Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(C), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4369, added item 382 and struck out former item 382 "Emergency situations involving chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction". 2008 - Pub. L. 110-417, [div. A], title VIII, Sec. 885(b)(2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4561, added item 381 and struck out former item 381 "Procurement by State and local governments of law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense". 1996 - Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title XIV, Sec. 1416(a)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2723, added item 382. 1993 - Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1122(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1755, added item 381. 1989 - Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1216(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1569, in chapter heading substituted "18" for "8". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043, amended chapter analysis generally substituting, in chapter heading "CHAPTER 8 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES" for "CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY COOPERATION WITH CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS", in item 374 "Maintenance and operation of equipment" for "Assistance by Department of Defense personnel", in item 376 "Support not to affect adversely military preparedness" for "Assistance not to affect adversely military preparedness" and in item 380 "Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials" for "Department of Defense drug law enforcement assistance: annual plan". 1987 - Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1243(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1164, added item 380. 1986 - Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3053(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-76, added item 379. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 371 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 371. Use of information collected during military operations -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, provide to Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement officials any information collected during the normal course of military training or operations that may be relevant to a violation of any Federal or State law within the jurisdiction of such officials. (b) The needs of civilian law enforcement officials for information shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be taken into account in the planning and execution of military training or operations. (c) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure, to the extent consistent with national security, that intelligence information held by the Department of Defense and relevant to drug interdiction or other civilian law enforcement matters is provided promptly to appropriate civilian law enforcement officials. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, designating existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserting reference to military training, and adding subsecs. (b) and (c). SHORT TITLE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3051, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-74, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (Secs. 3051- 3059) of title III of Pub. L. 99-570, enacting section 379 of this title, amending sections 374 and 911 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 374, 525, and 9441 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 89 of Title 14, Coast Guard] may be cited as the 'Defense Drug Interdiction Assistance Act'." AUTHORITY FOR JOINT TASK FORCES TO PROVIDE SUPPORT TO LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES CONDUCTING COUNTER-TERRORISM ACTIVITIES Pub. L. 108-136, div. A, title X, Sec. 1022, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1594, as amended by Pub. L. 109-163, div. A, title X, Sec. 1022, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3427; Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 304; Pub. L. 110-417, [div. A], title X, Sec. 1022, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4586; Pub. L. 111- 84, div. A, title X, Sec. 1012, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2441; Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1012(a)-(b)(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4346, 4347; Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1004(a), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1556, provided that: "(a) Authority. - A joint task force of the Department of Defense that provides support to law enforcement agencies conducting counter-drug activities may also provide, subject to all applicable laws and regulations, support to law enforcement agencies conducting counter-terrorism activities. "(b) Availability of Funds. - During fiscal years 2006 through 2012, funds available to a joint task force to support counter-drug activities may also be used to provide the counter-terrorism support authorized by subsection (a). "(c) Annual Report. - Not later than December 31 of each year after 2008 in which the authority in subsection (a) is in effect, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report setting forth, for the one-year period ending on the date of such report, the following: "(1) An assessment of the effect on counter-drug and counter- terrorism activities and objectives of using counter-drug funds of a joint task force to provide counterterrorism support authorized by subsection (a). "(2) A description of the type of support and any recipient of support provided under subsection (a). "(3) A list of current joint task forces conducting counter- drug operations. "(4) A certification by the Secretary of Defense that any support provided under subsection (a) during such one-year period was provided in compliance with the requirements of subsection (d). "(d) Conditions. - (1) Any support provided under subsection (a) may only be provided in the geographic area of responsibility of the joint task force. "(2)(A) Support for counter-terrorism activities provided under subsection (a) may only be provided if the Secretary of Defense determines that the objectives of using the counter-drug funds of any joint task force to provide such support relate significantly to the objectives of providing support for counter-drug activities by that joint task force or any other joint task force. "(B) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirements of subparagraph (A) if the Secretary determines that such a waiver is vital to the national security interests of the United States. The Secretary shall promptly submit to Congress notice in writing of any waiver issued under this subparagraph. "(C) The Secretary of Defense may delegate any responsibility of the Secretary under subparagraph (B) to the Deputy Secretary of Defense or to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. Except as provided in the preceding sentence, such a responsibility may not be delegated to any official of the Department of Defense or any other official." [Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1004(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1556, provided that: "The authority in section 1022 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 [Pub. L. 108-136, set out above], as amended by subsection (a), may not be exercised unless the Secretary of Defense certifies to Congress, in writing, that the Department of Defense is in compliance with the provisions of paragraph (2) of subsection (d) of such section, as added by section 1012(b) of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (Public Law 111-383; 124 Stat. 4346)."] -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 372 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 372. Use of military equipment and facilities -STATUTE- (a) In General. - The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make available any equipment (including associated supplies or spare parts), base facility, or research facility of the Department of Defense to any Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement official for law enforcement purposes. (b) Emergencies Involving Chemical and Biological Agents. - (1) In addition to equipment and facilities described in subsection (a), the Secretary may provide an item referred to in paragraph (2) to a Federal, State, or local law enforcement or emergency response agency to prepare for or respond to an emergency involving chemical or biological agents if the Secretary determines that the item is not reasonably available from another source. The requirement for a determination that an item is not reasonably available from another source does not apply to assistance provided under section 382 of this title pursuant to a request of the Attorney General for the assistance. (2) An item referred to in paragraph (1) is any material or expertise of the Department of Defense appropriate for use in preparing for or responding to an emergency involving chemical or biological agents, including the following: (A) Training facilities. (B) Sensors. (C) Protective clothing. (D) Antidotes. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 104-106, div. A, title III, Sec. 378, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 284; Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title XIV, Sec. 1416(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2723.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1996 - Pub. L. 104-106 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b). Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104-201 inserted at end "The requirement for a determination that an item is not reasonably available from another source does not apply to assistance provided under section 382 of this title pursuant to a request of the Attorney General for the assistance." 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, inserting "(including associated supplies or spare parts)" and substituting "Department of Defense" for "Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps". SUPPORT FOR NON-FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF MATERIAL FOR CHEMICAL AGENT DEFENSE Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, Sec. 1034, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 308, provided that: "(a) Authority to Provide Toxic Chemicals or Precursors. - "(1) In general. - The Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the heads of other elements of the Federal Government, may make available, to a State, a unit of local government, or a private entity incorporated in the United States, small quantities of a toxic chemical or precursor for the development or testing, in the United States, of material that is designed to be used for protective purposes. "(2) Terms and conditions. - Any use of the authority under paragraph (1) shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary considers appropriate. "(b) Payment of Costs and Disposition of Funds. - "(1) In general. - The Secretary shall ensure, through the advance payment required by paragraph (2) and through any other payments that may be required, that a recipient of toxic chemicals or precursors under subsection (a) pays for all actual costs, including direct and indirect costs, associated with providing the toxic chemicals or precursors. "(2) Advance payment. - In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall require each recipient to make an advance payment in an amount that the Secretary determines will equal all such actual costs. "(3) Credits. - A payment received under this subsection shall be credited to the account that was used to cover the costs for which the payment was provided. Amounts so credited shall be merged with amounts in that account, and shall be available for the same purposes, and subject to the same conditions and limitations, as other amounts in that account. "(c) Chemical Weapons Convention. - The Secretary shall ensure that toxic chemicals and precursors are made available under this section for uses and in quantities that comply with the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, signed at Paris on January 13, 1993, and entered into force with respect to the United States on April 29, 1997. "(d) Report. - "(1) Not later than March 15, 2008, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the use of the authority under subsection (a) during the previous calendar year. The report shall include a description of each use of the authority and specify what material was made available and to whom it was made available. "(2) Each report under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex. "(e) Definitions. - In this section, the terms 'precursor', 'protective purposes', and 'toxic chemical' have the meanings given those terms in the convention referred to in subsection (c), in paragraph 2, paragraph 9(b), and paragraph 1, respectively, of article II of that convention." TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1208, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566, as amended by Pub. L. 102-484, div. A, title X, Sec. 1044, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2493, which authorized the Secretary of Defense to transfer excess personal property of the Department of Defense to Federal and State agencies, provided conditions for transfer, and terminated the Secretary's authority on Sept. 30, 1997, was repealed and restated in section 2576a of this title by Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title X, Sec. 1033(a)(1), (b)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2639, 2640. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 373 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 373. Training and advising civilian law enforcement officials -STATUTE- The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available - (1) to train Federal, State, and local civilian law enforcement officials in the operation and maintenance of equipment, including equipment made available under section 372 of this title; and (2) to provide such law enforcement officials with expert advice relevant to the purposes of this chapter. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 99-145, title XIV, Sec. 1423(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, substituting provisions authorizing Secretary of Defense, in accordance with applicable law, to make Defense Department personnel available for training, etc., for former subsecs. (a) to (c) authorizing Secretary of Defense to assign members of Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, etc., for training, etc., briefing sessions by Attorney General, and other functions of Attorney General and Administrator of General Services. 1985 - Pub. L. 99-145 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c). EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1985 AMENDMENT Section 1423(b) of Pub. L. 99-145 provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1986." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 374 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 374. Maintenance and operation of equipment -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available for the maintenance of equipment for Federal, State, and local civilian law enforcement officials, including equipment made available under section 372 of this title. (b)(1) Subject to paragraph (2) and in accordance with other applicable law, the Secretary of Defense may, upon request from the head of a Federal law enforcement agency, make Department of Defense personnel available to operate equipment (including equipment made available under section 372 of this title) with respect to - (A) a criminal violation of a provision of law specified in paragraph (4)(A); (B) assistance that such agency is authorized to furnish to a State, local, or foreign government which is involved in the enforcement of similar laws; (C) a foreign or domestic counter-terrorism operation; or (D) a rendition of a suspected terrorist from a foreign country to the United States to stand trial. (2) Department of Defense personnel made available to a civilian law enforcement agency under this subsection may operate equipment for the following purposes: (A) Detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of air and sea traffic. (B) Detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of surface traffic outside of the geographic boundary of the United States and within the United States not to exceed 25 miles of the boundary if the initial detection occurred outside of the boundary. (C) Aerial reconnaissance. (D) Interception of vessels or aircraft detected outside the land area of the United States for the purposes of communicating with such vessels and aircraft to direct such vessels and aircraft to go to a location designated by appropriate civilian officials. (E) Operation of equipment to facilitate communications in connection with law enforcement programs specified in paragraph (4)(A). (F) Subject to joint approval by the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General (and the Secretary of State in the case of a law enforcement operation outside of the land area of the United States) - (i) the transportation of civilian law enforcement personnel along with any other civilian or military personnel who are supporting, or conducting, a joint operation with civilian law enforcement personnel; (ii) the operation of a base of operations for civilian law enforcement and supporting personnel; and (iii) the transportation of suspected terrorists from foreign countries to the United States for trial (so long as the requesting Federal law enforcement agency provides all security for such transportation and maintains custody over the suspect through the duration of the transportation). (3) Department of Defense personnel made available to operate equipment for the purpose stated in paragraph (2)(D) may continue to operate such equipment into the land area of the United States in cases involving the pursuit of vessels or aircraft where the detection began outside such land area. (4) In this subsection: (A) The term "Federal law enforcement agency" means a Federal agency with jurisdiction to enforce any of the following: (i) The Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.). (ii) Any of sections 274 through 278 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1324-1328). (iii) A law relating to the arrival or departure of merchandise (as defined in section 401 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401) into or out of the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States) or any other territory or possession of the United States. (iv) Chapter 705 of title 46. (v) Any law, foreign or domestic, prohibiting terrorist activities. (B) The term "land area of the United States" includes the land area of any territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States. (c) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available to any Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement agency to operate equipment for purposes other than described in subsection (b)(2) only to the extent that such support does not involve direct participation by such personnel in a civilian law enforcement operation unless such direct participation is otherwise authorized by law. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 98-525, title XIV, Sec. 1405(9), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3056, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-77; Pub. L. 99-661, div. A, title XIII, Sec. 1373(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4007; Pub. L. 100-418, title I, Sec. 1214(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1155; Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Secs. 1210, 1216(b), (c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566, 1569; Pub. L. 102-484, div. A, title X, Sec. 1042, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2492; Pub. L. 105-277, div. B, title II, Sec. 201, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-567; Pub. L. 106- 65, div. A, title X, Sec. 1066(a)(4), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 770; Pub. L. 109-304, Sec. 17(a)(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1706.) -REFTEXT- REFERENCES IN TEXT The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i), is title II of Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (Sec. 801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables. The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i), is title III of Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (Sec. 951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of the Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables. The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iii), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties. -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2006 - Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 109-304 substituted "Chapter 705 of title 46" for "The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)". 1999 - Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 106-65, Sec. 1066(a)(4)(A), realigned margins. Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(i). Pub. L. 106-65, Sec. 1066(a)(4)(B), struck out semicolon after "law enforcement personnel;". 1998 - Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(1), (2), added subpars. (C) and (D). Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(i). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(3), inserted "along with any other civilian or military personnel who are supporting, or conducting, a joint operation with civilian law enforcement personnel;" after "transportation of civilian law enforcement personnel" and struck out "and" at end. Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(4)(A), inserted "and supporting" before "personnel". Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(4)(B), (C), added cl. (iii). Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(5), substituted "a Federal agency" for "an agency" in introductory provisions. Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(v). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 201(6), added cl. (v). 1992 - Subsec. (b)(2)(B) to (F). Pub. L. 102-484, Sec. 1042(1), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) to (E) as (C) to (F), respectively. Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102-484, Sec. 1042(2), substituted "paragraph (2)(D)" for "paragraph (2)(C)". 1989 - Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 101-189, Sec. 1210, substituted "and the Attorney General (and the Secretary of State in the case of a law enforcement operation outside of the land area of the United States)" for ", the Attorney General, and the Secretary of State, in connection with a law enforcement operation outside the land area of the United States" in introductory provisions. Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 101-189, Sec. 1216(b), substituted "general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States". Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101-189, Sec. 1216(c), substituted "subsection (b)(2)" for "paragraph (2)". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 substituted "Maintenance and operation of equipment" for "Assistance by Department of Defense personnel" in section catchline, and amended text generally, revising and restating former subsecs. (a) to (d) as subsecs. (a) to (c). Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100-418, which directed substitution of "general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States", could not be executed because of intervening general amendment by Pub. L. 100-456. 1986 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-570, Sec. 3056(a), inserted provision at end relating to assistance that such agency is authorized to furnish to any foreign government which is involved in the enforcement of similar laws. Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-570, Sec. 3056(b), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "(1) In an emergency circumstance, equipment operated by or with the assistance of personnel assigned under subsection (a) may be used outside the land area of the United States (or any territory or possession of the United States) as a base of operations by Federal law enforcement officials to facilitate the enforcement of a law listed in subsection (a) and to transport such law enforcement officials in connection with such operations, if - "(A) equipment operated by or with the assistance of personnel assigned under subsection (a) is not used to interdict or to interrupt the passage of vessels or aircraft; and "(B) the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General jointly determine that an emergency circumstance exists. "(2) For purposes of this subsection, an emergency circumstance may be determined to exist only when - "(A) the size or scope of the suspected criminal activity in a given situation poses a serious threat to the interests of the United States; and "(B) enforcement of a law listed in subsection (a) would be seriously impaired if the assistance described in this subsection were not provided." Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-661 added subsec. (d). 1984 - Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98-525 struck out "(19 U.S.C. 1202)" after "Tariff Schedules of the United States". EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 100-418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100-418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties. FUNDS FOR YOUNG MARINES PROGRAM Pub. L. 110-116, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8030, Nov. 13, 2007, 121 Stat. 1321, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, funds available during the current fiscal year and hereafter for 'Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities, Defense' may be obligated for the Young Marines program." Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts: Pub. L. 109-289, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8028, Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1279. Pub. L. 109-148, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8033, Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2705. Pub. L. 108-287, title VIII, Sec. 8037, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 978. Pub. L. 108-87, title VIII, Sec. 8037, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1080. Pub. L. 107-248, title VIII, Sec. 8037, Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1544. Pub. L. 107-117, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8040, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2256. Pub. L. 106-259, title VIII, Sec. 8040, Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 683. Pub. L. 106-79, title VIII, Sec. 8043, Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1240. Pub. L. 105-262, title VIII, Sec. 8043, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2307. Pub. L. 105-56, title VIII, Sec. 8047, Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1231. Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(b) [title VIII, Sec. 8048], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-71, 3009-99. COUNTER-DRUG ACTIVITIES; CONDITIONS ON TRANSFERS OF FUNDS AND DETAILING PERSONNEL; RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER LAW Pub. L. 103-337, div. A, title X, Sec. 1011(b)-(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2836, provided that: "(b) Condition on Transfer of Funds. - Funds appropriated for the Department of Defense may not be transferred to a National Drug Control Program agency account except to the extent provided in a law that specifically states - "(1) the amount authorized to be transferred; "(2) the account from which such amount is authorized to be transferred; and "(3) the account to which such amount is authorized to be transferred. "(c) Condition on Detailing Personnel. - Personnel of the Department of Defense may not be detailed to another department or agency in order to implement the National Drug Control Strategy unless the Secretary of Defense certifies to Congress that the detail of such personnel is in the national security interest of the United States. "(d) Relationship to Other Law. - A provision of law may not be construed as modifying or superseding the provisions of subsection (b) or (c) unless that provision of law - "(1) specifically refers to this section; and "(2) specifically states that such provision of law modifies or supersedes the provisions of subsection (b) or (c), as the case may be." Pub. L. 112-74, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8045(a), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 817, provided that: "None of the funds available to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year for drug interdiction or counter-drug activities may be transferred to any other department or agency of the United States except as specifically provided in an appropriations law." Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts: Pub. L. 112-10, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8045(a), Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 67. Pub. L. 111-118, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8047(a), Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3439. Pub. L. 110-329, div. C, title VIII, Sec. 8047(a), Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3631. Pub. L. 110-116, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8048(a), Nov. 13, 2007, 121 Stat. 1325. Pub. L. 109-289, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8045(a), Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1283. Pub. L. 109-148, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8052(a), Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2709. Pub. L. 108-287, title VIII, Sec. 8057(a), Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 983. Pub. L. 108-87, title VIII, Sec. 8057(a), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1085. Pub. L. 107-248, title VIII, Sec. 8058(a), Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1549. Pub. L. 107-117, div. A, title VIII, Sec. 8063(a), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2261. Pub. L. 106-259, title VIII, Sec. 8062(a), Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 688. Pub. L. 106-79, title VIII, Sec. 8065(a), Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1244. Pub. L. 105-262, title VIII, Sec. 8065(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2311. Pub. L. 105-56, title VIII, Sec. 8071(a), Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1235. Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, Sec. 101(b) [title VIII, Sec. 8080(a)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-71, 3009-104. Pub. L. 104-61, title VIII, Sec. 8096(a), Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 671. Pub. L. 103-335, title VIII, Sec. 8154(a), Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2658. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT FOR COUNTER-DRUG ACTIVITIES Pub. L. 101-510, div. A, title X, Sec. 1004, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1629, as amended by Pub. L. 102-190, div. A, title X, Sec. 1088(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1484; Pub. L. 102-484, div. A, title X, Sec. 1041(a)-(d)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2491; Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1121(a), (b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1753; Pub. L. 103-337, div. A, title X, Sec. 1011(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2836; Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2120; Pub. L. 107-107, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1212; Pub. L. 109-364, div. A, title X, Sec. 1021, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2382; Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1015(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4347; Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1005, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1556, provided that: "(a) Support to Other Agencies. - During fiscal years 2012 through 2014, the Secretary of Defense may provide support for the counter-drug activities of any other department or agency of the Federal Government or of any State, local, tribal, or foreign law enforcement agency for any of the purposes set forth in subsection (b) if such support is requested - "(1) by the official who has responsibility for the counter- drug activities of the department or agency of the Federal Government, in the case of support for other departments or agencies of the Federal Government; "(2) by the appropriate official of a State, local, or tribal government, in the case of support for State, local, or tribal law enforcement agencies; or "(3) by an appropriate official of a department or agency of the Federal Government that has counter-drug responsibilities, in the case of support for foreign law enforcement agencies. "(b) Types of Support. - The purposes for which the Secretary of Defense may provide support under subsection (a) are the following: "(1) The maintenance and repair of equipment that has been made available to any department or agency of the Federal Government or to any State, local, or tribal government by the Department of Defense for the purposes of - "(A) preserving the potential future utility of such equipment for the Department of Defense; and "(B) upgrading such equipment to ensure compatibility of that equipment with other equipment used by the Department of Defense. "(2) The maintenance, repair, or upgrading of equipment (including computer software), other than equipment referred to in paragraph (1) for the purpose of - "(A) ensuring that the equipment being maintained or repaired is compatible with equipment used by the Department of Defense; and "(B) upgrading such equipment to ensure the compatibility of that equipment with equipment used by the Department of Defense. "(3) The transportation of personnel of the United States and foreign countries (including per diem expenses associated with such transportation), and the transportation of supplies and equipment, for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities within or outside the United States. "(4) The establishment (including an unspecified minor military construction project) and operation of bases of operations or training facilities for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities of the Department of Defense or any Federal, State, local, or tribal law enforcement agency within or outside the United States or for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities of a foreign law enforcement agency outside the United States. "(5) Counter-drug related training of law enforcement personnel of the Federal Government, of State, local, and tribal governments, and of foreign countries, including associated support expenses for trainees and the provision of materials necessary to carry out such training. "(6) The detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of - "(A) air and sea traffic within 25 miles of and outside the geographic boundaries of the United States; and "(B) surface traffic outside the geographic boundary of the United States and within the United States not to exceed 25 miles of the boundary if the initial detection occurred outside of the boundary. "(7) Construction of roads and fences and installation of lighting to block drug smuggling corridors across international boundaries of the United States. "(8) Establishment of command, control, communications, and computer networks for improved integration of law enforcement, active military, and National Guard activities. "(9) The provision of linguist and intelligence analysis services. "(10) Aerial and ground reconnaissance. "(c) Limitation on Counter-Drug Requirements. - The Secretary of Defense may not limit the requirements for which support may be provided under subsection (a) only to critical, emergent, or unanticipated requirements. "(d) Contract Authority. - In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may acquire services or equipment by contract for support provided under that subsection if the Department of Defense would normally acquire such services or equipment by contract for the purpose of conducting a similar activity for the Department of Defense. "(e) Limited Waiver of Prohibition. - Notwithstanding section 376 of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense may provide support pursuant to subsection (a) in any case in which the Secretary determines that the provision of such support would adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States in the short term if the Secretary determines that the importance of providing such support outweighs such short-term adverse effect. "(f) Conduct of Training or Operation To Aid Civilian Agencies. - In providing support pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may plan and execute otherwise valid military training or operations (including training exercises undertaken pursuant to section 1206(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Public Law 101-189; 103 Stat. 1564 [10 U.S.C. 124 note])) for the purpose of aiding civilian law enforcement agencies. "(g) Relationship to Other Laws. - (1) The authority provided in this section for the support of counter-drug activities by the Department of Defense is in addition to, and except as provided in paragraph (2), not subject to the requirements of chapter 18 of title 10, United States Code. "(2) Support under this section shall be subject to the provisions of section 375 and, except as provided in subsection (e), section 376 of title 10, United States Code. "(h) Congressional Notification of Facilities Projects. - (1) When a decision is made to carry out a military construction project described in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] written notice of the decision, including the justification for the project and the estimated cost of the project. The project may be commenced only after the end of the 21-day period beginning on the date on which the written notice is received by Congress. "(2) Paragraph (1) applies to an unspecified minor military construction project that - "(A) is intended for the construction, modification, or repair of any facility for the purposes set forth in subsection (b)(4); and "(B) has an estimated cost of more than $500,000. "(3) This subsection may not be construed as an authorization for the use of funds for any military construction project that would exceed the approved cost limitations of an unspecified minor military construction project under section 2805(a)(2) of title 10, United States Code. "(i) Definitions Relating to Tribal Governments. - In this section: "(1) The term 'Indian tribe' means a federally recognized Indian tribe. "(2) The term 'tribal government' means the governing body of an Indian tribe, the status of whose land is 'Indian country' as defined in section 1151 of title 18, United States Code, or held in trust by the United States for the benefit of the Indian tribe. "(3) The term 'tribal law enforcement agency' means the law enforcement agency of a tribal government." [Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1015(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4348, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 1004 of Pub. L. 101-510, set out above] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011], and shall apply with respect to facilities projects for which a decision is made to be carried out on or after that date."] COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK Section 1103 of Pub. L. 100-456 related to integration of United States assets dedicated to interdiction of illegal drugs into an effective communications network, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101- 189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1204(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1564. See section 1204(a) of Pub. L. 101-189 set out as a note under section 124 of this title. ENHANCED DRUG INTERDICTION AND ENFORCEMENT ROLE FOR NATIONAL GUARD Section 1105 of Pub. L. 100-456 related to funding and training of National Guard for purpose of drug interdiction and enforcement operations and for operation and maintenance of equipment and facilities for such purpose, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1207(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566. See section 112 of Title 32, National Guard. ADDITIONAL DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3057, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-77, provided that the Secretary of Defense was to submit to Congress, within 90 days after Oct. 27, 1986, a list of all forms of assistance that were to be made available by the Department of Defense to civilian drug law enforcement and drug interdiction agencies and a plan for promptly lending equipment and rendering drug interdiction-related assistance included on the list, provided for congressional approval of the list and plan, required the Secretary to convene a conference of the heads of Government agencies with jurisdiction over drug law enforcement to determine the appropriate distribution of the assets or other assistance to be made available by the Department to such agencies, and provided for monitoring of the Department's performance by the General Accounting Office. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 375 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 375. Restriction on direct participation by military personnel -STATUTE- The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that any activity (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment or detail of any personnel) under this chapter does not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in a search, seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 101-189, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1211, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1567.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1989 - Pub. L. 101-189 substituted "any activity" for "the provision of any support", struck out "to any civilian law enforcement official" after "any personnel)", and substituted "a search, seizure, arrest," for "a search and seizure, an arrest,". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to insure that the provision of any assistance (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment of any personnel) to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter does not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in an interdiction of a vessel or aircraft, a search and seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 376 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 376. Support not to affect adversely military preparedness -STATUTE- Support (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment or detail of any personnel) may not be provided to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter if the provision of such support will adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that the provision of any such support does not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title, IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 substituted "Support" for "Assistance" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Assistance (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment of any personnel) may not be provided to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter if the provision of such assistance will adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. The Secretary of Defense shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to insure that the provision of any such assistance does not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 377 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 377. Reimbursement -STATUTE- (a) Subject to subsection (c), to the extent otherwise required by section 1535 of title 31 (popularly known as the "Economy Act") or other applicable law, the Secretary of Defense shall require a civilian law enforcement agency to which support is provided under this chapter to reimburse the Department of Defense for that support. (b)(1) Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary of Defense shall require a Federal agency to which law enforcement support or support to a national special security event is provided by National Guard personnel performing duty under section 502(f) of title 32 to reimburse the Department of Defense for the costs of that support, notwithstanding any other provision of law. No other provision of this chapter shall apply to such support. (2) Any funds received by the Department of Defense under this subsection as reimbursement for support provided by personnel of the National Guard shall be credited, at the election of the Secretary of Defense, to the following: (A) The appropriation, fund, or account used to fund the support. (B) The appropriation, fund, or account currently available for reimbursement purposes. (c) An agency to which support is provided under this chapter or section 502(f) of title 32 is not required to reimburse the Department of Defense for such support if the Secretary of Defense waives reimbursement. The Secretary may waive the reimbursement requirement under this subsection if such support - (1) is provided in the normal course of military training or operations; or (2) results in a benefit to the element of the Department of Defense or personnel of the National Guard providing the support that is substantially equivalent to that which would otherwise be obtained from military operations or training. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, Sec. 1061, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 319.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2008 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110-181, Sec. 1061(1), substituted "Subject to subsection (c), to the extent" for "To the extent". Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 110-181, Sec. 1061(2), added subsecs. (b) and (c) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: "An agency to which support is provided under this chapter is not required to reimburse the Department of Defense for such support if such support - "(1) is provided in the normal course of military training or operations; or "(2) results in a benefit to the element of the Department of Defense providing the support that is substantially equivalent to that which would otherwise be obtained from military operations or training." 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense shall issue regulations providing that reimbursement may be a condition of assistance to a civilian law enforcement official under this chapter." -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 378 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 378. Nonpreemption of other law -STATUTE- Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to limit the authority of the executive branch in the use of military personnel or equipment for civilian law enforcement purposes beyond that provided by law before December 1, 1981. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 97-86, title IX, Sec. 905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 98-525, title XIV, Sec. 1405(10), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 reenacted section without change. 1984 - Pub. L. 98-525 substituted "before December 1, 1981" for "prior to the enactment of this chapter". -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 379 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 379. Assignment of Coast Guard personnel to naval vessels for law enforcement purposes -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide that there be assigned on board every appropriate surface naval vessel at sea in a drug-interdiction area members of the Coast Guard who are trained in law enforcement and have powers of the Coast Guard under title 14, including the power to make arrests and to carry out searches and seizures. (b) Members of the Coast Guard assigned to duty on board naval vessels under this section shall perform such law enforcement functions (including drug-interdiction functions) - (1) as may be agreed upon by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security; and (2) as are otherwise within the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard. (c) No fewer than 500 active duty personnel of the Coast Guard shall be assigned each fiscal year to duty under this section. However, if at any time the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of Defense, determines that there are insufficient naval vessels available for purposes of this section, such personnel may be assigned other duty involving enforcement of laws listed in section 374(b)(4)(A) of this title. (d) In this section, the term "drug-interdiction area" means an area outside the land area of the United States (as defined in section 374(b)(4)(B) of this title) in which the Secretary of Defense (in consultation with the Attorney General) determines that activities involving smuggling of drugs into the United States are ongoing. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 99-570, title III, Sec. 3053(b)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-75; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 107-296, title XVII, Sec. 1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2002 - Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (c). Pub. L. 107-296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation". 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, substituting "every appropriate surface naval vessel" for "appropriate surface naval vessels" in subsec. (a), substituting "section 374(b)(4)(A)" for "section 374(a)(1)" in subsec. (c), and inserting "(as defined in section 374(b)(4)(B) of this title)" in subsec. (d). EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 107-296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107-296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 380 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 380. Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials -STATUTE- (a) The Secretary of Defense, in cooperation with the Attorney General, shall conduct an annual briefing of law enforcement personnel of each State (including law enforcement personnel of the political subdivisions of each State) regarding information, training, technical support, and equipment and facilities available to civilian law enforcement personnel from the Department of Defense. (b) Each briefing conducted under subsection (a) shall include the following: (1) An explanation of the procedures for civilian law enforcement officials - (A) to obtain information, equipment, training, expert advice, and other personnel support under this chapter; and (B) to obtain surplus military equipment. (2) A description of the types of information, equipment and facilities, and training and advice available to civilian law enforcement officials from the Department of Defense. (3) A current, comprehensive list of military equipment which is suitable for law enforcement officials from the Department of Defense or available as surplus property from the Administrator of General Services. (c) The Attorney General and the Administrator of General Services shall - (1) establish or designate an appropriate office or offices to maintain the list described in subsection (b)(3) and to furnish information to civilian law enforcement officials on the availability of surplus military equipment; and (2) make available to civilian law enforcement personnel nationwide, tollfree telephone communication with such office or offices. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title XII, Sec. 1243(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1163; amended Pub. L. 100-456, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2046.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 1988 - Pub. L. 100-456 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to annual briefing of law enforcement personnel of each State by Secretary of Defense and Attorney General and establishment of offices and telephone communication with those offices regarding surplus military equipment for provisions requiring the Secretary to report to Congress on the availability of assistance, etc., to civilian law enforcement and drug interdiction agencies and to convene a conference and requiring the Comptroller General to monitor and report on the Secretary's compliance with those requirements. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 381 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 381. Procurement of equipment by State and local governments through the Department of Defense: equipment for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities -STATUTE- (a) Procedures. - (1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish procedures in accordance with this subsection under which States and units of local government may purchase equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities through the Department of Defense. The procedures shall require the following: (A) Each State desiring to participate in a procurement of equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, or emergency response activities through the Department of Defense shall submit to the Department, in such form and manner and at such times as the Secretary prescribes, the following: (i) A request for equipment. (ii) Advance payment for such equipment, in an amount determined by the Secretary based on estimated or actual costs of the equipment and administrative costs incurred by the Department. (B) A State may include in a request submitted under subparagraph (A) only the type of equipment listed in the catalog produced under subsection (c). (C) A request for equipment shall consist of an enumeration of the equipment that is desired by the State and units of local government within the State. The Governor of a State may establish such procedures as the Governor considers appropriate for administering and coordinating requests for equipment from units of local government within the State. (D) A State requesting equipment shall be responsible for arranging and paying for shipment of the equipment to the State and localities within the State. (2) In establishing the procedures, the Secretary of Defense shall coordinate with the General Services Administration and other Federal agencies for purposes of avoiding duplication of effort. (b) Reimbursement of Administrative Costs. - In the case of any purchase made by a State or unit of local government under the procedures established under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall require the State or unit of local government to reimburse the Department of Defense for the administrative costs to the Department of such purchase. (c) GSA Catalog. - The Administrator of General Services, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, shall produce and maintain a catalog of equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities for purchase by States and units of local government under the procedures established by the Secretary under this section. (d) Definitions. - In this section: (1) The term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States. (2) The term "unit of local government" means any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State; an Indian tribe which performs law enforcement or emergency response functions as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or any agency of the District of Columbia government or the United States Government performing law enforcement or emergency response functions in and for the District of Columbia or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. (3) The term "equipment suitable for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities" has the meaning given such term in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. In prescribing the meaning of the term, the Secretary may not include any equipment that the Department of Defense does not procure for its own purposes and, in the case of equipment for homeland security activities, may not include any equipment that is not found on the Authorized Equipment List published by the Department of Homeland Security. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1122(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1754; amended Pub. L. 110-417, [div. A], title VIII, Sec. 885(a), (b)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4560, 4561.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2008 - Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(b)(1), substituted "Procurement of equipment by State and local governments through the Department of Defense: equipment for counter-drug, homeland security, and emergency response activities" for "Procurement by State and local governments of law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense" in section catchline. Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(a)(1), in introductory provisions, struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" and inserted ", homeland security, and emergency response" after "counter-drug", in subpar. (A), inserted ", homeland security, or emergency response" after "counter-drug" in introductory provisions and struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" in cl. (i), in subpar. (C) struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" wherever appearing, and in subpar. (D) struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment shall". Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(a)(2), struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment" and inserted ", homeland security, and emergency response" after "counter-drug". Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 110-417, Sec. 885(a)(3), in par. (2) inserted "or emergency response" after "law enforcement" in two places and in par. (3) struck out "law enforcement" before "equipment suitable" and inserted ", homeland security, and emergency response" after "counter-drug" and "and, in the case of equipment for homeland security activities, may not include any equipment that is not found on the Authorized Equipment List published by the Department of Homeland Security" before period at end. -TRANS- TERMINATION OF TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. -MISC2- DEADLINE FOR ESTABLISHING PROCEDURES Pub. L. 103-160, div. A, title XI, Sec. 1122(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1755, directed the Secretary of Defense to establish procedures under subsec. (a) of this section not later than six months after Nov. 30, 1993. -End- -CITE- 10 USC Sec. 382 01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE- TITLE 10 - ARMED FORCES Subtitle A - General Military Law PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES -HEAD- Sec. 382. Emergency situations involving weapons of mass destruction -STATUTE- (a) In General. - The Secretary of Defense, upon the request of the Attorney General, may provide assistance in support of Department of Justice activities relating to the enforcement of section 175, 229, or 2332a of title 18 during an emergency situation involving a weapon of mass destruction. Department of Defense resources, including personnel of the Department of Defense, may be used to provide such assistance if - (1) the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General jointly determine that an emergency situation exists; and (2) the Secretary of Defense determines that the provision of such assistance will not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. (b) Emergency Situations Covered. - In this section, the term "emergency situation involving a weapon of mass destruction" means a circumstance involving a weapon of mass destruction - (1) that poses a serious threat to the interests of the United States; and (2) in which - (A) civilian expertise and capabilities are not readily available to provide the required assistance to counter the threat immediately posed by the weapon involved; (B) special capabilities and expertise of the Department of Defense are necessary and critical to counter the threat posed by the weapon involved; and (C) enforcement of section 175, 229, or 2332a of title 18 would be seriously impaired if the Department of Defense assistance were not provided. (c) Forms of Assistance. - The assistance referred to in subsection (a) includes the operation of equipment (including equipment made available under section 372 of this title) to monitor, contain, disable, or dispose of the weapon involved or elements of the weapon. (d) Regulations. - (1) The Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General shall jointly prescribe regulations concerning the types of assistance that may be provided under this section. Such regulations shall also describe the actions that Department of Defense personnel may take in circumstances incident to the provision of assistance under this section. (2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the regulations may not authorize the following actions: (i) Arrest. (ii) Any direct participation in conducting a search for or seizure of evidence related to a violation of section 175, 229, or 2332a of title 18. (iii) Any direct participation in the collection of intelligence for law enforcement purposes. (B) The regulations may authorize an action described in subparagraph (A) to be taken under the following conditions: (i) The action is considered necessary for the immediate protection of human life, and civilian law enforcement officials are not capable of taking the action. (ii) The action is otherwise authorized under subsection (c) or under otherwise applicable law. (e) Reimbursements. - The Secretary of Defense shall require reimbursement as a condition for providing assistance under this section to the extent required under section 377 of this title. (f) Delegations of Authority. - (1) Except to the extent otherwise provided by the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense may exercise the authority of the Secretary of Defense under this section. The Secretary of Defense may delegate the Secretary's authority under this section only to an Under Secretary of Defense or an Assistant Secretary of Defense and only if the Under Secretary or Assistant Secretary to whom delegated has been designated by the Secretary to act for, and to exercise the general powers of, the Secretary. (2) Except to the extent otherwise provided by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General may exercise the authority of the Attorney General under this section. The Attorney General may delegate that authority only to the Associate Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney General and only if the Associate Attorney General or Assistant Attorney General to whom delegated has been designated by the Attorney General to act for, and to exercise the general powers of, the Attorney General. (g) Relationship to Other Authority. - Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict any executive branch authority regarding use of members of the armed forces or equipment of the Department of Defense that was in effect before September 23, 1996. -SOURCE- (Added Pub. L. 104-201, div. A, title XIV, Sec. 1416(a)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2721; amended Pub. L. 105-85, div. A, title X, Sec. 1073(a)(6), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1900; Pub. L. 111-383, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(A), (B), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4369; Pub. L. 112-81, div. A, title X, Sec. 1089, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1603.) -MISC1- AMENDMENTS 2011 - Pub. L. 111-383, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(B), struck out "chemical or biological" before "weapons" in section catchline. Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112-81 struck out "biological or chemical" before "weapon of mass destruction" in introductory provisions. Pub. L. 111-383, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(A), substituted "section 175, 229, or 2332a" for "section 175 or 2332c". Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112-81 struck out "biological or chemical" before "weapon of mass destruction" in two places in introductory provisions. Subsecs. (b)(2)(C), (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 111-383, Sec. 1075(b)(10)(A), substituted "section 175, 229, or 2332a" for "section 175 or 2332c". 1997 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-85 substituted "September 23, 1996" for "the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997". MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES TO RESPOND TO ACT OR THREAT OF TERRORISM Pub. L. 106-65, div. A, title X, Sec. 1023, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 747, authorized the Secretary of Defense, upon the request of the Attorney General, to provide assistance to civil authorities in responding to an act of terrorism or threat of an act of terrorism within the United States, if the Secretary determined that certain conditions were met, subject to reimbursement and limitations on funding and personnel, and provided that this authority applied between Oct. 1, 1999, and Sept. 30, 2004. -End-

30 of 100 Gitmo Hunger Strikers Being Tube-fed | Military.com

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Thu, 16 May 2013 09:50

MIAMI -- Guantanamo prison staff members were tube-feeding 30 of the 100 hunger-striking captives on Wednesday, the detention center said, reporting an all-time high last reached in 2005.

Three of the captives were being treated in the hospital, said Army Lt. Col. Samuel House, a prison spokesman, although none "currently have any life-threatening conditions."

The Pentagon's Southern Command headquarters had earlier sent medical reinforcements to the remote prison camps, to increase the military deployment of Navy doctors, nurses and corpsmen to about 140 to care for the 166 captives at the sprawling detention center in southeast Cuba.

House disclosed the hunger strike figure a day after guards declared a medical emergency in the maximum security prison during a tour of the facilities by journalists representing al-Jazeera, CNN and Time magazine. A prisoner appeared unconscious to guards, said Navy Capt. Robert Durand, the prison's public affairs officer, so soldiers declared a "Code Yellow," Guantanamo's term for a medical emergency.

"Nobody was hurt," said Durand, noting that there were four Code Yellows declared on Tuesday. "Nothing serious happened" in any of them.

Essentially, he said, hunger strikers are "being lethargic and not having energy." He attributed Tuesday's episodes to "a consequence of hunger striking."

During a visit to the maximum-security lockup in March, Durand said that detainees appeared to faint more frequently while visiting delegations or reporters were at the prison. But he said Wednesday that it was unclear whether Tuesday's episode during the media visit was "coincidental, opportunistic or legitimate."

Durand also said by telephone Wednesday that the prison was not at risk of running short of nutritional supplements. The military had earlier in the hunger strike done a stock check and ordered additional supplies.

The prison camps in Cuba have been wracked by hunger strikes almost from the start. The Pentagon set up the offshore detention center in January 2002.

But the most widespread known hunger strike took place in 2005 when, according to records House consulted last month, "we had a detainee population of 575 detainees with 142 detainees choosing to hunger strike in July."

On average, he said, 30 detainees were "being enteral fed," the Guantanamo term for the process of snaking a tube up a captive's nose, down the back of his throat and into his stomach before pumping in a can of nutritional supplement.

(C) Copyright 2013 Miami Herald. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Johnson & Johnson Admits Their Baby Products Contain Cancer-Causing Formaldehyde

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Sun, 19 May 2013 09:01

Friday May 17th 2013By The Savvy SisterSourceNo more tears? I would rather have no more formaldehyde. I just might get my wish. Today, the personal care giant announced that it would voluntarily (after consistent pressure from the public and groups like EWG) remove hidden formaldehyde from their baby products like baby shampoo and baby washes.

Don't see formaldehyde listed on the back of your bottle of ''no more tears'' shampoo? Formaldehyde is ''hidden'' in these products in ingredient names like ''DMDM hydantoin'', and ''1,4 dioxane'' (which is ''hidden'' in listed ingredients like ''fragrance''. It's all a big fun game, you see.).

''There's a very lively public discussion going on about the safety of ingredients in personal care products,'' said Susan Nettesheim, VP for product stewardship and toxicology for J & J.

Lively discussion? If someone was selling you shampoo for your baby that had cancer causing agents hidden in it, I hardly think the discussion with that person would be ''lively''.

About the known cancer causing (as listed on the US EPA carcinogen list) chemicals, Ms Nettesheim says, '''''...as a scientist I will sit here and tell you these things are perfectly safe.'' I wonder what shampoo she uses on her kids?

To J & J's credit, they are also going to phase out other harmful chemicals like pthalates and parabens which have estrogen-like properties and are suspected to be linked to hormone related cancers. They plan to phase these chemicals out in their adult brands as well. Johnson & Johnson also operates under squeaky clean names like Neutrogena, Aveno, and Clean & Clear.

Hopefully this will have a domino effect and other big names will follow. I would score this as a victory for everyone who wants to wash their kid's hair without risk of exposing them to carcinogens.

I would advise you to wait to use the new J & J products until you see the big bright labels that say ''No more carcinogens!'' As The Savvy Sister says '' Your skin is a carrier'...NOT a barrier!''

Kanye West's ''New Slaves'' Calls Out New World Order, Entertainment Biz, Prison Industrial Complex

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Source: WTF RLY REPORT

Sat, 18 May 2013 08:23

| WTF News |

In a guerilla media style production, rapper Kanye West released his new song New Slaves, by projecting a video on the side of 66 buildings worldwide. The method of release is what is making the most news but West more explicitly called attention to the ''New World Order'' in his song.

This might seem strange to some because the illuminati moniker has been associated with him as well as Jay-Z, but others have thought for years that both were covertly against it.

This is the same person that had the courage to state the obvious about the Hurricane Katrina ''rescue'', that ''George Bush does not care about black people'' live on international television. He stunned Mike Myers, the guy that played the unflappable Austin Powers, Dr. Evil and Fat Bastard.

Of course he is still a jerk to most for the Taylor Swift thing but that doesn't mean he is wrong. As he says ''But I'd rather be a dick than a swallower'', he holds the line.

[Verse 1]My mama was raised in an era when/Clean water was only served to the fairer skinDoing clothes you would have thought I had help/But they wouldn't be satisfied unless I picked the cotton myselfYou see its broke nigga racism/That's that ''don't touch anything in the store''And there's rich nigga racism/That's that ''come in and buy more''What you want a Bentley, fur coat and diamond chain?/All you blacks want all the same thingsUsed to only be niggas /Now everybody play meSpending everything on that Alexander Wang/New Slaves

[Hook]You see it's leaders and it's followers/But I'd rather be a dick than a swallowerYou see it's leaders and it's followers/But I'd rather be a dick than a swallower

[Verse 2]I throw these Maybach keys/I wear my heart on my sleeveI know that we the new slaves/I see the blood on the leavesI see the blood on the leaves/I see the blood on the leavesI know that we the new slaves/I see the blood on the leavesThey throwing hate at me/Want me to stay at easeFuck you and your corporation/Y'all niggas can't control meI know that we the new slaves/I know that we the new slavesI'm about to wild the fuck out/I'm going Bobby BoucherI know that pussy ain't free/You niggas pussy, ain't meY'all throwing contracts at me/You know that niggas can't readThrow him some Maybach keys/Fuck it, c'est la vieI know that we the new slaves/Y'all niggas can't fuck with meY'all niggas can't fuck with Ye/Y'all niggas can't fuck with YeI move my family out the country /So you can't see where I staySo go and grab the reporters/So I can smash their recordersYeah they confuse us with bullshit/Like the New World OrderMeanwhile the DEA/Teamed up with the CCAThey tryna lock niggas up/They tryna make new slavesSee that's that private-owned prison/Get your piece todayThey prolly all in the Hamptons/Braggin' 'bout they maidFuck you and your Hampton house/I'll fuck your Hampton spouseCame on her Hampton blouse/And in her Hampton mouthY'all 'bout to turn shit up/I'm 'bout to tear shit downI'm 'bout to air shit out/Now what the fuck they gon' say now?

West said quite a lot while only touching a few facets of the corporate prison system taking over the world.

West is also speaking out against the dark side of the music industry which, whatever label one chooses, exists and that extends to Hollywood as well. The entertainment industry is a tool that powerful interest control because it is used to distract the masses from the grind of a working American life. The apathetic and/or or ignorant mental state of the public allows the shadow governments, criminal syndicates and lone wolves to prey on humanity at large and the criminality is defended by the press that does not cover it.

Hopefully this is a statement of disapproval and non-compliance with the New World Order takeover.

CCA refers to Corrections Corporation of America which may play a role in a jail near you soon. Search the internet for the ''Prison Industrial Complex'' to learn more. This is a future that will be a result of the coming economic collapse.There are many articles detailing the litany of cash crops that can be harvested from prisoners. The CIA is a continuous presence in the global drug trade not to mention the corruption in federal and local law enforcement.

For the critics, just don't pretend it doesn't exist.

George Bush Sr

Again.

Kissinger

Cheney

Recently, Joe Bidenat at the Export-Import Bank conference in Washington on April 5, 2013.

If you are completely new, this is ultimately the discussion of a technological class system that rules the world that is almost complete. This system may or may not require the death of a billion or 2 people.

Then there's the big ass granite monument in Georgia that suggests the death of over 6 billion people would be a good thing.

The Georgia Guidestones.

A message consisting of a set of ten guidelines or principles is engraved on the Georgia Guidestones in eight different languages, one language on each face of the four large upright stones. Moving clockwise around the structure from due north, these languages are: English, Spanish, Swahili, Hindi, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese and Russian.

1. Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature.2. Guide reproduction wisely '-- improving fitness and diversity.3. Unite humanity with a living new language.4. Rule passion '-- faith '-- tradition '-- and all things with tempered reason.5. Protect people and nations with fair laws and just courts.6. Let all nations rule internally resolving external disputes in a world court.7. Avoid petty laws and useless officials.8. Balance personal rights with social duties.9. Prize truth '-- beauty '-- love '-- seeking harmony with the infinite.10. Be not a cancer on the earth '-- Leave room for nature '-- Leave room for nature.

Click to zoom

Click to zoom

Wow, that thing must have cost more than many Americans take home in annual salary. That's an expensive joke.

Listen to billionaire Ted Turner discuss depopulation.

War on Printers

About NAMII | NAMII

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Archived Version

Sun, 19 May 2013 07:49

The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) is a public-private partnership with member organizations from industry, academia, government, and workforce development resources all collaborating with a singular, shared vision.

NAMII's goal is to transition additive manufacturing technology to the mainstream U.S. manufacturing sector and create an adaptive workforce capable of not only meeting industry needs but also increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness.

NAMII is organized and managed by the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM), which brings a background steeped in experience within the defense, additive, and general manufacturing industries and a proven track record of developing and deploying manufacturing innovation. NAMII is a national asset significantly different than traditional research institutes.

Based in Youngstown, Ohio, NAMII is built upon an extensive network of additive manufacturing technical expertise surrounding a regional manufacturing cluster within the Eastern Ohio / Western Pennsylvania / West Virginia ''Tech Belt'' region.

NAMII - the gov site

Three New Manufacturing Innovation Institutes

Obama Administration Launches Competition for Three New Manufacturing Innovation Institutes | The White House

Inspiration for Starting a Hackerspace

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Sun, 19 May 2013 07:50

May 4, 2013 (LocalOrg) - Citizen Science Quarterly recently published a feature titled, "Hackerspaces @ the_beginning (the book)," summarizing the 108 page book which chronicles the creation, challenges and successes of hackerspaces around the world. Published by Bre Pettis (of Makerbot fame, co-founder of the NYC Resistor hackerspace), Astera Schneeweisz, and Jens Ohlig, it represents three years of research and documentation presented in an easy-to-read narrative. Best of all, the book is offered in .pdf format for free. Citizen Science Quarterly offers a link to download the original file here, and an online version can be viewed here, on Scribd. Hackerspaces, for those that do not know, are physical spaces where people meet and work on projects related to science and technology. Functioning much like a gym where you pay dues to gain access to exercising equipment, hackerspaces collect dues to pay for the space and tech equipment.

The importance of these "local institutions" is that they allow ordinary people to directly work on and advance modern technology - ranging from computers and 3D printers, to synthetic biology and homebrewed drones. The democratization of this technology is of absolute importance to prevent an increasingly dangerous technological divide between special interests and the masses.

ATX Hackerspace aims to be 'powerhouse of innovation'

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Sun, 19 May 2013 07:54

In a nondescript industrial office park in Northeast Austin, a group of hackers works in a sprawling warehouse equipped with cutting-edge technologies, plotting the expansion of their organization.

But these hackers are not breaking into computer networks, although many are software developers by trade. At ATX Hackerspace, members are engineers and mechanics, artists and musicians, solving technical problems, creating businesses and nurturing hobbies.

''Hackerspaces are your local community workshops for mad scientists and tinkerers,'' said Matthew Vaughn, the group's director of administration. ''It's a template that enables something awesome to happen.''

Although Austin's hackerspace is only three years old, hackerspaces first emerged in Germany in the mid 1990s. There are now more than 1,000 worldwide, and at least a half-dozen active hackerspaces in Texas, according to the website hackerspaces.org. The basic concept is a shared space with tools and materials where individuals can build things.

Hackerspaces provide members access to tools that can be too expensive or unwieldy for private ownership. For example, a 3D printer, a microwave-sized machine that creates three-dimensional objects by ''printing'' layers of plastic or other solid materials from digital images, costs about $3,000. A member of the Austin group once used the group's 3D printer to make a DNA sequencing apparatus; others have built small toys. Hackerspace members also have access to industrial tools such as lathes and laser-cutters.

''This is the kind of place that you want to come in with a project that you have no idea where to start,'' said Matthew Mancuso, a microbiologist and the group's director of human resources. ''Somebody here knows how, and they want to help you with it.''

Daniel Senyard, founder of the Austin-based company Vivogig '-- which makes a concert photo-sharing mobile application '-- says the group's culture of collaboration across many fields is something that is ''very rare and very specific to Austin.''

''In a lot of places it's like if you are successful, then that is somehow taking away from the pool,'' he said.

Although Senyard's business does not operate out of a cooperative space, he says he was ''100 percent reliant on the community'' '-- from festival organizers and musicians, to technology developers '-- to help bring his company together.

Sharing is a key principle of the ATX Hackerspace's ethos. Vaughn, a software engineer, says that there ''isn't anything you can do here that will really get our guff unless it's serving nobody but yourself.''

When ATX Hackerspace co-founder Martin Bogomoini came to Austin from California in 2009, he said, he was surprised that there was no hackerspace here. Bogomoini is the Austin-based director of operations for the San Francisco-based company PBWorks.

He met the other three founders through William ''Whurley'' Hurley, general manager of Chaotic Moon Studios, a mobile app development company. Bogomoini said he and the other founders'--Ratha Grimes, Mike Rich and Matt McCabe'--all wanted to back a social business and have a place to hack on projects together. Bogomoini offered $5,000 and found a small space in South Austin. The group attracted 20 members in its first month through social networking sites and word of mouth. It now has nearly 100 members.

The group next moved into a 1,200 square foot garage, but there wasn't enough space to accommodate all the tools and demand. They moved to the rented warehouse last December.

About the same time, the founders decided to hand control of the hackerspace over to its members. Members of what is now a limited liability co-op own shares, and have the right to vote and decide the trajectory of the co-op. ''Investment'' and ''Founders'' shares collect interest and are paid back on a multiyear plan when they are cashed in to the hackerspace.

It's a less expensive alternative to for-profit TechShops, which offer members similar tools. A one-month membership to the TechShop in Round Rock costs $150, while a recurring monthly membership costs $125.

Visitors can use many of the tools and resources available at the Hackerspace for free during Tuesday open house sessions and other events when a co-op member is present, and can pay to take classes.

ATX Hackerspace members who pay $50 a month have 24-hour access to the space, as well as the tools, machinery and stocked materials. Co-op members pay a little bit more for that access plus the right to vote during the group's meetings. Others pay an extra $100 a month to have a permanent workstation.

Now that they have 8,000 square feet to work with, Mancuso says the group will shift more toward community education, and try to reach out to schools and other organizations that could benefit from the space's resources.

Bogomoini, who has purchased $25,000 worth of shares in the space, said he expects to see returns on his investment as the co-op grows.

''Hackerspaces,'' he said, ''will be the new powerhouse of innovation.''

Lucifer & The Elite$

Weiner's Wife Failed to Disclose Consulting Work at State Dept.

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Archived Version

Sun, 19 May 2013 09:41

Anthony WeinerAccording to reports in the New York Times and Politico, Hillary Clinton "created an arrangement" for Abedin to "work for private clients as a consultant while serving as a top adviser in the department" during her final months at the State Department last year.

The arrangement was reportedly made in June of 2012, when Abedin "quietly left her position" as deputy chief of and became a "special government employee."

Abedin continued to be publicly identified as Clinton's "deputy chief of staff," and she allegedly "did not disclose the arrangement--or how much income she earned--on her financial report" that "requires officials to make public any significant sources of income."

According to the Times, Abedin "worked for Teneo, a strategic consulting firm, which was founded by Doug Band, a former adviser to President Bill Clinton." The firm has "advised corporate clients like Coca-Cola and MF Global," which collapsed while being run by disgraced former New Jersey Governor and top Obama bundler Jon Corzine.

Abedin also "served as a consultant to the William Jefferson Clinton Foundation and worked in a personal capacity" for Hillary Clinton "as she prepared to transition out of her job as secretary of state."

Officials in the State Department are reportedly sensitive about the arrangement, which ended in March when Abedin became director of Clinton's transition office.

Even liberal watchdog groups like CREW said the arrangement was "unusual."

''If she was being held out as a deputy chief of staff, it would be highly unusual for her to be a part-time employee or a consultant," Melanie Sloan, CREW's director, told the Times.

These revelations come to light as Abedin's husband--Weiner--has hired Danny Kedem, a former staffer for Hillary Clinton's failed 2008 presidential bid, as his campaign manager and is reportedly expected to formally announce next week that he will run for mayor of New York.

Huma Abedin allowed to represent clients while at State - Maggie Haberman and John Bresnahan and Glenn Thrush

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Fri, 17 May 2013 07:34

Abedin shifted to her new role after maternity leave in the early summer of 2012. | AP Photo

CloseHuma Abedin '-- Hillary Clinton's longtime aide and the wife of all-but-declared New York mayoral candidate Anthony Weiner '-- spent her final months at the State Department working as a part-time consultant with the agency who at the same time was allowed to represent outside clients, POLITICO has confirmed.

Abedin, a fixture at the Clintons' side for at least 15 years '-- from Iowa to Indonesia '-- shifted to her new role after maternity leave in the early summer of 2012, according to a source familiar with the arrangement.

Continue Reading

The new status made her a ''special government employee,'' which was tantamount to being a consultant, according to the source, whose information was confirmed by two other staffers familiar with the matter. Multiple sources told POLITICO Abedin did work for other clients, which a friend of Abedin said totaled four, including the State Department, Hillary Clinton, the William Jefferson Clinton Foundation and Teneo, the firm co-founded by former Bill Clinton counselor Doug Band.

It's the first time that Abedin's changed status at State has been made public and comes as her husband, who resigned his Queens congressional seat amid scandal in 2011, is expected to launch a comeback mayoral campaign next week.

Mayoral candidates are required to disclose personal financial information with the city's Conflict of Interest Board including spousal sources of income, but that piece of the filing is not made public, the agency said.

And even if it were, Abedin currently works solely for Hillary Clinton as the head of her post-State Department transition team, a move that began on March 1, according to a friend of hers. That means Abedin never would have had to make the information public had her friend not provided the details.

It's similar, in many respects, to the way many Clinton aides '-- including former top aide Kelly Craighead and other Hillary Clinton confidants '-- were paid for years while she was a senator. They were compensated partly through work on her government staff, partly through her political action committee, and in some cases through lucrative consultant work with Clinton-linked organizations.

Teneo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Archived Version

Fri, 17 May 2013 07:36

Teneo is an independent advisory firm that offers strategic communications, investment banking, business intelligence and restructuring services.[3]

General[edit]Teneo was founded in 2011 by three partners, Declan Kelly (former U.S. Special Envoy to Northern Ireland, U.S. CEO of Financial Dynamics, and EVP & CIO of FTI Consulting), Doug Band (Counselor to President William Jefferson Clinton) and Paul Keary (former Senior Managing Director of FTI Consulting). [4]

The firm is headquartered in New York City, with offices in Washington DC, Sao Paulo, London, Dublin, Zurich, Dubai, Hong Kong, Beijing, Zurich, and Melbourne.[1] The firm has over 130 employees.[2]

Management and Organization[edit]Business Units[edit]Teneo has four business units: Strategy, Capital, Intelligence and Restructuring.[3]

People[edit]Chief Executive Officer: Declan Kelly [5][6]President: Douglas Band (Former Chief Advisor to former President Bill Clinton) [7][8]Chief Operating Officer: Paul Keary [9][4]Teneo Capital Chairman: Michael Madden (Former CEO of Renaissance Credit) [10][11]Teneo Capital CEO: Henry van Dyke V (Former head of M&A in Asia and Latin America for Morgan Stanley) [12][13]Teneo Strategy President: Richard Powell (Former COO of Burson-Marsteller) [14][15]Teneo Intelligence CEO: Jim Shinn (Former Assistant Secretary for Asia in the United States Department of Defense) [16][17]Involvement in Politics[edit]Bill Clinton was a paid adviser to Teneo, along with former British Prime Minister Tony Blair. Clinton ended his relationship with Teneo on February 2012.[18]

Client List[edit]Teneo's clients include Fortune 500 companies, philanthropies, governments, and high net worth individuals. [19]

References[edit]^ ab"Teneo - Locations". Retrieved 27 February 2013. ^ ab"Teneo - About Us". Retrieved 27 February 2013. ^ ab"Teneo - Businesses". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^ abO'Shea, James (29 June 2011). "Former US economic envoy Declan Kelly launches merchant bank and private equity and consulting company". Irish Central. Retrieved 25 February 2013. ^"Teneo - Declan Kelly". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^"Declan Kelly, Teneo Holdings and Gary McGann, Smurfit Kappa". Business and Finance. Retrieved 11 March 2013. ^"Teneo - Douglas Band". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^Clark, Alisson (4 February 2009). "The Gator Behind Bill Clinton". Gainesville Sun. Retrieved 11 March 2013. ^"Teneo - Paul Keary". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^"Teneo - Michael Madden". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^"Michael Madden/Teneo Capital". Irish America. Retrieved 11 March 2013. ^"Teneo - Henry Van Dyke V". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^"Asian industry: Bagged cement". The Economist. 17 June 1999. Retrieved 11 March 2013. ^"Teneo - Richard Powell". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^Hagey, Keach (6 January 2011). "Richard Powell joins Bloomberg LP". Politico. Retrieved 11 March 2013. ^"Teneo - Jim Shinn". Retrieved 07 March 2013. ^Hickey, Kate (22 June 2012). "Teneo's Declan Kelly delivers Bill Clinton, keeps expanding". Irish Central. Retrieved 11 March 2013. ^Haberman, Maggie (19 February 2012). "Bill Clinton changes relationship with Teneo". Politico. Retrieved 11 March 2013. ^Allen, Mike (23 July 2012). "Playbook". Politico. Retrieved 25 February 2013. ^Hickey, Kate (06/22/2012). "Teneo's Declan Kelly delivers Bill Clinton, keeps expanding". Irish Central. Retrieved 25 February 2013. External Links[edit]

Energy secretary nominee Ernest Moniz has deep ties to oil, gas, and nuclear industries

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Sun, 19 May 2013 07:24

By John Upton

ReutersHe keeps some questionable company.The Republican minority in the Senate loves to obstruct confirmation of President Obama's Cabinet nominees, but it isn't saying boo about the man who appears set to become the nation's next energy secretary.

That might be because Ernest Moniz has friendly relations with a number of dirty energy companies '-- the kind of companies that generously fund so many senators' campaigns.

From Democracy Now:

President Obama's pick to become the nation's next secretary of energy is drawing criticism for his deep ties to the fossil fuel, fracking and nuclear industries. MIT nuclear physicist Ernest Moniz has served on advisory boards for oil giant BP and General Electric, and was a trustee of the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, a Saudi Aramco-backed nonprofit organization.

Moniz also directs the MIT Energy Initiative, which gets significant corporate funding from BP, Saudi Aramco, Shell, Chevron, and a number of utilities that operate nuclear plants.

At the same time, Moniz has stressed the importance of moving away from coal and has promoted and called for more funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. That's earned him praise from the Natural Resources Defense Council. But other environmental and watchdog groups are campaigning against his nomination because of his industry ties.

ProPublica reports on those ties:

[B]eyond his job in academia, Moniz has also spent the last decade serving on a range of boards and advisory councils for energy industry heavyweights, including some that do business with the Department of Energy. That includes a six-year paid stint on BP's Technology Advisory Council as well as similar positions at a uranium enrichment company and a pair of energy investment firms.

Such industry ties aren't uncommon for cabinet nominees, and Obama specifically praised Moniz for understanding both environmental and economic issues.

Still, Moniz's work for energy companies since he served in President Clinton's Energy Department has irked some environmentalists.

''His connections to the fossil fuel and nuclear power industries threaten to undermine the focus we need to see on renewables and energy efficiency,'' said Tyson Slocum, director of the energy program at the consumer advocacy group Public Citizen.

Slocum pointed out that Moniz, if confirmed, will set research and investment priorities, including at the department's network of national laboratories.

The Energy Department hands out billions of dollars in contracts and loan guarantees as it pushes energy research and development and administers the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile and cleanup efforts.

Moniz is also coming under criticism for a big report on natural gas released by the MIT Energy Initiative in 2011. It called the environmental impacts of fracking ''challenging but manageable,'' endorsed natural-gas exports, and talked up gas as a ''bridge fuel'' that could help the country move away from dirtier fossil fuels and toward clean energy (a controversial notion).

The Public Accountability Initiative, a watchdog group opposed to fracking, has been particularly critical of that 2011 report and its authors and funders:

MITEI and the study's authors presented the study as independent, but did not disclose its authors' significant financial ties to the oil and gas industry. '... The MIT report '... failed to disclose that a study co-chair, Anthony Meggs, had joined gas company Talisman Energy prior to the release of the study. Another study group member, John Deutch, has served on the board of the LNG company Cheniere Energy since 2006 and owns $1.4 million in Cheniere stock.

The PAI study also notes that the MIT study was funded by oil and gas industry sources, including a foundation closely linked to Chesapeake Energy. '... The study was also advised by a committee dominated by oil and gas insiders.

The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee will hold a hearing on Moniz's nomination on April 9. He'll have to release a financial disclosure form by then, so we'll soon learn more about how much money he's made advising and consulting for energy companies. He'll also need to submit an ethics agreement describing how he would avoid conflicts of interest.

A few Democratic senators might toss him hard questions at the hearing, but don't look for Republicans to put up much of a fuss. Overall, Moniz is expected to be easily confirmed.

John Upton is a science fan and green news boffin who tweets, posts articles to Facebook, and blogs about ecology. He welcomes reader questions, tips, and incoherent rants: johnupton@gmail.com. Find this article interesting?Donate now to support our work.

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Moniz confirmed as energy secretary, McCarthy's EPA nomination advances.

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Sun, 19 May 2013 07:20

By John Upton

MITHere's Ernest.Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) stopped throwing a temper tantrum and took a deep breath for long enough Thursday to allow the Senate to unanimously confirm Ernest Moniz as secretary of energy.

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics professor and fossil fuel-industry fan was confirmed with a 97-0 vote. The vote had been delayed more than three weeks by Graham in protest over $200 million of planned nuclear energy budget cuts in his state.

Moniz served as an energy undersecretary in the Clinton administration and he is replacing Steven Chu, also a physicist, who is stepping down from the department's top job.

From the AP, via the Washington Post:

Obama hailed Moniz as ''a world-class scientist with expertise in a range of energy sources and a leader with a proven record of bringing prominent thinkers and innovators together to advance new energy solutions.''

Moniz shares his belief that ''the United States must lead the world in developing more sustainable sources of energy that create new jobs and new industries, and in responding to the threat of global climate change,'' Obama said in a statement.

Environmentalists have warned that Moniz could place energy industry interests ahead of environmental protections. We told you in March about his links to BP, General Electric, Saudi Aramco, Shell, Chevron, and the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center. Big Oil likes him, but so, too, does the cleantech sector, which straddles the energy industry and the climate movement. From a statement issued by Solar Energy Industries Association President Rhone Resch:

Ernest Moniz will be an outstanding Secretary of Energy. As a Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics professor, an expert in energy issues and a veteran of Washington politics, he is uniquely qualified to tackle the many policy challenges facing our nation and the world. In today's combative political environment, his unanimous selection in the Senate stands as a testament to his abilities, as well as to the respect he brings to his new position. We look forward to working with Secretary Moniz on policies and opportunities which will create new American jobs, expand the U.S. economy and provide energy security for our nation.

Oh, and about that three-week delay in the confirmation vote? Graham insists it was nothing personal. Just politics, ya know? From the AP again:

Graham made clear Thursday he had nothing against Moniz, calling him a ''fine fellow.'' Graham said he has other ''leverage points'' to continue putting pressure on the Obama administration to fully fund the Savannah River project.

Also Thursday, the Senate's Environment and Public Works Committee cleared Obama's nominee to lead the Environmental Protection Agency by a 10-8 vote along partisan lines. The full Senate will now consider Gina McCarthy's nomination, though more trouble is brewing.

The committee vote was delayed last week by a different Republican tantrum, this one over claims that the EPA hasn't answered all of the questions put to it by senators. And despite Thursday's vote, Republicans are threatening to filibuster McCarthy's nomination over the same complaint once the nomination reaches the Senate floor, The New York Times reported.

John Upton is a science fan and green news boffin who tweets, posts articles to Facebook, and blogs about ecology. He welcomes reader questions, tips, and incoherent rants: johnupton@gmail.com. Find this article interesting?Donate now to support our work.

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War on Crazy

"ADHD Is A Fictitious Disease"

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Fri, 17 May 2013 07:40

Wednesday, March 27th 2013By Moritz Nestor, Current ConcernsSourceFortunately, the Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics (NEK, President: Otfried H¶ffe) critically commented on the use of the ADHD drug Ritalin in its opinion of 22 November 2011 titled Human enhancement by means of pharmacological agents: The consumption of pharmacological agents altered the child's behavior without any contribution on his or her part.

That amounted to interference in the child's freedom and personal rights, because pharmacological agents induced behavioral changes but failed to educate the child on how to achieve these behavioral changes independently. The child was thus deprived of an essential learning experience to act autonomously and emphatically which ''considerably curtails children's freedom and impairs their personality development'', the NEK criticized.

The alarmed critics of the Ritalin disaster are now getting support from an entirely different side. The German weekly Der Spiegel quoted in its cover story on 2 February 2012 the US American psychiatrist Leon Eisenberg, born in 1922 as the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, who was the ''scientific father of ADHD'' and who said at the age of 87, seven months before his death in his last interview: ''ADHD is a prime example of a fictitious disease''

Since 1968, however, some 40 years, Leon Eisenberg's ''disease'' haunted the diagnostic and statistical manuals, first as ''hyperkinetic reaction of childhood'', now called ''ADHD''. The use of ADHD medications in Germany rose in only eighteen years from 34 kg (in 1993) to a record of no less than 1760 kg (in 2011) '' which is a 51-fold increase in sales! In the United States every tenth boy among ten year-olds already swallows an ADHD medication on a daily basis. With an increasing tendency.

When it comes to the proven repertoire of Edward Bernays, the father of propaganda, to sell the First World War to his people with the help of his uncle's psychoanalysis and to distort science and the faith in science to increase profits of the industry '' what about investigating on whose behalf the ''scientific father of ADHD'' conducted science? His career was remarkably steep, and his ''fictitious disease'' led to the best sales increases. And after all, he served in the ''Committee for DSM V and ICD XII, American Psychiatric Association'' from 2006 to 2009. After all, Leon Eisenberg received ''the Ruane Prize for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Research. He has been a leader in child psychiatry for more than 40 years through his work in pharmacological trials, research, teaching, and social policy and for his theories of autism and social medicine''.

And after all, Eisenberg was a member of the ''Organizing Committee for Women and Medicine Conference, Bahamas, November 29 '' December 3, 2006, Josiah Macy Foundation (2006)''. The Josiah Macy Foundation organized conferences with intelligence agents of the OSS, later CIA, such as Gregory Bateson and Heinz von Foerster during and long after World War II. Have such groups marketed the diagnosis of ADHD in the service of the pharmaceutical market and tailor-made for him with a lot of propaganda and public relations? It is this issue that the American psychologist Lisa Cosgrove and others investigated in their study Financial Ties between DSM-IV Panel Members and the Pharmaceutical Industry7. They found that ''Of the 170 DSM panel members 95 (56%) had one or more financial associations with companies in the pharmaceutical industry. One hundred percent of the members of the panels on 'Mood Disorders' and 'Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders' had financial ties to drug companies. The connections are especially strong in those diagnostic areas where drugs are the first line of treatment for mental disorders.'' In the next edition of the manual, the situation is unchanged. ''Of the 137 DSM-V panel members who have posted disclosure statements, 56% have reported industry ties '' no improvement over the percent of DSM-IV members.'' ''The very vocabulary of psychiatry is now defined at all levels by the pharmaceutical industry,'' said Dr Irwin Savodnik, an assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California at Los Angeles.

This is well paid. Just one example: The Assistant Director of the Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital and Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School received ''$1 million in earnings from drug companies between 2000 and 2007''. In any case, no one can easily get around the testimony of the father of ADHD: ''ADHD is a prime example of a fictitious disease.''

The task of psychologists, educators and doctors is not to put children on the ''chemical lead'' because the entire society cannot handle the products of its misguided theories of man and raising children, and instead hands over our children to the free pharmaceutical market. Let us return to the basic matter of personal psychology and education: The child is to acquire personal responsibility and emphatic behavior under expert guidance '' and that takes the family and the school: In these fields, the child should be able to lead off mentally. This constitutes the core of the human person.

CDC: 1 In 5 US Children May Have Mental Disorder CBS Atlanta

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Sun, 19 May 2013 08:53

Nearly 1 in 5 children in the U.S. suffers from a mental disorder, and this number has been rising for more than a decade. (Photo credit should read ARMEND NIMANI/AFP/Getty Images)

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ATLANTA (CBS ATLANTA) '' Nearly 1 in 5 children in the U.S. suffers from a mental disorder, and this number has been rising for more than a decade.

According to a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, up to 20 percent of American children are suffering from mental disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression and autism.

The CDC's first study of mental disorders among children aged 3 to 17 also found that the cost of medical bills for treatment of such disorders is up to $247 billion each year.

''This is a deliberate effort by CDC to show mental health is a health issue. As with any health concern, the more attention we give to it, the better. It's parents becoming aware of the facts and talking to a health-care provider about how their child is learning, behaving and playing with other kids,'' said Dr. Ruth Perou, the study's lead author.

The CDC data was collected between 1994 and 2011, and it shows that the number of children being diagnosed with mental disorders has been steadily growing. The study did not conclude exactly why the numbers are increasing.

More research is needed to determine the specific causes of mental disorders, said Dr. Perou, and that greater awareness could lead to an uptick in diagnoses. A host of environmental factors, including chemical exposure and poverty, also can affect a child's mental health, she said.

The study also found that girls were more prone to depression and alcohol abuse than boys, and that 6.8 percent of U.S. children are affected by attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

ADHD is a Ficticous Diseases Admitted by the Person Who Invented It

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Source: Canadian Awareness Network

Sun, 19 May 2013 07:25

by Moritz Nestor'''... The German weekly Der Spiegel quoted in its cover story on 2 February 2012 the US American psychiatrist Leon Eisenberg, born in 1922 as the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, who was the ''scientific father of ADHD'' and who said at the age of 87, seven months before his death in his last interview: ''ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a prime example of a fictitious disease''

Since 1968, however, some 40 years, Leon Eisenberg's ''disease'' haunted the diagnostic and statistical manuals, first as ''hyperkinetic reaction of childhood'', now called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder''ADHD''. The use of ADHD medications in Germany rose in only eighteen years from 34 kg (in 1993) to a record of no less than 1760 kg (in 2011) '' which is a 51-fold increase in sales! In the United States every tenth boy among ten year-olds already swallows an ADHD medication on a daily basis'...''

Continue Reading'... (currentconcerns.ch)

This comes a long as no surprise. I've seen plenty of documentaries that prove that people of the pharmaceutical industry make up diseases so that they can drug the population for profits and to secretly support the eugenics movement. Another example of a fictitious disease is HIV. HIV and AIDS are two totally different things but many people are led to believe they are the same disease. There is no physical evidence whatsoever that HIV exists and millions of people around the world are being diagnosed with HIV and are being given deadly medications to treat it, and the medications itself are the ones that make the patient get sicker in my opinion.

Click HERE for a documentary made by a Canadian that proves HIV is fictitious. It's time to wake up, the dream is over.

Syria / Follow the Pipes and F-Russia

Israel, Turkey and gas | JPost | Israel News

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Sun, 19 May 2013 08:18

Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan. Photo: REUTERS/Stringer

Word is that both Israel and Turkey are seriously entertaining the notion of constructing an undersea pipeline to deliver Israeli natural gas to Turkey and, perhaps, hence to Europe.The Turks reportedly have expressed willingness to foot part of the estimated $2 billion bill. Such pipelines exist elsewhere in the world, most notably from Russia and from Norway.

It is becoming evident that a veiled agenda underpinned the recent Turkish willingness to consider a rapprochement with Israel. Turkey, it appears, hankers after Israeli gas. The perceived Turkish softening was fueled by Israel's offshore gas discoveries, a fact which nevertheless did not impel Ankara to forgo humiliating Israel.

Turkey grows increasingly dependent on Russia for its gas supplies. This hardly instills joy in Turkish hearts, especially considering the fact that Moscow and Ankara are at direct loggerheads over Syria. Israel, having repeatedly proven itself both reliable and exceedingly pliable, is now regarded as a safer bet for Turkish gas supplies '' certainly safer than such alternatives to Russia as Iran. Moreover, Israeli gas could be had at a significantly lower cost.

But this is not all as rosy as meets the eye. Whereas Israel is incontrovertibly a dependable business partner, can we can count on Turkey? Still searing are memories of our own gas purchases from Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood takeover in Cairo abruptly terminated this mutually beneficial deal. There is no guarantee that Turkey would not go the same route, particularly given its about-turn against Israel a few years ago and the festering danger that it too might be a candidate for an even more extreme Islamic transformation than the one it has already undergone.

In other words, the mooted arrangement hinges almost entirely on Turkish goodwill, and that goodwill can by no stretch of the imagination be taken for granted.

Then, as was the case with Egypt, there is the matter of the pipeline's security. Israel's gas purchases from Egypt were doomed when the Sinai pipeline was serially sabotaged. Can a pipeline that runs parallel to the Lebanese and Syrian coasts be assumed to be invulnerable? Last, but hardly least, is Cyprus. A deal with Turkey would undermine cooperation already fostered with the Cypriot Greeks, whose own gas discoveries are anathema to Ankara which occupies the northern parts of the island. Do we really want to ditch Cyprus in favor of an unpredictable and hardly friendly business partner? Pipelines can also be built in the Cypriot direction and another possibility is liquefying the gas and transporting it to Europe by tankers. It may be more expensive but this would be offset by the removal of pipeline security concerns. Also, Cyprus has allocated land for a liquefaction plant, which would relieve Israel of another safety headache.

There is of course a wholly different alternative '' avoiding exports to Europe altogether and with them the undesirable competition with the ruthless Russians.

Israel can earmark its exports for the Far East, where it can net far greater revenue. This would mean a pipeline to Eilat, a gas liquefaction plant in the South and shipping therefrom in tankers.

In short, Israel is not without export alternatives.

Attractive as reinforced ties and renewed cooperation with Turkey might be, we need to resist temptation.

Turkey's rulers are closely allied to the Muslim Brotherhood and that bodes ill for Israel.

If approved, the gas pipeline could prove one of Israel's biggest-ever strategic errors.

We cannot entrust this prized export '' one that could overhaul our financial viability '' to Recep Tayyip Erdogan's hands. The thought that he would be granted an extortionist stranglehold over our economic future should send shivers down all our spines.

To this must be added the question of our national honor. We might belittle its importance, but this is not how national honor is viewed in the Islamic world, of which Turkey is a part.

We would do much better either by avoiding Europe as an export destination or by teaming up with non-Muslim partners who are not hostile and who need our business.

Joint Press Conference by President Obama and Prime Minister Erdogan of Turkey

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Source: White House.gov Press Office Feed

Thu, 16 May 2013 17:15

The White House

Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release

May 16, 2013

Rose Garden

12:48 P.M. EDT

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Please be seated, everybody. Good afternoon.

It is a great pleasure to welcome my friend, Prime Minister Erdogan, back to the White House. This visit is also another opportunity for me to return the extraordinary hospitality that the Prime Minister and the Turkish people showed me on my visit to Turkey four years ago. And that included my visit to the Prime Minister's beautiful hometown of Istanbul.

This visit reflects the importance that the United States places on our relationship with our ally, Turkey, and I value so much the partnership that I've been able to develop with Prime Minister Erdogan.

Today we discussed the many areas in which our countries cooperate, including Afghanistan, where our troops serve bravely together; the G20, where we promote our shared prosperity; and Iran, where we agree it is critical that we do not see that country acquire a nuclear weapon and potentially trigger an arms race throughout the region. Given our shared interest in peace, I want to note the Prime Minister's efforts to normalize relations with Israel. This will benefit both the Turkish and Israeli people and can also help us make progress on a two-state solution, including an independent Palestinian state.

Today, we focused on three areas that I want to highlight. First, we agreed to keep expanding trade and investment. Over the past four years, our trade has surged and U.S. exports to Turkey have more than doubled. As the United States pursues a new trade and investment partnership with the EU, I want to make sure that we also keep deepening our economic ties with Turkey. So we're creating a new high-level committee that will focus on increasing trade and investment between our two countries and will help fuel Turkish innovation. And the progress that Turkey's economy has made over the last several years I think has been remarkable and the Prime Minister deserves much credit for some of the reforms that are already taking place.

Second, as NATO allies we're reaffirming our solemn commitment to our mutual security. Mr. Prime Minister, on behalf of the American people, I want to express our condolences to the Turkish people and the victims of the outrageous bombings that took place in Reyhanli. As always, the United States stands with you as you defend your nation against terrorism. We want to thank you for the cooperation that you provided us in threats against the United States.

And I want to take this opportunity to commend you and the Turkish people for your courage in seeking an historic and peaceful resolution of the PKK violence that has plagued Turkey for so long. And just as the United States has stood with you in your long search for security, we will support efforts in Turkey to uphold the rule of law and good governance and human rights for all.

Finally, we spent a great deal of time on an issue that has racked the region -- the issue of Syria. Under the Prime Minister's leadership, the Turkish people have shown extraordinary generosity to the Syrians who have found refuge in Turkey. And I know this is a heavy burden. I've made it clear again today that the United States is going to keep on helping countries in the region, including Turkey, shoulder this burden, doing our part as a major donor of humanitarian aid to the Syrian people, including those refugees in Turkey. And we're going to keep working with our Turkish partners to deliver the food, shelter and medicine that's needed to save lives.

At the same time, we're going to keep increasing the pressure on the Assad regime and working with the Syrian opposition. The Prime Minister has been at the forefront of the international effort to push for a transition to a democratic Syria without Bashar Assad. And Turkey is going to play an important role as we bring representatives of the regime and opposition together in the coming weeks.

We both agree that Assad needs to go. He needs to transfer power to a transitional body. That is the only way that we're going to resolve this crisis. And we're going to keep working for a Syria that is free from Assad's tyranny; that is intact and inclusive of all ethnic and religious groups; and that's a source of stability, not extremism, because it's in the profound interest of all our nations, especially Turkey.

So, again, Mr. Prime Minister, I want to thank you for being here and for being such a strong ally and partner in the region and around the world. I know that Michelle appreciates the opportunity to host Mrs. ErdoÄŸan and your two wonderful daughters this morning. I'm looking forward to our dinner tonight. And, as always, among the topics where I appreciate your advice is close to our hearts, and that's how to raise our daughters well. You're a little ahead of me in terms of their ages.

With the Prime Minister's permission, I want to make one other point. There's been intense discussion in Congress lately around the attacks in Benghazi. We lost four brave Americans, patriots who accepted the risks that come with service because they know that their contributions are vital to our national interests and national security.

I am intent on making sure that we do everything we can to prevent another tragedy like this from happening. But that means we owe it to them and all who serve to do everything in our power to protect our personnel serving overseas. That's why, at my direction, we've been taking a series of steps that were recommended by the review board after the incident. We're continuing to review our security at high-threat diplomatic posts, including the size and nature of our presence; improving training for those headed to dangerous posts; increasing intelligence and warning capabilities. And I've directed the Defense Department to ensure that our military can respond lightning quick in times of crisis.

But we're not going to be able to do this alone. We're going to need Congress as a partner. So I've been in discussions, and my team has been in discussions, with both Democrats and Republicans, and I'm calling on Congress to work with us to support and fully fund our budget request to improve the security of our embassies around the world. We also need Congress to work with us to provide the resources and new authorities so we can fully implement all of the recommendations of the Accountability Review Board. And we're going to need Congress's help in terms of increasing the number of our Marine Corps Guard who protect our embassies.

So I want to say to members of Congress in both parties, we need to come together and truly honor the sacrifice of those four courageous Americans and better secure our diplomatic posts around the world. And I should add, by the way, that we're getting some help from the Turkish government on some of these issues. That's how we learn the lessons of Benghazi. That's how we can keep faith with the men and women who we send overseas to represent America. And that's what I will stay focused on as Commander-in-Chief.

So with that, Mr. Prime Minister, welcome to the United States. I'm sorry the weather is not fully cooperating with our lovely Rose Garden press conference, but I think we'll be okay.

PRIME MINISTER ERDOGAN: (As interpreted.) Thank you.

Mr. President, distinguished members of the press, ladies and gentlemen. My dear friend, President of the United States, a friend and ally, I'm once again very pleased to be here in Washington to have meetings with the President. I would like to express my thanks for the hospitality that has been shown to us on this occasion on behalf of myself and my delegation.

In the President's person, I would like to express our condolences for the terror attack that took place in Boston. We express our condolences to the American people. We are a country which has been fighting against terrorism for many years. We've lost many lives in that fight against terrorism, and so we very well understand the feelings and sentiments of the American people in face of such an event. As Turkey and the United States, we are both determined to continue to fight jointly against terrorism.

My dear friends, Turkey and the United States have many issues that cover the Middle East to the Balkans to Central Asia to other areas, including issues such as energy, security supply, and many other issues. And in all these areas and on all these issues we display a very strong cooperation.

And in our meetings with President Obama today, we talked about relations between Turkey and the United States, and also about some topical issues which remain on both of our agendas. We had an opportunity to exchange views on regional and global issues, and our exchange of views and opinions will continue throughout the day with other meetings that will take place during the rest of the day.

I am here with close to a hundred business people, and they are holding meetings with their counterparts in the United States, and they will continue to talk and meet with their counterparts this afternoon as well.

Bilateral economic relations between Turkey and the United States have to be improved, and we both have this aim. Ten years ago, our trade stood at $8 billion; at the moment, trade stands at $20 billion. But this amount is still not sufficient. We have to increase the amount of trade between our two countries.

Bilateral economic and trade relations between Turkey and the United States will continue to develop. And as we carry forward with these efforts, we need to strengthen this relationship with free trade agreements and other agreements. And I can tell you that as leaders of our nations we have the will to continue to develop our economic relations.

In our discussions that pertain to regional issues, Syria was at the top of our agenda. While we discussed Syria, we talked about what has happened so far and we talked about what can be done in the future. And we have views that overlap, as the President has just said. We will continue to discuss this issue in greater detail in our meeting this evening. But let me tell you that ending this bloody process in Syria and meeting the legitimate demands of the people by establishing a new government are two areas where we are in full agreement with the United States.

Supporting the opposition and Assad leaving are important issues. We also agree that we have to prevent Syria from becoming an area for terrorist organizations. We also agreed that chemical weapons should not be used, and all minorities and their rights should be secured. These are all priority areas for all of us. And we discussed what needs to be done on these issues with the President, and this evening, we will continue to talk about these in greater detail.

Iraq was also another area of discussion for us on regional issues. Transparent elections in Iraq and the participation -- ensuring the participation of all political groups in the elections are both very important in Iraq. With everyone's participation we would like to see a peaceful period in Iraq. And this is what both we and the United States would like to see.

With respect to the Middle East peace process, we discussed with the President this important issue, which is very important for regional peace. In the attack against Mavi Marmara, which was taking humanitarian aid to Gaza, Turkish citizens and one Turkish-American citizen were killed. And as you know, we are working with the Israeli government for compensation for those who lost their lives. And the visit that I will pay to Gaza will contribute to the peace in Gaza and to unity in Palestine, in my opinion.

The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is always in favor of -- in Cyprus we believe that there is a lot of opportunity to reach an agreement on the Cyprus issue and this is an area which we continue to focus on. We have also discussed Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, and all these issues. And we have also briefly touched upon some developments in Africa and also about Myanmar.

Our joint fight against terrorism will continue to be the case, as I said before. And we also touched upon issues related to the defense industry. And I can say that this has been a historic day, a historic turning point in the context of Turkish-American relations.

On regional and global issues, the partnership between Turkey and the United States serves peace, security, and stability, and will continue to do so even more in the future.

I will cut my remarks shortly, not because I am trying to flee from the rain -- rain is considered to be a great source of abundance. But I will stop here to say that I hope our discussions will be beneficial for our future relations.

Thank you.

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, before we get started let me just make sure that I'm a good host. Mr. Prime Minister, do you want an umbrella? (Laughter.) Because we can arrange it if you need it. You're okay? All right, this will be incentive for the press to ask concise questions and us to give concise answers.

I'm going to start with Julianna Goldman of Bloomberg.

Q Unfortunately, we all forgot umbrellas. Mr. President, I want to ask you about the IRS. Can you assure the American people that nobody in the White House knew about the agency's actions before your Counsel's Office found out on April 22nd? And when they did find out, do you think that you should have learned about it before you learned about it from news reports as you said last Friday? And also, are you opposed to there being a special council appointed to lead the Justice Department investigation?

And also, Mr. Prime Minister, what is the status on efforts to normalize relations with Israel? And do you still plan to go to Gaza in the coming weeks? Thanks.

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, with respect to the IRS, I spoke to this yesterday. My main concern is fixing a problem, and we began that process yesterday by asking and accepting the resignation of the Acting Director there. We will be putting in new leadership that will be able to make sure that -- following up on the IG audit -- that we gather up all the facts, that we hold accountable those who have taken these outrageous actions. As I said last night, it is just simply unacceptable for there to even be a hint of partisanship or ideology when it comes to the application of our tax laws.

I am going to go ahead and ask folks -- why don't we get a couple of Marines, they're going to look good next to us -- (laughter) -- just because I've got a change of suits -- (laughter) -- but I don't know about our Prime Minister. There we go. That's good. You guys I'm sorry about. (Laughter.)

But let me make sure that I answer your specific question. I can assure you that I certainly did not know anything about the IG report before the IG report had been leaked through the press. Typically, the IG reports are not supposed to be widely distributed or shared. They tend to be a process that everybody is trying to protect the integrity of. But what I'm absolutely certain of is that the actions that were described in that IG report are unacceptable.

So in addition to making sure that we've got a new acting director there, we're also going to make sure that we gather up the facts, and hold accountable and responsible anybody who was involved in this. We're going to make sure that we identify any structural or management issues to prevent something like this from happening again. We're going to make sure that we are accepting all of the recommendations that the IG has in the report.

And I'm looking forward to working with Congress to fully investigate what happened, make sure that it doesn't happen again, and also look at some of the laws that create a bunch of ambiguity in which the IRS may not have enough guidance and not be clear about what exactly they need to be doing and doing it right, so that the American people have confidence that the tax laws are being applied fairly and evenly.

So in terms of the White House and reporting, I think that you've gotten that information from Mr. Carney and others. I promise you this -- that the minute I found out about it, then my main focus is making sure we get the thing fixed. I think that it's going to be sufficient for us to be working with Congress. They've got a whole bunch of committees. We've got IGs already there.

The IG has done an audit; it's now my understanding they're going to be recommending an investigation. And Attorney General Holder also announced a criminal investigation of what happened. Between those investigations, I think we're going to be able to figure out exactly what happened, who was involved, what went wrong, and we're going to be able to implement steps to fix it.

And that, ultimately, is the main priority that I have, but also I think the American people have. They understand that we've got an agency that has enormous potential power and is involved in everybody's lives. And that's part of the reason why it's been treated as a quasi-independent institution. But that's also why we've got to make sure that it is doing its job scrupulously and without even a hint of bias, or a hint that somehow they're favoring one group over another.

And, as I said yesterday, I'm outraged by this in part because, look, I'm a public figure -- if a future administration is starting to use the tax laws to favor one party over another or one political view over another, obviously we're all vulnerable. And that's why, as I've said, it doesn't matter whether you're a Democrat or a Republican, you should be equally outraged at even the prospect that the IRS might not be acting with the kind of complete neutrality that we expect.

And I think we're going to be able to fix it. We're going to be able to get it done, and we've already begun that progress and we're going to keep on going until it's finished.

PRIME MINISTER ERDOGAN: (As interpreted.) In your question about Gaza, according to my plans, most probably I would be visiting Gaza in June. But it will not be a visit only to Gaza; I will also go to the West Bank.

I place a lot of significance on this visit in terms of peace in the Middle East, and this visit in no way means favoring one or the other. I'm hoping that that visit will contribute to unity in Palestine, first of all. This is something that I focus on very much. And I hope that my visit can contribute to that process. Thank you.

Q My first question to you, Prime Minister. You talked about chemical weapons and we know that Turkey has some evidence. Did you present that evidence to President Obama in today's meeting? And what does Turkey expect from the United States in this process?

Question to President Obama about Syria. You had said earlier that chemical weapons would be a red line in Syria. Do you believe that at this point in time Syria has over-gone the red line? And you said that Assad should go. Will the U.S. take more initiative to see Assad go in the future?

PRIME MINISTER ERDOGAN: (As interpreted.) Let me, first of all, say that chemical weapons and missiles, rockets that have been fired -- all that information is shared between the relevant bodies within our administrations. And it's not just Turkey and the United States. For example, the United Kingdom and all others have those documents, that information, because we share information. And the U.N. Security Council, all the other relevant authorities will also receive that information in the proper time so that more information is provided to the public. So we will continue to work in this way.

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, as the Prime Minister indicated, our militaries, our intelligence and diplomatic personnel are constantly sharing information. And I've said in the past, we have seen evidence of the use of chemical weapons inside of Syria. It is important for us to make sure that we're able to get more specific information about what exactly is happening there.

But separate and apart from the chemical weapons, we know that tens of thousands of people are being killed with artillery and mortars, and that the humanitarian crisis and the slaughter that's taking place by itself is sufficient to prompt strong international action.

And that's why the Prime Minister and I spoke extensively about the steps we're taking on humanitarian efforts; the steps that we're taking to strengthen the opposition politically so that it is inclusive and representative of all the people inside of Syria; the steps that we need to take to continue to strengthen the capacity of the Syrian opposition that are on the ground fighting to protect themselves from the Assad regime; and that we continue to try to mobilize the entire international community to put more and more pressure on Assad so that he recognizes that he is no longer legitimate and that he needs to go, and that we are able to move to a political transition in which the institutions inside of Syria are still functioning, but we have a representative, multiethnic, multi-religious body that can bring about democracy and peace inside of Syria.

With respect to what I've said in the past around red lines -- what I've said is that the use of chemical weapons are something that the civilized world has recognized should be out of bounds. And as we gather more evidence and work together, my intention is to make sure that we're presenting everything that we know to the international community as an additional reason, an additional mechanism, for the international community to put all the pressure that they can on the Assad regime, and to work with the opposition to bring about that political transition.

Now, there are a whole range of options that the United States is already engaged in, and I preserve the options of taking additional steps -- both diplomatic and military -- because those chemical weapons inside of Syria also threaten our security over the long term, as well as our allies and friends and neighbors.

But this is also an international problem. And it is very much my hope to continue to work with all the various parties involved, including Turkey, to find a solution that brings peace to Syria, stabilizes the region, stabilizes those chemical weapons. But it's not going to be something that the United States does by itself. And I don't think anybody in the region, including the Prime Minister, would think that U.S. unilateral actions in and of themselves would bring about a better outcome inside of Syria.

Jeff Mason.

Q Thank you, Mr. President. I'd like to ask you about the Justice Department. Do you believe that the seizure of phone records from Associated Press journalists this week -- or before that was announced recently this week was an overreach? And do you still have full confidence in your Attorney General? Should we interpret yesterday's renewed interest by the White House in a media shield law as a response to that? And, more broadly, how do you feel about comparisons by some of your critics of this week's scandals to those that happened under the Nixon administration?

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, I'll let you guys engage in those comparisons and you can go ahead and read the history I think and draw your own conclusions.

My concern is making sure that if there's a problem in the government that we fix it. That's my responsibility, and that's what we're going to do. That's true with respect to the IRS and making sure that they apply the laws the way they were intended. That's true with respect to the security of our diplomats, which is why we're going to need to work with Congress to make sure that there's adequate funding for what's necessary out there.

Now, with respect to the Department of Justice, I'm not going to comment on a specific and pending case. But I can talk broadly about the balance that we have to strike. Leaks related to national security can put people at risk. They can put men and women in uniform that I've sent into the battlefield at risk. They can put some of our intelligence officers, who are in various, dangerous situations that are easily compromised, at risk.

U.S. national security is dependent on those folks being able to operate with confidence that folks back home have their backs, so they're not just left out there high and dry, and potentially put in even more danger than they may already be. And so I make no apologies, and I don't think the American people would expect me as Commander-in-Chief not to be concerned about information that might compromise their missions or might get them killed.

Now, the flip side of it is we also live in a democracy where a free press, free expression, and the open flow of information helps hold me accountable, helps hold our government accountable, and helps our democracy function. And the whole reason I got involved in politics is because I believe so deeply in that democracy and that process.

So the whole goal of this media shield law -- that was worked on and largely endorsed by folks like The Washington Post Editorial Page and by prosecutors -- was finding a way to strike that balance appropriately. And to the extent that this case, which we still don't know all the details of -- to the extent that this case has prompted renewed interest about how do we strike that balance properly, then I think now is the time for us to go ahead and revisit that legislation. I think that's a worthy conversation to have, and I think that's important.

But I also think it's important to recognize that when we express concern about leaks at a time when I've still got 60,000-plus troops in Afghanistan, and I've still got a whole bunch of intelligence officers around the world who are in risky situations -- in outposts that, in some cases, are as dangerous as the outpost in Benghazi -- that part of my job is to make sure that we're protecting what they do, while still accommodating for the need for information -- or the need for the public to be informed and be able to hold my office accountable.

Q I asked about Holder as well.

And for the Prime Minister, I wanted to ask you, sir, if the United States does not step up its involvement in Syria, in your view, how will that affect the war? And what plans do you have to react to the bombing of the border town that the President mentioned of Reyhanli?

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Mr. Prime Minister, just excuse me -- you're right, I have complete confidence in Eric Holder as Attorney General. He's an outstanding Attorney General and does his job with integrity, and I expect he will continue to do so.

PRIME MINISTER ERDOGAN: (As interpreted.) You are talking about the part of the glass which is empty. I like to look at things with the glass half full instead of half empty. What we would like to see is the sensitivity on the part of the international community with respect to what's going on in Syria. And this is what we, as Turkey, are striving for, and I do believe that the United States is doing the same, and other countries, the United Nations Security Council, the Arab League. And other countries, though not part of this structure, are still sensitive to what is going on in Syria.

Our aim is to accelerate this process, and I will be visiting other countries, my Foreign Minister will be visiting other countries, just to see how we can speed things up in a way which will prevent the death of more people, and in a way which will ensure a transition to a democratic system in Syria. Our goal is to see the tyranny, the dictatorship go away in Syria and to be replaced with democracy. And I think this is a collective responsibility on the part of all countries that believe in democracy. And this is what we will all continue to do.

Q Mr. President, my first question is to you. You mentioned that Assad should go, and the question is how and when. Is there a rough timetable? And shall we be talking about the Syrian tragedy next year at this time? What's the idea?

And, Mr. Prime Minister, before your departure from Ankara, you stated that you had expectations from this visit and that you have some expectations. What is your general observation about this visit?

PRESIDENT OBAMA: We would have preferred Assad go two years ago; last year; six months ago; two months ago. And there has been consistency on the part of my administration that Assad lost legitimacy when he started firing on his own people and killing his own people, who initially were protesting peacefully for a greater voice in their country's affairs. And obviously that's escalated during the course of time. So the answer is the sooner the better.

Now, in terms of the question how, I think we've already discussed that. There's no magic formula for dealing with a extraordinarily violent and difficult situation like Syria's. If there was, I think the Prime Minister and I would have already acted on it and it would already be finished.

And instead, what we have to do is apply steady international pressure, strengthen the opposition. I do think that the prospect of talks in Geneva involving the Russians and representatives about a serious political transition that all the parties can buy into may yield results. But in the meantime, we're going to continue to make sure that we're helping the opposition, and obviously dealing with the humanitarian situation. And we'll do so in close consultation with Turkey, which obviously is deeply invested in this and with whom we've got an outstanding relationship with.

PRIME MINISTER ERDOGAN: (As interpreted.) Thank you very much. As you know, we will be meeting again this evening so we'll have time to go in further detail. As I said before, our views do overlap, and with our discussions this evening, we will continue to explore what we can do together, what we can consider as parts of a road map looking at Geneva and beyond.

Russia and China being part of this process is very important, and this is important in the context of the permanent members of the U.N. Security Council. Their participation in this process will certainly add greater impetus. The pressure of the international community continues to be a very important element, and when we look at the humanitarian support that we have provided so far, we see that support equaling to more than $1.5 billion.

And we continue to keep an open-door policy, and we will continue to do this because we have a border which is 910 kilometers in length with Syria; there are relatives across the border on each side. So we will continue these efforts.

These are all very important for regional peace, because, on the one hand, you have the steps that have been taken, efforts that are in place to normalize relations between the Palestinians and the Israelis. We don't need to have other problems, issues in the region. We have, as you know, taken steps to bring Syria and Israel together to solve their problems. We had five rounds of discussions, but unfortunately, they came to an end. But I hope that all the steps that we take in the future with respect to regional peace will yield results and we can work together with the United States with determination to achieve peace in the region.

We are discussing all these issues. The step to be taken by the U.N. Security Council and the Geneva process are important. We will continue to assess that between us.

Thank you.

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you, everybody. Thank you. Thank you, guys.

END1:26 P.M. EDT

State Department Conducts Secret Visit with Death Squad Leader in Syria

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Sun, 19 May 2013 07:41

Chaos promoter Robert Ford's "secret" meeting with death squad leader points to eliminating Assad and increasing atrocities.Brandon TurbevilleActivist PostAs the Syrian army continues to gain the upper hand against the NATO-backed death squads made up of mercenaries, fanatics, and al-Qaeda terrorists, it appears that the Western powers responsible for the creation of the armed and violent rebellion have kicked into high gear as the advance of their proxy army has been stalled.

Even though the barbarism of death squad participants seems to have recently hit a fever pitch, while Israeli air strikes on sovereign Syrian soil are targeting military and civilian targets alike, and newfound erroneous claims by Western nations of the use of chemical weapons by the Assad government, the Syrian army has managed to continue its mop up of the inappropriately named ''rebels.''

Yet the Western agitators have not given up. This much is made clear by the recent ''secret'' visit by former U.S. Ambassador to Syria and notorious destabilization agent Robert Ford made to the current death squad leader, Gen. Salim Idriss.

This visit took place Wednesday, May 9, 2013 and was likely initiated via the Bab al-Salama crossing on the Turkey/Syria border. According to Deborah Thomas of NPR, ''Ford met with the head of the Aleppo military council, Abdul Jabbar Okaidi, who thanked him for the shipment of nonlethal aid. Seven trucks transported some 65,000 MREs, or meals ready to eat, the U.S. military's battlefield rations.''

Although no mention is made of the actual lethal aid that has been provided to the death squads by the generosity of the American taxpayer via Gulf State feudal monarchies such as Saudi Arabia, Thomas points out that the MREs were part of ''an additional $10 million aid package'' dedicated to the death squads by the U.S. government. Secretary of State John Kerry announced in April that the United States would be donating $123 million to the Syrian death squads, despite facing a worldwide economic depression, drastic levels of unemployment at home, and a manufactured crisis such as the ''sequester'' and a host of other domestic crises.

Ford's visit to Syria is both part of the overarching attempt to further destabilize the country, organize death squad activity, and create a public relations campaign aimed at forming an image of Idriss as a figure around which popular support can be rallied. This, of course, is at least the third time Western interests have attempted to create a ''freedom fighter'' lead image for the Syrian death squads '' Moaz al-Khatib and Ghassan Hitto being the more recent failures.Idriss appears to be nothing more than the latest incarnation of a would-be puppet dictator set up to impose the Western will upon the Syrian people and act as a proxy stabilizing force in the event of the much-desired (on the part of NATO) removal of Assad. Idriss was actually a military officer in the Assad government himself until defecting in 2012. Now, he is the official commander of the Free Syrian Army and thus a comrade in arms of al-Qaeda, al-Nusra, and a ragtag band of fanatics, mental deficients, traitors, and mercenaries.

As Webster Tarpley commented on PressTV on May 10, 2013,

Well, I think we have some mixed signals from the Obama regime here. Let us hasten to say that anybody calling themselves ''Free Syrian Army'' is, in fact, a representative of the al-Nusra Front because we're getting reports everyday of more and more units of the so-called FSA showing their true colors or going over to Nusra and proclaiming themselves full-fledged terrorists, al-Qaeda disciples, death squads in every sense of the word. Now, we had, in the last twenty four hours, Ambassador Robert Ford of the State Department, somebody who did a lot to get this tragic rebellion going in the first place . . . Ambassador Robert Ford who is a taskmaster of death squad deployments, having learned it from Negrponte in Baghdad some years ago, he crossed into Syria, not with the permission of the Syrian government, but to go and meet General Idriss. And this General, Salim Idriss, is the new golden boy here. He is the new darling of the CIA and the State Department. And it looks like Ford is trying to coordinate the next move with Idriss. You can think of Idriss as the new Ahmed Chalabi '' somebody the U.S. is grooming to become dictator of the country.

Of course, this is not the first time that Ford has engaged in a publicity-based visit to the Syrian death squads inside Syria, thus drawing the ire of the Syrian government. In 2011, after his travel as U.S. Ambassador had been restricted due to his destabilization efforts already taking place, Ford traveled to Hama in order to promote and encourage the violent assault waged by the Western-backed death squads against innocent Syrian civilians as well as Syrian soldiers.Ford's very presence in Syria was never anything more than a destabilization tactic. Indeed, he has managed to draw quite a bit of international attention to himself by traveling across the country at will, ''meeting with protestors'' and turning terrorists into martyrs in the minds of the gullible Western public.

Logically, by ''meeting with protestors'' one can read ''instigating terrorism.'' The mainstream media, however, reported Ford's terror encouragement tour as a heroic act of solidarity with ''the people.''

Ford's action in Syria, even as the official U.S. Ambassador, served exactly the same purpose as his presence in Iraq only a few years previous. With Syria, however, it seems that Ford attempted to take on a more central role in the affair. Indeed, many Syrians, if not aware of the more specific sinister acts of Ford, are at least aware that he has been instrumental in fomenting violent rebellion and negative Western public opinion against the ruling government. This is why Ford's convoy was attacked by ''pro-government'' Syrians as he rode through town meeting with his terrorist pets.

The reality is that Ford is nothing more than a globalist chaos promoter who is merely taking over from his mentor John Negroponte, who became quite refined as a enabler of mass slaughter in Central America and Iraq. Indeed, Negroponte's Iraq affair is where Ford himself was able to hone his skills in the arming and assistance of ruthless death squads who target innocent people in campaigns of terror and mass murder.

It should be noted that Prof. Michel Chossudovsky of GlobalResearch.ca has provided an excellent historical presentation of the connections of Negroponte, Ford, and even David Petraeus in relation to death squads and destabilization in his article ''The Pentagon's 'Salvador Option': The Deployment of Death Squads in Iraq and Syria.'' I encourage everyone to read this excellent piece for context and analysis as a companion to my own article.

John Negroponte was the U.S. ambassador to Honduras from 1981 to 1985. In this role, he was instrumental in supporting and overseeing the Nicaraguan Contra killers who, although based in Honduras, engaged in horrific acts of terrorism inside Nicaragua. Ultimately, this operation claimed the lives of approximately 50,000 innocent civilians. This is the origin of the term ''Salvador Option'' when speaking of the formation of ''death squads'' for political purposes, an option that has become a hallmark of Negroponte and the system which he represents.

Negroponte was also responsible for the formation of the Honduran death squads who engaged in a mission of terror against opponents of the US-backed Honduran regime as well as the Sandinistas and civilian populations in Nicaragua.

As Peter Roff and James Chapin write in their article ''Face-off: Bush's Foreign Policy Warriors,''

The Sun described the activities of a secret CIA-trained Honduran army unit, Battalion 316, that used "shock and suffocation devices in interrogations. Prisoners often were kept naked and, when no longer useful, killed and buried in unmarked graves."

On August 27, 1997, CIA Inspector General Frederick P. Hitz released a 211-page classified report entitled ''Selected Issues Relating to CIA Activities in Honduras in the 1980s.'' This report was partly declassified on Oct. 22, 1998, in response to demands by the Honduran human rights ombudsman.

In 2005, Negroponte was appointed as ambassador to Iraq. In this role, he again oversaw the formation of death squads who targeted both the civilian populations and the Iraqi insurgency. The goal here was to foment division within the insurgency and turn it into a fragmented front. A divided opposition is obviously much easier to defeat than a united one. This theory has been proven accurate time and time again.

Indeed, in 2005, a story was leaked to Newsweek where the Pentagon confirmed that it was ''considering forming hit squads of Kurdish and Shia fighters to target leaders of the Iraqi insurgency in a strategic shift borrowed from the American struggle against left-wing guerrillas in Central America 20 years ago.''[1]

The Pentagon did more than ''consider'' this option. Not very long after this information was leaked, Iraq began to see the results of its implementation. As Dahr Jamail of Antiwar.com wrote in 2007,Under the "Salvador Option," Negroponte had assistance from his colleague from his days in Central America during the 1980s, Ret. Col James Steele. Steele, whose title in Baghdad was Counselor for Iraqi Security Forces supervised the selection and training of members of the Badr Organization and Mehdi Army, the two largest Shi'ite militias in Iraq, in order to target the leadership and support networks of a primarily Sunni resistance.

Planned or not, these death squads promptly spiraled out of control to become the leading cause of death in Iraq. Intentional or not, the scores of tortured, mutilated bodies which turn up on the streets of Baghdad each day are generated by the death squads whose impetus was John Negroponte. And it is this U.S.-backed sectarian violence which largely led to the hell-disaster that Iraq is today. Of course, the fact that the death squad option was implemented so quickly after the release of the report suggests that the mercenaries were being organized and applied long before Newsweek was made aware of them.

Nevertheless, serving in Iraq at the same time that the death squads were beginning to make their bloody mark on the cohesion of the ''insurgency,'' was Robert Ford who, at the time, had been appointed political counselor to the U.S. embassy in Baghdad. Ford remained in this post from 2004-2006 where he worked closely with Negroponte. He was also heavily involved in the organization of the death squads. Ford was instrumental in helping make ''contacts'' with these individuals as well as developing and maintaining relations with them for other purposes such as continued and future terror campaigns.

In fact, Ford was once described by Negroponte as ''one of these very tireless people . . . who didn't mind putting on his flak jacket and helmet and going out of the Green Zone to meet contacts.'' In short, Ford acted as a foot soldier in death squad formation.

Attempting to summarize the death squad plan, Michael Hirsh and John Barry of Newsweek wrote in 2005:

[O]ne Pentagon proposal would send Special Forces teams to advise, support and possibly train Iraqi squads, most likely hand-picked Kurdish Peshmerga fighters and Shiite militiamen, to target Sunni insurgents and their sympathizers, even across the border into Syria, according to military insiders familiar with the discussions. It remains unclear, however, whether this would be a policy of assassination or so-called 'snatch' operations, in which the targets are sent to secret facilities for interrogation. The current thinking is that while U.S. Special Forces would lead operations in, say, Syria, activities inside Iraq itself would be carried out by Iraqi paramilitaries. [emphasis added]

While Robert Ford is by no means the architect of any of these conflicts, particularly the Syrian version, it is without a doubt that he has played a vastly important role in the the destruction of these sovereign nations. Ford, like Negroponte, may not have been the architect of deconstruction but he has no doubt, also like Negroponte, served as a fervent worker bee in the process.Notes:[1] ''El Salvador-style 'death squads' to be deployed by US against Iraq militants.'' Times Online. January 10, 2005. As quoted and sourced by Prof. Michel Chossudovsky of GlobalResearch.ca in his article, '' The Pentagon's 'Salvador Option': The Deployment of Death Squads in Iraq and Syria.''

Read other articles by Brandon Turbeville here.

Brandon Turbeville is an author out of Florence, South Carolina. He has a Bachelor's Degree from Francis Marion University and is the author of three books, Codex Alimentarius -- The End of Health Freedom, 7 Real Conspiracies, and Five Sense Solutions and Dispatches From a Dissident. Turbeville has published over 200 articles dealing on a wide variety of subjects including health, economics, government corruption, and civil liberties. Brandon Turbeville's podcast Truth on The Tracks can be found every Monday night 9 pm EST at UCYTV. He is available for radio and TV interviews. Please contact activistpost (at) gmail.com.

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EU decision to lift Syrian oil sanctions boosts jihadist groups

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Source: The Guardian World News

Sun, 19 May 2013 07:29

The EU decision to lift Syrian oil sanctions to aid the opposition has accelerated a scramble for control over wells and pipelines in rebel-held areas and helped consolidate the grip of jihadist groups over the country's key resources.

Jabhat al-Nusra, affiliated with al-Qaida and other extreme Islamist groups, control the majority of the oil wells in Deir Ezzor province, displacing local Sunni tribes, sometimes by force. They have also seized control of other fields from Kurdish groups further to the north-east, in al-Hasakah governorate.

As opposition groups have turned their guns on each other in the battle over oil, water and agricultural land, military pressure on Bashar al-Assad's government from the north and east has eased off. In some areas, al-Nusra has struck deals with government forces to allow the transfer of crude across the front lines to the Mediterranean coast.

Syria oil fire mapAs a result of the rush to make quick money, open-air refineries have been set up in Deir Ezzor and al-Raqqa provinces. Crude is stored in ditches and heated in metal tanks by wood fires, shrouding the region with plumes of black smoke, exposing the local population to the dangers of the thick smog and the frequent explosions at the improvised plants.

Heating oil, diesel and petrol is condensed in hoses running from the tanks through pools of water and sold across the north, as far as Aleppo. The remaining crude is shipped by road on tankers to Turkey.

One leading opposition figure said: "The northern front hasn't just gone dormant; the northern front has gone commercial."

The EU announced it was lifting its oil embargo in April to help the moderate opposition. The implementation regulations have yet to be issued so the decision has not taken effect, but regional experts say the announcement intensified the race for oil '' a race the western-backed moderates lost.

Joshua Landis, an expert on the region at the University of Oklahoma who runs the Syria Comment blog, said the EU decision on oil "sent a message that oil could come back online faster than most thought possible".

"Whoever gets their hands on the oil, water and agriculture, holds Sunni Syria by the throat. At the moment, that's al-Nusra," Landis said. "Europe opening up the market for oil forced this issue. So the logical conclusion from this craziness is that Europe will be funding al-Qaida."

Abu Albara, an al-Nusra fighter who spoke to the Guardian by telephone from Deir Ezzor, said: "Now, we can say that most of the oil wells are in the hands of the rebels, only a single oil facility in Hasakah is still under the control of [Kurdish fighters]. There are two other oil wells close to the Iraqi borders in the desert. The Iraqi army have surrounded them with tanks but we do not know what they are doing with them."

The al-Nusra guerilla said the group was merely guarding the wells it captured, but the rival groups have accused the Islamists of asset-stripping them for quick money.

"Jabhat al-Nusra is investing in the Syrian economy to reinforce its position in Syria and Iraq. Al-Nusra fighters are selling everything that falls into their hands from wheat, archaeological relics, factory equipment, oil drilling and imaging machines, cars, spare parts and crude oil," Abu Saif, a fighter with the Ahrar Brigade, linked to the Muslim Brotherhood, told the Guardian by phone from the Deir Ezzor area.

"The Syrian regime itself is paying more than 150m Syrian lire [£1.4m] monthly to Jabhat al-Nusra to guarantee oil is kept pumping through two major oil pipelines in Banias and Latakia. Middlemen trusted by both sides are to facilitate the deal and transfer money to the organisation."

A western diplomat watching the situation said: "We understand that in Deir Ezzor, it's a bit of a mix. Al-Nusra is there and there is sometimes co-operation with the regime for practical reasons. In some areas oil products are being given to the local communities, but there are clear dangers in these kinds of open-air refineries."

The diplomat said the EU implementation regulation for the lifting of the oil embargo would include safeguard clauses that would give the western-backed opposition, the National Coalition, the power to authorise exports. But as things stand, the coalition and its allies hold very little of Syria's oil wealth in their hands.

A former Syrian oil executive in the rebel-held areas said: "In the last few months, they seem to have figured a way to sell the oil supply across the lines from the rebels to government forces, through intermediaries trusted on both sides."

The former executive said the oil trade had spawned a growing demand for oil tanker lorries, as a single shipment could earn a profit of up to $10,000 (£6,600). He added that al-Nusra and other jihadist groups were using much of the money to win hearts and minds in areas they have captured, such as al-Raqqa city, which fell in March.

"If you look at what the money does in these places," he said, asking for his name not to be used because of the sensitivity of the issue. "It doesn't take a rocket scientist. You bring in flour, you repair the bakeries, so there are big smiles in the local community. It's an incredible marketing machine."

In April, the head of the western-backed rebel Supreme Military Council, General Selim Idriss, pledged to create a force to secure the oilfields and other economic resources in Deir Ezzor, al-Hasakah and Raqqa provinces, but that force has yet to materialise and observers doubt Idriss has the money, manpower or weaponry to displace the jihadists.

"Idriss probably felt he had to say that, to reassure the Europeans," Landis said. "But nobody takes such claims seriously. Where is he going to get 30,000 men from?"

The only rivals to the power of the jihadists in the oil region are the Kurds in al-Hasakah, and the Sunni tribes around Deir Ezzor, who have found themselves increasingly marginalised by Islamic extremists.

In one well-documented case, fighting broke out in the village of al-Musareb, near Deir Ezzor, between al-Nusra fighters and local tribesmen over ownership of an oil tanker. The al-Nusra commander, a Saudi called Qasura al-Jazrawi, was killed. As a reprisal, the jihadist group levelled much of the village and executed 50 of its residents.

Apart from the latest round of conflict the oil rush has triggered, human rights campaigners have raised concerns about the health impact of the wildcat refining industry. Skin and breathing complaints have become common while there are reports of workers on the improvised oil fields, including children, being burned to death in accidents.

An opposition activist in Hasakah, Salman Kurdi, said: "They refine oil by boiling it to very high temperatures by using gas cans, and most of the time, they blow up. It's killed many of the people who work there.

"A month ago, an explosion happened in an oil well called Shadada, in the countryside south of here, and five people were killed. They dig a big hole and put lots of fire in it and gas to make it boiling. If you travel south to the countryside, you can spot the smoke rising every few kilometres."

Federal Register | In the Matter of the Designation of Abu Muhammad al-Jawlani Also Known as al-Fatih Also Known as Abu Muhammad al-Golani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended

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Fri, 17 May 2013 16:01

Acting under the authority of and in accordance with section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001, as amended by Executive Order 13268 of July 2, 2002, and Executive Order 13284 of January 23, 2003, I hereby determine that the individual known as Abu Muhammd al-Jawlani, also known al-Fatih, also known as Abu Muhammad al-Golani, committed, or poses a significant risk of committing, acts of terrorism that threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security, foreign policy, or economy of the United States.

Consistent with the determination in Section 10 of Executive Order 13224 that ''prior notice to persons determined to be subject to the Order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States would render ineffectual the blocking and other measures authorized in the Order because of the ability to transfer funds instantaneously,'' I determine that no prior notice needs to be provided to any person subject to this determination who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do so would render ineffectual the measures authorized in the Order.

This notice shall be published in the Federal Register.

Dated: April 16, 2013.

John F. Kerry,

Secretary of State.

[FR Doc. 2013-11875 Filed 5-16-13; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4710-10-P

Al-Nusra Front - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Sun, 19 May 2013 08:11

The Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (Arabic: جبهØ(C) اÙنصرØ(C) Ùأه٠اÙشام'Ž Jabhat an-Nuá¹£rah li-Ahl ash-Shām, "Victory Front for the People of Greater Syria"), is an Al Qaida associate operating in Syria. The group announced its creation on 23 January 2012 during the Syrian civil war.[7] It is described as "the most aggressive and successful arm of the rebel force".[3] The group was designated by the United States as a terrorist organisation in December 2012.[8] In April 2013, the leader of the Islamic state of Iraq released an audio statement announcing that Jabhat al-Nusra is its branch in Syria.[6] The leader of Al Nusra, Abu Mohammad al-Golani, said that the group will not merge with the Islamic state of Iraq, but still maintain allegiance to Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leader of Al-Qaeda.[4]

Ideology[edit]The group is generally described as being made up of SunniIslamistJihadists. Its goal is to overthrow the Assad government and to create a Pan-Islamic state under sharia law and aims to reinstate the Islamic Caliphate.[9] It encourages all Syrians to take part in the war against the Syrian government.[10]

In an interview with a UAE newspaper, Abu Ahmed, a man identifying himself as the Al Nusra military commander for the Hasakah Governorate, described the organisation's goals as deposing Bashar al-Assad, and then establishing a state under the Quran and sharia.[citation needed] Alcohol, tobacco and entertainment considered immoral would be banned, but the rules would be introduced gradually and after giving people advice first.

Members of the group are accused of attacking the religious beliefs of non-Sunnis in Syria, including the Alawis.[11]

Members of the group have referred to the United States and Israel as enemies of Islam[11] and warned against Western intervention in Syria.[9] Syrian members of the group claim they are only fighting the Assad government and would not attack Western states.[9] The United States accused it of being affiliated with al-Qaeda in Iraq;[12] in April 2013 the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq released an audio statement affirming this connection.[6]

History[edit]The Quilliam Foundation, in a briefing paper, reports that many of the groups members are Syrians who were part of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's Jihadist network fighting the American forces in Iraq. Many of these Syrians remained in Iraq after the withdrawal of American forces, but upon the outbreak of Syrian civil war in 2011, the Islamic State of Iraq sent the Syrian Jihadists and individual Iraqi experts in guerrilla warfare into Syria. A number of meetings were held between October 2011 and January 2012 in Rif Dimashq and Homs where the objectives of the group were determined.[13]

The al-Nusra Front released its first public statement on 24 January 2012 in which they called for armed struggle against the Syrian government. The group claimed responsibility for the 2012 Aleppo bombings, the January 2012 al-Midan bombing, the March 2012 Damascus bombings[7] the murder of journalistMohammed al-Saeed[14] and possibly the 10 May 2012 Damascus bombings.[citation needed]

Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari has said that al-Qaeda in Iraq members have gone to Syria, where the militants previously received support and weapons, in order to join the al-Nusra Front.[15] They are considered to be the best trained and most experienced fighters amongst the Syrian rebels.[16] The group has refused calls for a ceasefire in Syria.[17]

US intelligence agencies had originally suspected al-Qaeda in Iraq for the bombings in Aleppo and Damascus.[10] Iraq's deputy interior minister said early February that weapons and jihadists were entering Syria from its country.[18] The Front claimed credit for suicide attacks in the Syrian capital of Damascus as well as in Aleppo. The Front is one of two Islamist jihadist groups based in Homs battling the Assad government.[citation needed]

The Institute for the Study of War, speculating on the origins of Al-Nusra Front, linked it with Syrian government sponsorship of jihadi groups fighting Coalition troops during the Iraq War. The group grew in late March and April 2012 after many leading jihadists from Lebanese Fatah al-Islam and Palestinian groups joined the leadership and were able to secure sponsorship of key jihadi ideologues including Sheikh Abu al-Mundhir al-Shinqiti, Sheikh Abu Muhammad al-Tahawi, and Sheikh Abu al-Zahra al-Zubaydi.[19]

Founding[edit]The Al Nusrah Front announced the formation of the "Free Ones of the Levant Brigades" in a YouTube video statement that was released on January 23. In the statement, the group claimed that it attack the headquarters of security in Idlib province.[20]

"To all the free people of Syria, we announce the formation of the Free Ones of the Levant Brigades," the statement said, according to a translation obtained by The Long War Journal. "We promise Allah, and then we promise you, that we will be a firm shield and a striking hand to repel the attacks of this criminal Al Assad army with all the might we can muster. We promise to protect the lives of civilians and their possessions from security and the Shabiha [pro-government] militia. We are a people who will either gain victory or die." [20]

All statements and videos by the Nusra Front have been released by its media outlet, al-Manarah al-Bayda (The White Minaret), via the leading Jihadist webforum Shamoukh al-Islam.[1] The name, al-Manarah al-Bayda, is believed to allude to a hadith or Islamic tradition of the second coming of Jesus, who will descend to Earth east of Damascus and do battle with the Antichrist.[21]

Attacks[edit]During the Syrian civil war, the group launched many attacks, mostly against targets affiliated with or supportive of the Syrian government. As of March 2013, al-Nusra Front had claimed responsibility for 57 of the 69 suicide attacks in Syria during the conflict.[22]

One of the first bombings for which al-Nusra was suspected of and the first suicide attack of the war came on 23 December 2011, when two seemingly coordinated bombings occurred in the Syrian capital of Damascus, killing 44 people and wounding 166.[23]

The al-Midan bombings of January 2012 were allegedly carried out by a fighter named Abu al-Baraa al-Shami. Footage of the destruction caused by the blast was released on a jihadist forum.[10] The video asserts that the "martyrdom-seeking operation" was executed "in revenge for our mother Umm Abdullah - from the city of Homs- against whom the criminals of the regime violated her dignity and threatened to slaughter her son," SITE reported. The video shows "an excerpt of allegiances, operations, and training of the al-Nusra Front" as well as a fighter "amongst the masses in a public demonstration, advising them to do their prayers and adhere to the rituals of Islam."[citation needed]

The 10 May 2012 Damascus bombings were allegedly claimed by Al-Nusra Front in an Internet video,[24] however, on 15 May 2012, someone claiming to be a spokesman for the group denied that the organization was responsible for the attack, saying that it would only release information through jihadist forums.[25]

On 29 May 2012, a mass execution was discovered near the eastern city of Deir ez-Zor. The unidentified corpses of 13 men had been discovered shot to death execution-style.[26] On 5 June 2012, the Al-Nusra Front claimed responsibility for the killings, stating that they had captured and interrogated the soldiers in Deir ez-Zor and "justly" punished them with death, after they confessed to crimes.[27]

On 17 June 2012, Walid Ahmad al-Ayesh, described by Syrian authorities as the "right hand" of the Al-Nusra Front, was killed when Syrian authorities discovered his hiding place. He was reportedly responsible for the making of car bombs that were used to attack Damascus in the previous months.[28] The Syrian authorities reported the killing of another prominent member of the group, Wael Mohammad al-Majdalawi, killed on 12 August 2012 in an operation conducted in Damascus.[29]

On 27 June 2012, a group of Syrian rebels attacked a pro-government TV station in the town of Drousha, just south of the capital Damascus. The station's studios were destroyed with explosives. Seven people were killed in the attack on Al-Ikhbariya TV, including four guards and three journalists.[30] Al-Nusra claimed responsibility for the attack and published photos of 11 station employees they kidnapped following the raid.[31]

In mid-July 2012, Mohammed al-Saeed, a well-known government TV news presenter, was kidnapped by the group. On 3 August 2012, al-Nusra published a statement saying that al-Saeed had been executed.[14][32]

On 3 October, three suicidecar bombs exploded at the eastern corner of the central Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square killing 48 people,[33] as it was announced by the Ministry of interior. More than 122 people were reported to be heavily injured.[34] Al-Nusra claimed responsibility for the attack.[35] The bombs targeted the Officers' club and the nearby buildings of the Touristic Hotel and the historic "Jouha Caf(C)". The hotel received major damage while the caf(C) was entirely destroyed. A small building within the Officers' club was ruined as well.[36][37]

The al-Nusra Front also claimed responsibility for attacking numerous Syrian military bases: including a Syrian air defense base near Aleppo on 12 October 2012, the Hanano barracks in Aleppo city and the Suluq barracks in Raqqah. In the air defense base assault they reportedly destroyed buildings and sabotaged radar and rockets after overrunning the base in cooperation with the al-Fajr Islamic Movement and a group of Chechen fighters. During the storming of the Hanano barracks 11 soldiers were killed and they held the complex for six hours before retreating. They also claimed killing 32 soldiers during the raid on the Raqqah base.[38]

In October 2012, they joined other rebels in an attack on the Wadi Deif base around Maraat al Numan, in a prolonged fighting that turned into a siege of the base. [39] They also led an attack on the Taftanaz Air Base in November 2012, an important and strategic base for the Syrian army, containing up to 48 helicopters.[16]

The group seized three army checkpoints around Saraqeb at the end of October 2012, forcing the Syrian Army to withdraw from the area the next day. In the battle, 28 Syrian soldiers were killed as well as five Nusra fighters. Some of the captured soldiers were summarily executed after being called "Assad dogs". The video of these executions was widely condemned, with the United Nations referring to them as probable war crimes.[40][41]

Members of the al-Nusra Front carried out two suicide attacks in early November 2012. One occurred in a rural development center in Sahl al-Ghab in Hama province, where a car bomb killed two people; while the other occurred in the Mezzeh neighbourhood of Damascus, where a suicide bomber killed 11 people.[42] The SOHR claimed a total of 50 soldiers were killed in the Sahl al-Ghab attack.[43]

Al Jazeera reported on 23 December 2012 that the al-Nusra Front had declared a "no-fly-zone" over Aleppo, using 23 mm and 57 mm anti-aircraft guns to down planes. This would include commercial flights which al-Nusra believed transported military equipment and troops. In a video sent to Al Jazeera, they warned civilians against boarding commercial flights.[44]

In February 2013 Al Nusra fighters were involved in fighting in Safira with regime reinforcements, preventing these forces from reaching their destination of the city of Aleppo. A monitoring group claims this resulted in more than two hundred casualties over a period of two weeks.[45]

The group has taken part in military operations with the Free Syrian Army.[46] Abu Haidar, a Syrian FSA co-ordinator in Aleppo's Saif al-Dawla district said that Al-Nusra Front "have experienced fighters who are like the revolution's elite commando troops".[47]

Relationship with other rebel groups[edit]Al-Nusra Front has been a great help to Syrian rebels in the Battle of Aleppo. One rebel said that members of the group "rush to the rescue of rebel lines that come under pressure and hold them [...] They know what they are doing and are very disciplined. They are like the special forces of Aleppo". He added: "The only thing is that they are too radical".[17] After the US designated al-Nusra Front as a terror group, a Free Syrian Army (FSA) leader in Aleppo berated the move and a FSA spokesman in Aleppo said "We might not share the same beliefs as Jabhat al-Nusra, but we are fighting the same enemy".[48]

However, some rebels are worried by their extreme beliefs and tactics.[9][17] The FSA has consistently condemned al-Nusra Front's use of suicide bombs.[17] It accuses al-Nusra Front and others of "hijacking a revolution that began as an uprising to demand a democratic system".[9] The leader of a rebel group in Idlib Province said "We are not fighting Bashar al-Assad to go from living in an autocratic to a religious prison".[9] A "senior political official" of the FSA said "Their presence is reducing the popular support that we desperately need in areas where we operate [...] I appreciate their motives for coming to Syria. We cannot deny Muslims their right to jihad, but we want them to leave".[17] In some parts of Syria, "Jihadist and secular rebel groups watch each other's military bases warily, unclasping the safety catches on their guns as they pass".[9] Some members of the FSA believe that, after the Assad government has been overthrown, the next war will be between the FSA and the Islamists.[9]

Relationship with National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces[edit]The leader of the National Coalition for Opposition Forces and the Syrian Revolution, Moaz al-Khatib, called on the US to reconsider its decision to list the al-Nusra Front as a foreign terrorist organization; al-Khatib has stated that all rebel forces whose main goal is the ''the fall of the regime'' should be left alone.[49] After the listing of al-Nusra as a terrorist organisation by the US in December 2012, a group of 29 opposition groups, including both fighting units and civilian organisations signed an online petition calling for demonstrations in its support.[50] On 14 December 2012 thousands of Syrians protested against the US move, under the slogan of "There is no terrorism in Syria except that of Assad."[51]

Relationship with the Islamic State of Iraq[edit]In April 2013, the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, released a recorded audio message on the Internet, in which he announced that Jabhat Al-Nusra was an extension of Al Qaeda in Iraq in Syria.[6] Al-Baghdadi said that Abu Mohammad al-Golani, the leader of Jabhat Al-Nusra, had been dispatched by the group along with a group of men to Syria to meet with pre-existing cells in the country. Al-Baghdadi also said that the Islamic State of Iraq had provided Jabhat Al-Nusra with the plans and strategy needed for the Syrian Civil War and had been providing them funding on a monthly basis.[52] Al-Baghdadi declared that the two groups were officially merging under the name "Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham."[52] The next day the leader of Al Nusra, Abu Golani, denied that any such merger exists, while reiterating that Al Qaeda and Al Nusra Front are still allies. Golani is quoted as saying "We inform you that neither the al-Nusra command nor its consultative council, nor its general manager were aware of this announcement. It reached them via the media and if the speech is authentic, we were not consulted."[4]

In May 2013, a video was released on the Internet showing masked men publicly execute three captured Alawite officers in the eastern town of Raqqa, the men identified themselves as being members of the Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham. [53]In the same month, Reuters reported that the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, had traveled from Iraq to Syria's Aleppo Governorate province and had began attempting to sideline al-Nusra Front. Many of al-Nusra's foreign fighters began operating under the banner of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, while many Syrian Nusra fighters have left the group to join other Islamist brigades.[54]

Organization and structure[edit]The leader of al-Nusra is a man who goes by the name of Abu Mohammad al-Golani (or Julani), which implies that he is from the Golan Heights. Very little is known about him, with even his nationality unclear. [13] As of early 2013 al-Nusra is estimated to have around 5000 members. The structure of the group varies across Syria, in Damascus the organisation operates in an underground clandestine cell system, while in Aleppo the group is organised along semi-conventional military lines, with units divided into brigades, regiments and platoons.[13] All potential recruits must undertake a 10-day religious-training course, followed by a 15-to-20-day military-training program.[1]

Al-Nusra contains a hierarchy of religious bodies, with a small Majlis-ash-Shura (Consultative Council) at the top, making national decisions on behalf of the group. Religious personnel also play an important role in the regional JN leadership, with each region having a commander and a sheikh. The sheikh supervises the commander from a religious perspective and is known as dabet al-shar'i (religious commissioner). [13]

References[edit]^ abc"Interview with a Newly Designated Terrorist: Syria's Jabhat Al-Nusra". Time Magazine. 25 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012. ^"TIME Exclusive: Meet the Islamist Militants Fighting Alongside Syria's Rebels". Time Magazine. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. ^ abIgnatius, David (30 November 2012). "Al-Qaeda affiliate playing larger role in Syria rebellion". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 December 2012. ^ abc"Al-Nusra Commits to al-Qaida, Deny Iraq Branch 'Merger'". Agence France Presse. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013. ^ ab"Jihadist rebels in standoff with Syria Kurds: NGO". Al Arabiya. AFP/Reuters. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2013. ^ abcd"Qaeda in Iraq confirms Syria's Nusra is part of network". Agence France-Presse. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013. ^ ab"Islamist group claims Syria bombs 'to avenge Sunnis'". Al Arabiya. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012. ^"US blacklists Syrian rebel group al-Nusra". Al Jazeera. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. ^ abcdefgh"Inside Jabhat al Nusra - the most extreme wing of Syria's struggle". The Daily Telegraph. 2 December 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ abc"Unknown Islamist group claims suicide attacks in Syria". English.alarabiya.net. 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2012-03-25. ^ ab"Profile: Syria's al-Nusra Front". BBC News. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. ^"Syria Rebels Tied to Al Qaeda Play Key Role in War". The New York Times. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-08. ^ abcd"Jabhat al-Nusra A Strategic Briefing". Quilliam Foundation. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-31. ^ ab"Syrian TV presenter executed - Doha Freedom Centre". dc4mf.org. August 4, 2012. ^Karam, Zeina (07/6/2012). "Iraq: Al-Qaeda migrates to Syria". Associated Press. ^ ab"Syria Conflict: Rebels, Army Battle Over Taftanaz Airbase". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^ abcde"With wary eye, Syrian rebels welcome Islamists into their ranks". The Times of Israel. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-28. ^"AFP: Jihadists, weapons 'moving from Iraq to Syria'". Google.com. 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2012-03-25. ^"Jihad in Syria" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^ abBill Roggio (2012-02-26). "Al Nusrah Front claims suicide attack in Syria". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2012-03-25. ^By Aaron Y. Zelin (2012-02-26). "Jabhat al-Nusrah and Jihad in Syria". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2012-12-26. ^By Bill RoggioMarch 26, 2013 8:17 PM (2013-03-26). "Suicide attack reported in Damascus". Longwarjournal.org. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^Jamie Dettmer (2013-01-04). "Jihadists Are Creeping Into Syria's Rebel Factions". Thedailybeast.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"Jihadist group claim responsibility for Damascus blasts". ITV News. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012. ^AFP (2012-05-15). "Jihadist group denies claiming Damascus bombings | World". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/31/world/middleeast/another-mass-execution-is-discovered-in-syria.html?_r=1&smid=tw-nytimes&seid=auto^"Militant group claims killing of 13 in Syria". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^Terrorist Al-Ayesh, Who Supervised Rigging Car Bombs Detonated in Damascus, Killed^http://208.43.232.81/eng/337/2012/08/12/435965.htm^"Seven killed in attack on Syrian TV station". Mg.co.za. 2012-06-27. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^Jihadists claim Syria attacks[dead link]^"Syrian TV presenter Mohammad al Saeed has been executed by Islamist armed group Al-Nusra, says rights group". Blogs.aljazeera.com. 2012-08-04. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"Militant group Al-Nusra claim suicide bombings in Aleppo". Yahoo! News. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012. ^"Sada el-Balad". El-balad.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"Militant group Al-Nusra claim suicide bombings in Aleppo". Reuters. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012. ^"ABC News:Dozens killed in Aleppo bomb blasts". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^Aji, Albert. "News from The Associated Press". Hosted.ap.org. Retrieved 2012-10-08. [dead link]^"Militant group says was behind Aleppo air defense base assault". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"Syria, most rebels agree to four-day truce". Afr.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"Syrian rebels kill 28 soldiers as fighting continues". The Jordan Times. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^Matthew Weaver (2012-11-02). "Syria conflict: rebel 'war crime' caught on video - Friday 2 November 2012 | World news". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"At least 50 pro-Assad forces killed in Syria suicide bombing, activists say". Haaretz. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012. ^Karouny, Mariam. "Suicide bomber kills 50 Syrian security men: opposition 5 November 2012". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"Syria 'secures chemical weapons stockpile'". Al Jazeera. 23 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. ^Syrian Rebels Push Offensive For Major Airport[dead link]^By Bill RoggioAugust 4, 2012 9:13 PM (2012-08-04). "Al Nusrah Front conducts joint operation with Free Syrian Army - Threat Matrix". Longwarjournal.org. Retrieved 2013-05-07. ^"Syria revolt attracts motley foreign jihadi corps". Agence France Presse. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2013. ^"Islamist groups gaining prominence in Syria fight". USA Today. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012. ^"For newly recognized Syrian rebel coalition, a first dispute with US". Csmonitor.com. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2012. ^"Syrian rebels defy US and pledge allegiance to jihadi group". The Telegraph. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012. ^"Syrian protesters slam U.S. blacklisting of jihadist group". AFP. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012. ^ ab"ISI Confirms That Jabhat Al-Nusra Is Its Extension In Syria, Declares 'Islamic State Of Iraq And Al-Sham' As New Name Of Merged Group". Memri. 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2013-04-10. ^"Insight: Syria's Nusra Front eclipsed by Iraq-based al Qaeda". Reuters. 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2013-05-18. ^"Insight: Syria's Nusra Front eclipsed by Iraq-based al Qaeda". Reuters. 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2013-05-18.

Al-Qaeda Takes Over Oilfields Once Belonging To Assad

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Archived Version

Source: Weasel Zippers

Sat, 18 May 2013 22:11

Via The Telegraph:

Up to 380,000 barrels of crude oil were previously produced by wells around the city of Raqqa and in the desert region to its east that are now in rebel hands '' in particular Jabhat al-Nusra, the al-Qaeda off-shoot which is the strongest faction in this part of the country.

Now the violently anti-Western jihadist group, which has been steadily extending its control in the region, is selling the crude oil to local entrepreneurs, who use home-made refineries to produce low-grade petrol and other fuels for Syrians facing acute shortages.

The ability of Jabhat al-Nusra to profit from the oil locally, despite international sanctions which have hindered its sale abroad, will be particularly worrying to the European Union, which has voted to ease the embargo but at the same time wants to marginalise the extremist group within the opposition.

In the battle for the future of the rebel cause, the oil-fields may begin to play an increasingly strategic role. All are in the three provinces closest to Iraq '' Hasakeh, Deir al-Zour, and Raqqa, while the Iraqi border regions are the homeland of the Islamic State of Iraq, as al-Qaeda's branch in the country calls itself.

Keep reading'...

Oh good. They signed on for a few more seasons.

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Archived Version

Source: BadChad's ThoughtPile

Thu, 16 May 2013 17:26

Even after cutting off the head of al-Qaeda, the United States Department of Defense doesn't believe an end to the war on terror is in sight. On Thursday, one Pentagon official predicted the mission against al-Qaeda could continue for another two decades.

Speaking to the Senate Armed Services early Thursday, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations Michael Sheehan said the Pentagon has no plans to pull out of its almost 12-year-old war overseas.

When asked for his take on how long the war on terror could go on for, Sheehan told lawmakers, ''At least 10 to 20 years.''

According to US President Barack Obama, the last combat troops will move out of Afghanistan in 2014. If remarks from Sheehan and others are at all accurate, though, in reality the war could last through the 2030s.

Sheehan was being grilled by members of the Senate committee on Thursday over not just the future of the war, but what rules are in play to continue the operation. Congress granted then-President George W. Bush the power to go after al-Qaeda in 2001 by signing the Authorization to Use Military Force, a legislation that essentially gave the go-ahead to use America's might by any means necessary to avenge the attacks of 9/11. Nearly 13 years later, though, some members of the Senate saw that the overly broad powers extended to the commander-in-chief through the AUMF are being used to justify a widening war that now has soldiers targeting insurgents in venue like Yemen and Somalia.

The scope of America's counterterrorism program, Sheehan said, stretches ''from Boston to the FATA,'' referring to the region of Pakistan considered a hotbed of terrorism. Because of that widening arena, some senators said it's time to rewrite the law.

''It has spread throughout North Africa, throughout the Maghreb,'' Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) said during the hearing. ''The situation's changed dramatically.

But while some lawmakers suggested it was time to revise the AUMF, Pentagon officials said the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act updated the law to grant the president power not just to target overseas terrorists, but suspects believed to be associated forces.

Robert Taylor, the acting general counsel of the Department of Defense, said that the NDAA's update to the Bush-era bill means that even suspects born after the September 11 attacks could be targeted as warriors in the war on terror.

''As long as they become an associated force under the legal standard that was set out,'' Taylor testified, according to Wired's Spencer Ackermnn.

Sen. Angus King, an Independent from Maine, suggested the Pentagon was uninterested in changing the AUMF because they are using it to justify a war that wouldn't otherwise be legal.

''This is the most disturbing hearing I've been to in some time,'' King said. ''You guys have rewritten the Constitution today.''

''You guys have invented this term, associated forces, that's nowhere in this document,'' King said. ''It's the justification for everything, and it renders the war powers of Congress null and void.''

''I assume [the AUMF] does suit you well because you're reading it to fit everything, and it doesn't, the general rule of war applies,'' King said.

Even McCain, who has been by and large considered a hawkish member of the Senate, spoke out against the Pentagon's reluctance to re-write a law that they are using to justify a war that could take US troops to all corners of the globe for the unforeseeable future.

''For you to come here and say, 'We don't need to change it,' I think, is disturbing,'' McCain said.

Before stepping down as secretary of defense, former Pentagon chief Leon Panetta said in late 2011, ''We're winning this very tough conflict.'' Osama bin Laden was executed five months later, and the Central Intelligence Agency and DoD have continuously utilized strikes to weaken al-Qaeda substantially since.

EUROLand

Real News: Lesbian kissers among the Eurovision 2013 finalists. (Euronews video)

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Archived Version

Source: WT news feed

Sat, 18 May 2013 08:33

The lineup for this year's Eurovision Song Contest has been decided with the last 10 songs chosen from 17 candidates in the second semi-final.

Finland's lesbian kiss-boosted ''Marry me'' has made it, and it will do battle in Malmo on Saturday with a Vampire-themed entry from Romania, a 2.34 metre-high Ukrainian and Bonnie Tyler, among others.

Leading in the polls is Denmark which is entering that tried-and-tested competition favourite, a ballad. ''Only Teardrops'' is delivered by 20 year-old Emmelie de Forest, the youngest competitor.

From Azerbaijan to Iceland, Europe's television audience will be rooting for their champions. Nowhere more so than Greece, whose entry has some wry comments to make about the economic crisis there.

Some of Thursday night's hopefuls failed to make it. 21-year-old Moran Mazor from Israel failed to impress, as did Macedonia's veteran Gypsy Queen herself Esma, whose experience counted for little when the votes came in.

Our verdict on the songs from the 1st Semi-Final

From Thursday night's second semi-final, here is the full list of 10 acts that made it through to the final:

Armenia: Dorians '' Lonely PlanetAzerbaijan: Farid Mammadov - Hold MeFinland: Krista Siegfrids - Marry MeGeorgia: Nodi Tatishvili & Sophie Gelovani - WaterfallGreece: Koza Mostra feat. Agathon Iakovidis - Alcohol Is FreeHungary: ByeAlex - Kedvesem (Zoohacker Remix)Iceland: Eythor Ingi - ‰g  L­fMalta: Gianluca - TomorrowNorway: Margaret Berger - I Feed You My LoveRomania: Cezar - It's My LifeActs representing Albania, Bulgaria, Israel, F.Y.R. Macedonia, Latvia, San Marino, and Switzerland were knocked out of the competition.

Here is the euronews verdict on all of the songs from the second semi-final:

Who the hell are we to judge?The euronews jury is made up of three music-loving but unfortunately not music-playing journalists, who reserve the right to be honest while trying to remain respectful to the performers: Mark Davis (normally found listening to Pearl Jam, Jake Bugg, the Stone Roses), Thomas Seymat (Alt-J, Franck Ocean, Daft Punk) and Marie Jamet (Marvin Gaye, Pulp, Clinic).

ArmeniaDorians - Lonely PlanetTS: Dorians deliver an effective classic rock ballad, which is not a song about a travel guide. Too bad the cheesy utopian nonsensical lyrics delivered by a bouncy singer sound oh-so-very 90's. 6 points, 80-1 to win.AzerbaijanFarid Mammadov '' Hold MeMJ: A pretty boy singing a sad song, trying his best to look sad: the furrowed brow, the clenched fists, a voice that is trying so hard to contain the pain, with a metallophone giving off the sound of sadness behind him. Sad, sad, sad. And all you can do is to try not to cry with boredom.MD: ''If love was a mountain I'd climb up to the highest of them all, I'd swim across the ocean if you'd call, I'm lost in your smile. Freefalling for miles''. Farid Mammadov gives 110% in an attempt to break the record for clich(C)s in a verse. Drivel. Nul points, 150-1 to win.FinlandKrista Siegfrids '' Marry meMJ: Pure pop-juice: large-breasted and perfectly manicured blonde caked in make-up, wearing studded leather and perched on high heels, declaring her love for a guy. But in a post-feminist oh-so-modern way. Except for the white wedding dress and the knight in shining armour. Nul points, 150-1 to win.MD: Finland is a beautiful country full of adorable people. I have never had anything bad to say about Finland. Now, thanks to this song, I do. Nul points, 150-1 to win.GeorgiaNodi Tatishvili and Sophie Gelovani '' WaterfallMD: Two singers who actually complement each other quite well, singing a song that could make it onto a low-budget Disney soundtrack. It's just a tad generic and I can't imagine anyone remembering this song once Nodi and Sophie have fulfilled their part of the bargain by singing it very nicely indeed and cracking into the champagne backstage. 2 points, 66-1 to win.MJ: A typical commercial song. Two strong commercial voices, a boy and a girl. Very Disney-like indeed and just as forgettable. 2 points for singing so accurately and 80-1 to win.GreeceKoza Mostra & Agathon Iakovidis - Alcohol Is FreeTS: Balkan music band Koza Mostra teams up with folk music veteran Agathon Iakovidis for a punchy old-meets-the-new song. If all else fails, the catchy Hellenic ska of Alcohol is Free could still be the anthem of the next batch of Erasmus students heading to Greece in September. 9 points, 33-1 to win.MD: I can picture these guys as the support act at a Goran Bregovic gig. They're not quite in the same league as Brega but definitely in the same ilk. It could go either way for this unashamed drinking song: it'll either be loved for its Balkan folk craziness or ignored for its rustic lack of sophistication. I hope it's the former but I fear it'll be the latter. Obviously it will get 12 points from Cyprus. 10 points, 33-1 to win.HungaryByeAlex '' KedvesemMD: Cute animated video showing the lyrics in Hungarian so you can sing along. Or try to anyway. Interesting to see how this translates to a live performance. Song sounds something like Badly Drawn Boy and while it may not be dynamic enough to win, it's a nice little tune. 10 points (out of a maximum 12), 66-1 to win.MJ: A nice little indie song, with a jumpy rhythm backed by gentle hand-clapping. This kind of rhythm and voice remind me of one my favourite bands, the Papas Fritas, but without the nice female voice. But here the (male) singer's slightly veiled voice is nice enough to work without a girlie backup. That's my 12 points but I predict a 200-1 to win.IcelandEy¾"r Ingi Gunnlaugsson '' ‰g L­fMJ: A good old-fashioned viking blond, complete with beard and long-but-clean hair, sings what could have been a Celine Dion hit in Icelandic. It seems a song of tragedy but apparently, according to the child's drawing used in the video it has a happy ending. 4 points, 40-1 to win.MD: Everything's very folkloric about Iceland's entry. It's simple, traditional, humble and, quite frankly, difficult to say anything bad about. Having said that, it's also difficult to get excited about. If I was wistfully gazing out to sea from a mist-enshrouded cliff-top, and I spoke Icelandic, I would probably start belting out ‰g L­f at the top of my lungs. But as a non-Icelandic speaking philistine sitting on my sofa watching Eurovision, I would probably take this as an opportunity to put the kettle on. 6 points, 50-1 to win.MaltaGianluca Bezzina '' TomorrowMJ: A happy indie ballad done by a ukelele-backed. It might not be ground-breaking but at least there's sunshine and youthful exuberance! Quite refreshing when you've had to sit through dozens of Eurovision songs. 10 points (out of a maximum 12), 66-1 to win.MD: They remind me of that group Fun that all the young folk are listening to at the moment, which means they might be fashionable (I wouldn't really know to be honest). And I'm with Marie: more sunshine and happy faces please. Give Europe's jobless youth something to smile about! 8 points, 20-1 to win.NorwayMargaret Berger '' I feed you my loveMJ: A beautiful, dreamy blonde, some reverb on top of a gimmicky boom-boom-fizz-fizz dance track and the odd lyrical explosion to get the crowd going. Will Norway do it this year? It just might'... 10 points, 20-1 to win.MD: This song would not be out of place as the theme tune to a James Bond film; the singer has a voice reminiscent of Shirley Manson of Garbage (The World is not Enough). It's a little bit different to the other entries this year, it's slightly darker and as such it stands out. I think Norway have a good chance of winning with this effort. 12 points, 10-1 to win.RomaniaCesar - It's My LifeTS: Of course, it would be very easy to laugh off Cesar's song, with his insanely high-pitched countertenor voice, the 90s dancey loop, interrupted only by a totally out-of-place dubstep break. But the vocal performance is no joke. A mix so mind-blowing it might very well win.6 points, 16-1 to win.MD: Good grief, Cesar certainly has one helluva voice! He could do Phantom of the Opera all by himself, singing all the parts. Musicals for the austerity era. Like Thomas, I have no idea who thought the little dubstep cameo would be a good idea. What is it with the 15-second dubstep sequences this year? That aside, this is Cesar's show. The man was born to be on stage and this is a potential winner even if it is very weird indeed, and a little scary. 10 points, 8-1 to win.And here's our verdict on the song's that didn't make it to Saturday's final:

LatviaPeR - Here We GoTS: PeR are Latvians rapping in English. Onstage they wear the most glittery pants AND military jackets ever created and sometimes one of them even beat-boxes. There's also a keytar player. The mind boggles. 1 point, 150-1 to win.MD: Those sparkly suits are a statement that says ''Do not take us seriously!'' which is fair enough; this is Eurovision after all. There is nothing serious here, and I'm certain these guys would be an awesome booking for a wedding. The 'fun factor' will probably earn them points and I can see PeR making the final, but there's nothing substantial enough about the song to take it all the way, I fear. 4 points (out of a maximum 12), 66-1 to win. , 80-1 to win.San MarinoValentina Monetta '' CrisalideMJ: OK, so this song starts sad, la C(C)line Dion before finishing with a dancier (but still quite melancholic) flourish. A funny combination but this has got its share of good points to seduce some of the judges and certain members of the public. But perhaps not entirely. It's perhaps the kind of song that will do well but not win. A fourth-place finish maybe. 8 points, 33-1 to win.MD: Here you get two minutes of piano and string-backed ballad, to which the Italian language lends itself very well, and then a minute of Eurodance (which very few languages lend themselves to). That (presumably deliberately) reflects the lyrics of the song, which is about 'emerging from your chrysalis and becoming a butterfly'. So there's some thought behind this, which is one of the plus points Marie was talking about. And there are others, such as the video (again, it is coherent and has a point) and Valentina Monetta's voice. Unfortunately for San Marino, the tiny little microstate doesn't have a very large diaspora so will miss out on the general public's points but the fact that the song 'tells a story' might go down well with the 'professional' judges. 8 points, 40-1 to win.FYR MacedoniaEsma and Lozano '' Pred Da Se RazdeniMD: Two songs in one. The first is a West End musical done in Balkan style sing by Lozano. Then the formidable-looking Esma comes in and steals his limelight with a dancy Gitane number, while an unimpressed Lozano ignores her presence with him on stage. Not really sure the two different parts work that well together but this song could get a lot of votes from the Balkans. 4 points, 40-1 to win.MJ: Agreed, it's a little strange this song, which is cut into two parts. The stage set-up is also slightly curious, with Lozano singing on one side then switching to the other after dropping his mic (deliberately or not, it's not clear) while Esma sings her first part. Then the two meet in the middle for a sad-sounding duo. Odd. 2 points, 80-1 to win.BulgariaElitsa & Stoyan '' Samo ShampioniMJ: A rare eastern sound to the music, and an ever rarer outing for a ga¯ta (Balkan bagpipes), boosted by plenty of percussion and a wall of dance beats. It's sung in Bulgarian but there's plenty of repetition so you don't miss much by not understanding the lyrics. If nothing else, it makes you want to tap your feet. 8 points, 80-1 to winMD: It's certainly quite different to anything else I've heard thus far in this year's Eurovision list, which is certainly no a bad thing. I imagine his would be great to see live at a street carnival, what with all the drums and noise. And I'd love to have a go on a ga¯ta. I would be surprised though if this song won, as it doesn't quite fit the Eurovision mould. I wouldn't mind being wrong though. 9 points, 66-1 to win.IsraelMoran Mazor '' Rak bishvilo (Only For Him)MD: Curvacious Moran Mazor's powerful lungs belt the song out with energy in abundance. Sounds like about a million other songs, nothing really grabs the attention. Apart from Moran Mazor's curves. 3 points, 100-1 to win.AlbaniaAdrian Lulgjuraj & Bledar Sejko '' IdentitetMJ: This is riff-rock from the Balkans backed by strings. There are some 'hard-rock' guitar solos and some good old heavy-metal hairdos. It's what you might expect if you put college rock and hard rock in a mixer for a few seconds. No chance of winning though '' Lordi this is not. 6 points, 100-1 to win.MD: The first few bars sound like a Balkan U2 and then gradually it gets a little harder and heavier until it ends up with what AC/DC might sound like if they weren't quite as good as they actually are. Don't get me wrong, this Albanian song is decent, it's just that we've all heard something like it somewhere before. 4 points, 150-1 to win.SwitzerlandTakasa '' You and MeMD: You start out by thinking this song is going nowhere, then it goes there. And that's despite the road-trip video making you think that maybe, just maybe, the song will take you somewhere. On stage, without the video, this might struggle to make the final. 1 point, 150-1 to win.MJ: You do think they're driving to Malm¶ in the video because of a guide with Malm¶ written on it (uh, so obvious). You start thinking 'oh they're so happy (there are enough forced smiles and laughs to make you believe so) to go to Eurovision they made a video out of it'. But then (beware, 1st class spoiler), no. At the end of the video, they do go nowhere as Mark said. Literally in the middle of nowhere. So what about the song then? Well not much better than the video. Just an average pop-rock song, not disagreeable, sticky and repetitive enough to spoil your day but not enough to mark music history. 4 points, 200-1 to win.

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EU to ban olive oil jugs from restaurants - Telegraph

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Sat, 18 May 2013 13:04

"Yet more packaging is not going to be eco-friendly and will limit choice to more mass produced products."

Mr Clark attacked the regulation as one that would kill off artisan producers and accelerate the demise in Europe of traditional ways of making and serving food, in favour of large industrial producers. "It is very upsetting. Haven't they already done enough damage to artisan products?," he said.

The European Commissions justification for the ban, under special Common Agriculture Policy regulations, is "hygiene" and to protect the "image of olive oil" with a measure that will benefit struggling industrial producers in Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal.

From the beginning of next year, Britain, which abstained during a vote of national food experts on the issues on Tuesday, must enforce the ban via local authority food inspections of restaurants.

Officials defended the ban as a protection for consumers who would know that they were getting a safe, guaranteed product with proper labelling of its origin and with tamper-proof, hygienic dispensers.

"This is to guarantee the quality and authenticity of the olive oil put at the disposal of consumers. The aim is to better inform and protect consumer. We also expect hygiene to be improved too," said an official.

The idea that restaurant customers, who want to eat olive oil with their bread or to dress their food, could not distinguish between a fake product and the real thing was dismissed as patronising by Mr Clark.

"Customers aren't stupid - they would be the first to know if someone was being dishonest," he said.

The decision, which will be automatically adopted by the commission in next few days, has dismayed many officials who are concerned that a ban crafted to help industry will damage the reputation of the EU at a time of growing hostility to Brussels bureaucrats.

"This is sort of thing that gets the EU a deservedly bad name. I shouldn't say so but I hope people disobey this ban," said an official.

"It will seem bonkers that olive oil jugs must go while vinegar bottles or refillable wine jugs can stay."

Responding to the ban, Martin Callanan MEP, the leader of the European Conservative and Reformist group, asked: "Is it April 1st?".

"With the euro crisis, a collapse in confidence in the EU, and a faltering economy surely the commission has more important things to worry about than banning refillable olive oil bottles? They should be seeking to reduce unnecessary packaging," he said.

A Defra spokesperson said: ''While we welcome some of the new rules on improved labelling, we did not support this ban as it will likely lead to unnecessary waste and place added burdens on businesses.

''We will continue to work with the catering industry to help them adapt to these changes.''

BBC News - Groningen gas fields - the Dutch earthquake zone

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Sat, 18 May 2013 22:10

18 May 2013Last updated at21:03 ETBy Anna HolliganBBC News, The NetherlandsAs earthquakes become more intense and more frequent in the north of the Netherlands, there is mounting pressure on the government to reduce the amount of gas being extracted there.

It is a curse for thousands of inhabitants of an area blessed with vast mineral wealth. Homes are crumbling as the country profits from the Groningen gas fields, the largest in Europe.

There exists a consensus among all parties - including the gas companies - that the process of extracting the gas is causing earthquakes, but the country is thriving on the proceeds.

In 2012 the Dutch government made about 14bn euros (£12bn; $18bn) from the Groningen gas fields. Without these revenues, the Netherlands' deficit would be similar to that of crisis-struck Cyprus (6.3%).

"It comes rumbling towards you, louder and louder and louder," says Daniella Blanken, who runs the Groningen Ground Movement.

"Everything starts to shake. It ends with a bang, like a massive weight dropped on the house. Boof! And that is frightening, really really frightening."

She is driving us through a newly built neighbourhood. It is Dutch-style suburbia: a canal running down the left side of the street. But Middelstum is one of the worst-hit areas.

What percentage of these homes here has been affected? "At least 60% but the old ones are worse," she says.

Cracked stepsApproximately 60,000 homes lie within the earthquake zone. The gas companies are dealing with about 6,000 damage claims.

Earlier, at Ms Blanken's cosy kitchen table, she struggled, voice cracking with emotion to explain their desperation: "We want them to put our safety on top of everything, but they don't, they really don't.

"The government is meant to protect its citizens," she says, then pauses before adding: "We don't feel protected."

We pull up outside a flower-festooned farmhouse. Number 13. Home to Klaas Koster and Jannette Schoorl.

A measuring device reveals a jagged split about 7cm (2.7in) wide running through a concrete step and up the side of the house, as though lightning has struck and left an ugly, indelible mark.

"The experts told us this part of the house is saying 'goodbye'," says Mr Koster.

His tone is jovial, a deliberate effort to cope with a problem residents are powerless to prevent. The floor of the utility room is clearly subsiding. It is an extraordinary concern in a region that lies almost entirely below sea level. This is not a land that can afford to sink any further.

Nor can it afford to give up its gas habit. At the Dutch parliament in The Hague, 200km (124 miles) away, Economics Minister Henk Kamp explains why: "Almost all the people heat their houses with Groningen gas and they cook their meals with Groningen gas.

"It's also important because of the budget of our government."

The Dutch government owns large stakes in the gas fields. While there is sympathy, few are prepared to sacrifice the relative economic prosperity generated by the Groningen gas.

Continue reading the main storyYou can never exclude anything. If people are in the wrong place at the wrong time...''

End QuoteChiel SeinenNAM oil companyAs one car park attendant puts it, "If the Groningers don't like it, they should just move elsewhere."

There is another reason the economics ministry has rejected some scientific recommendations to cut the scale of explorations immediately: contracts.

"We have long-term contracts with other countries," Mr Kamp admits. "And that's also an important point for us."

The government was unable to give an exact value. The economics minister told us they were trying to establish if financial penalties would be incurred by reducing the supply to foreign buyers.

'Nothing excluded'Groningen gas was discovered in the 1960s. Since then, the Dutch government has reaped an estimated 250bn euros from the sale of this natural resource.

Last August there was a magnitude 3.4 tremor. Higher than any expert had previously predicted, it further sapped the residents' confidence and forced the ministers to commission an inquiry.

"Until now we always knew that earthquakes could occur, now we don't know what the new maximum could be," says Chiel Seinen, who represents the NAM oil company collective incorporating Royal Dutch Shell Plc and Exxon Mobil Corp.

"There is a compensation scheme in place. A million-euro fund? No, there is no limit. People can count on it that we at NAM will compensate them for any damage caused by the earthquakes."

Does Chiel Seinen believe that lives could be in danger? He raises his eyebrows: "You can never exclude anything. If people are in the wrong place at the wrong time'..."

And that is the fear of those whose ancestors lived on the land long before the gas firms started shaking it.

The Groningen Ground Movement is currently considering taking its case to the European Court of Human Rights, on the grounds their basic right to live without fear is being violated.

Back on the farm, Mr Koster pours steaming glasses of sweet herbal tea and retrieves a thick pile of newspaper cuttings from a corner - contrasting the scale of the coverage with the level of government response.

He and Ms Schoorl are two of the many people still waiting for compensation. They are tired of fighting to convince the experts, funded by NAM, that the latest cracks were caused by the extractions.

And Ms Schoorl is having trouble sleeping: "We sleep underneath a beam. At night I think, what if there was another earthquake and that beam was to come down on top of us? I hope I will live to tell about it."

War on $alt

Institute of Medicine: Low Salt Intake May Be Unhealthy.

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Sun, 19 May 2013 07:55

By Gretchen Goetz | May 16, 2013Health experts have long promoted one simple, consistent message when it comes to salt intake: cut back. Now, a review from the Institute of Medicine suggests that a diet too low in sodium may actually be unhealthy for those at risk for heart problems.

This conclusion was drawn by a committee designated by IOM tasked with reviewing existing research on the effects of sodium intake.

After analyzing 39 studies that fit its criteria for review, the committee found that drawing any sort of conclusion about the impact of a low-sodium diet was difficult given the wide range of methodologies used in each study.

Despite this variability, the committee said the current body of evidence still shows a positive relationship between salt intake and heart disease. And while the authors were unable to draw a conclusion about the effects of low levels of salt (less than 2,300 mg per day) on the general population, they did find convincing evidence that low sodium intake could lead to adverse effects in patients with mid- to late- stage congestive heart failure.

''The evidence on health outcomes is not consistent with efforts that encourage lowerng of dietary sodium in the general population to 1,500 mg/day,'' conclude the authors. ''Further research may shed more light on the association between lower'--1,500 to 2,300 mg'--levels of sodium and health outcomes.''

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, issued by the federal government, recommend limiting daily sodium intake to 2,300 mg for the general population. For those at a higher risk for heart disease, including people over age 51, African Americans and those with high blood pressure, diabetes or chronic kidney disease, the Guidelines recommend consuming 1,500 mg or less per day.

But according to the IOM report, this latter recommendation is not backed up by research.

Consumer advocacy group Center for Science in the Public interest greeted the study with concern, saying it takes the focus off of the main concern for most consumers: high salt intake.

''What the committee failed to emphasize is that most Americans are deep in the red zone, consuming 3,500 to 4,000 milligrams of sodium a day,'' said CSPI Nutrition Director Bonnie Liebman. ''It's clear that those excessive levels increase the risk of high blood pressure, heart attacks, and strokes. Whether we aim for 2,300 or 1,500 milligrams a day is irrelevant until we move down out of the red zone.''

''The committee was boxed in by a narrow charge to examine only studies that looked at hard endpoints like heart attacks and strokes,'' continuted Liebman. ''Because of flaws in those studies, the committee did not conclude that low sodium intakes are harmful.''

The salt industry, on the other hand, praised IOM for considering the other side of the salt coin.

''We are pleased to see that the IOM report has recognized that lowering sodium intake too much may actually increase a person's risk of some health problems, said Lori Roman, president of the Salt Institute, in a statement Tuesday. ''IOM's recommendation that more study is needed is a positive first step toward a more objective dialog about the complex effects of sodium reduction on overall health.''

''There is no scientific justification for population-wide sodium reduction to such low levels and the recognition by the IOM experts that such low levels may cause harm may help steer overzealous organizations away from reckless recommendations,'' said Salt Institute Vice President of Science and Research Mort Satin.

The full report is available for download here.

(C) Food Safety NewsMore Headlines from Nutrition & Public Health>>

Tags: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Institute of Medicine, salt, sodium

Strategy of Tension

Cannes Shooting Scare: Man Apprehended After Bringing Gun, Fake Grenade To Film Festival

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Sun, 19 May 2013 08:25

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Isla Fisher attended the Opening Ceremony and premiere of "The Great Gatsby" during the 66th Annual Cannes Film Festival at Palais des Festivals on May 15 in Cannes, France.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Emma Stone stepped out in New York City on May 15 looking adorable as always.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Leonardo DiCaprio, Carey Mulligan and Baz Luhrmann posed together at "The Great Gatsby" photocall at the 66th Cannes Film Festival on May 15.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013A very pregnant Penelope Cruz and her brother Eduardo visited their sister Monica at the hospital after she gave birth to a baby girl on May 14 in Madrid, Spain.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Zoe Saldana looked incredible at the "Star Trek Into Darkness" premiere held at The Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Calif., on May 14.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Nicole Kidman arrived at the Martinez Hotel in Cannes, France to attend a photocall of the Jury on the eve of the 66th edition of the Cannes Film Festival on May 14.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Katie Holmes was spotted on the set of "Mania Days" in New York City on May 14.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Emma Watson arrived on a flight at the Nice Airport on May 14 to attend the upcoming 66th Annual Cannes Film Festival in France.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Lea Michele attended the FOX 2013 Programming Presentation Post-Party at Wollman Rink Central Park in New York City on May 13.

Celebrity News: May 2013Angelina Jolie revealed that she had a double mastectomy after discovering she carried a cancer gene on May 14.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Owl City's Adam Young took a snack break while helping launch the new OREO cookie "Wonderfilled" campaign in NYC on May 14.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Alyson Hannigan was spotted leaving the AOL office after visiting The Huffington Post in New York City on May 13.

Celebrity News: May 2013Angie Everhart confirmed that she's been diagnosed with thyroid cancer.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Selma Blair was seen enjoying her Mother's Day with her son, Arthur Bleick at the beach in Malibu, Calif., on May 12.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Jennifer Aniston and Justin Theroux took a stroll after shopping at Barney's and dining at Fred's Restraunt in New York City on May 12.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Sienna Miller attended the Arqiva British Academy Television Awards at the Royal Festival Hall on May 12 in London.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Reese Witherspoon flaunted her legs in short shorts while watching her son's football game in Brentwood, Calif., on May 11.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Selena Gomez was spotted spending some time at the pool in Miami, Fla., on May 11.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Halle Berry flaunted her baby bump at the 20th Annual EIF Revlon Run/Walk For Women held at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, Calif., on May 11.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Liv Tyler took a walk with a male friend around West Village in New York City on May 10.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Stephen Amell hosted the F*ck Cancer event on May 9 at Bootsy Bellows in Los Angeles, Calif.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Pregnant actress Jenna Dewan headed out of her home in London on May 9.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Kerry Washington stopped by "Extra" at The Grove in Los Angeles, Calif., on May 8.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Bradley Cooper went incognito as he headed to the set of "American Hustle" on May 8 in Boston.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Ryan Reynolds was spotted walking his dog Baxter while sporting the new Fitbit Flex Wireless Activity Wristband in Bedford, NY on May 7.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Olivia Wilde was spotted rocking Carrera shades at Carrera Ignition Night in New York City on May 7.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Jennifer Lopez and Casper Smart held hands while leaving their hotel in New York City on May 7. Check out J.Lo's tight leather pants!

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Blake Lively rocked thigh-high boots and a little black dress for a photo shoot in New York CIty on May 7.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Jennifer Lawrence and Sarah Jessica Parker share a laugh while attending the "PUNK: Chaos To Couture" Costume Institute Gala at the MET Museum in New York City on May 6.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Beyonce looked amazing at the "PUNK: Chaos To Couture" Costume Institute Gala at the MET Museum in New York City on May 6.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Kristen Stewart wowed in a jumpsuit at the "PUNK: Chaos To Couture" Costume Institute Gala at the MET Museum in New York City on May 6.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Nina Dobrev dazzled at the "PUNK: Chaos To Couture" Costume Institute Gala at the MET Museum in New York City on May 6.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Gwen Stefani and Gavin Rossdale attended the "PUNK: Chaos To Couture" Costume Institute Gala at the MET Museum in New York City on May 6.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Jessica Biel flashed her bra while she was out with her dogs for a walk on May 6 in New York City.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Brooke Burke-Charvet and her son enjoyed Wendy`s new Frosty Waffle Cones in Los Angeles, Calif., on May 6.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Kim Kardashian and Kanye West held hands on May 5 before heading to dinner in New York City.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Joshua Jackson and Diane Kruger were seen walking together in SOHO in New York City on May 5.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Josh Hartnett was snapped catching a cab in New York City on May 5.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013The crowd watched as Paris Hilton and her boyfriend River Viiperi shared a sweet kiss at the Pool After Dark at Harrah's Resort in Atlantic City on May 4.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Orlando Bloom had his hands full during an afternoon outing in Beverly Hills, Calif., with 2-year-old son Flynn on My 4.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Keith Urban carried 2-year-old daughter Faith while 4½-year-old Sunday Rose stuck close to mom Nicole Kidman as the family ventured out in Hollywood on May 4.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013LeAnn Rimes sported short shorts as she shopped in Los Angeles, Calif., on May 3.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Nina Dobrev visited the Origins Flatiron store for the launch of the new Origins GinZing' Energy-boosting on May 3 in New York City.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Leonardo DiCaprio and Jay-Z partied with Mot & Chandon at the after party for the NY premiere of "The Great Gatsby" on May 1.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Heidi Klum was spotted leading the "Right End" Hair Revolution at The Grove on May 1 in Los Angeles, Calif.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Allison Williams rocked spandex as she filmed scenes for "Girls" in Chinatown, NYC, on May 1.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013LaLa Anthony provided some added comfort by donating Dr. Scholl's Massaging Gel Insoles to construction workers at the Seaside Heights boardwalk on May 1. The New Jersey town is working tirelessly on the rebuilding efforts after Hurricane Sandy.

Celebrity Photos: May 2013Hilary Duff donned a tight red dress as she headed into "The Today Show" in New York City on May 1.

Celebrity Photos: April 2013Amy Poehler hosted Worldwide Orphans Salon Event presented by Shutterfly on April 30 in Los Angeles, Calif.

Celebrity Photos: April 2013Nicole Richie attended the AOL 2013 Digital Content Newsfront at Moynihan Station in New York City on April 30.

Celebrity Photos: April 2013Kristin Cavallari arrived on a flight at LAX airport in Los Angeles, Calif., with her son Camden on April 30.

Mali

France to buy American drones for Mali operation

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Source: BlackListedNews.com

Sat, 18 May 2013 22:15

An Air Force MQ-9 Reaper. (AFP Photo / James Lee Harper Jr.)

Two of America's medium-altitude Reaper drones will be sold to France as backup for the country's operations against Islamist rebels in Mali.

The news comes from the 'Air et Cosmos' specialist magazine, which reported online that a deal had been reached between France and the United States for the sale of two non-armed MQ-9 units.

The French air force had already deployed a European-made Harfang drone to Mali, with the country now wishing to acquire more modern models quickly, although any purchase of the US Reapers directly from the manufacturer (as was done with Harfang) is expected to delay delivery by seven months.

French Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian is presently on a visit to the US, where he is expected to make the announcement, according to Air et Cosmos. The defense ministry has declined to comment.

In a bid to curb the spread of extremism and Al Qaeda-linked militants in the northern parts of its former colony, France started a military operation in January of this year. The anti-government Islamists had spread Sharia law everywhere they went, and it is widely feared that if they are successful in Mali, the country will become a hotspot for extremism and the launching of terrorist attacks against European and other African nations.

French efforts have since pushed the militants into mountain and desert hideouts. However, this changed the rules of the game in such a way that they now launch sporadic guerrilla attacks.

French soldiers take position during a false alert by the population signaling the presence of MUJAO (Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa) members in a street in Gao on April 13, 2013. (AFP Photo / Joel Saget)

Operation 'Serval' started with a deployment of 2,500 troops and the French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius declaring on January 30 that they would be out of there ''quickly''. Since that time, that number has risen to 4,000, while the departure date had been moved up. Currently, the idea is that half will leave by July, when Mali holds their presidential election.

Although Paris has begun withdrawal from the West African nation, ahead of the security handover to the International Mission for Support to Mali (MISMA), Le Drian's recent visit to London paints a different picture, whereby 1,000 French troops will stay in Mali indefinitely, in case further problems arise.''This is the reason why France will remain with roughly 1,000 troops on Malian territory for an undetermined period of time to carry out counter-terrorism operations if necessary,'' said Le Drian.

As the battle against extremism in Mali shows no signs of abating, international donors have pledged '‚¬3.25bn to its rebuilding, as currently the country is in a state of complete destitution.

Benghazi Bad Actors

State Department Sent Gay Man to be ambassador to Muslim country -- Chris Stevens was gay

Link to Article

Archived Version

Sat, 18 May 2013 08:19

[ Ambassador Chris Stevens in the 70s with male companion Austin Tichenor, whose Facebook profile has been displaying photos and remembrances of Stevens the last few days including references to the gay-themed novel "Brideshead Revisited" whose main characters were star-crossed, doomed lovers "Sebastian" and "Charles"...which is not a far cry from the names "Austin" and "Chris", as some of Austin's friends have noted on Facebook. ]

Programming Note: listen to a special radio report on this developing story via the HillBuzz & Mrs. Fox Show, archived from 9/14/2012'' click HERE to listen

Today I went out into the field here in Chicago looking to talk to some of the striking teachers but no one in a red-shirt was anywhere to be found (or, if they were wearing one, they had nothing to do with the teachers' union strike). A journalist friend of mine asked me to nose around and see if I could uncover anything about slain Ambassador Chris Stevens, who was rumored to be gay. A former ''roommate'' of Stevens by the name of Austin Tichenor lives and works in Chicago and while making calls to friends of mine in the theater world who know him I also thought to check some sources with the city who deal with the State Department and foreign dignitaries when they are in town.

Of course, they've all been talking about Ambassador Stevens' murder by Muslims in Libya: and all of them are incredulous that the State Department sent a gay man to be ambassador to a Muslim country. News reports continue to indicate that the Muslims who murdered Stevens also raped him repeatedly, before and after his death.

I was told by friends in the City's protocol office to go over to the Second Story Bar in downtown Chicago, just off Michigan Avenue, because it's where a lot of gay guys who work for both the city and the consulates go after work. Chicago is home to a great number of consulates, including the Polish, Chinese, and Serbian consulates amongst others. I happened to luck out when the bartender working, who is a friend, tipped me off that a man in a suit talking to some other foreign-looking types worked at the Serbian consulate a few doors up the street towards the lake.

Second Story Bar is literally on the second floor of a nondescript building whose ground level houses some sort of Thai restaurant. A psychic's office is prominently advertised on the door leading to a steep flight of stairs and a blank green steel door that hides the tucked-away bar. The place has the feel of a speakeasy, with exposed bricks and battered plaster on the walls and an oddball collection of black and white photographs and pig-themed folk art scattered over drinkers' heads in any exposed space.

I'm forever perplexed that actual reporters don't camp out in these sorts of places because great scoops are very easy to find if you just go in there and ask questions. The Serbian consulate employee identified himself to me as ''Dino'' and wouldn't give me any more of a name than that, but told me it was no secret that Chris Stevens was gay and that ''it was stupid to send him to Libya as the ambassador when he was a known homosexual''.

Dino explained in great detail that the brutal sodomizing of Stevens' corpse was something that Muslims do to show the ''utmost disrespect to the body'' and that this is ''a great insult in Islam'' reserved for homosexuals. ''It is like making him a woman in death and he will be a woman now after life'' the Serbian explained to me. There's a good chance this guy was Muslim too, and gay, which makes my head spin more than a little since he seemed to have no anger at all in his voice that Muslims in Libya assassinated the American ambassador and then sodomized his corpse.

''He should not have gone there'' was the general consensus from this man.

You won't hear any of this in the media, no doubt, but in Chicago's diplomatic circles at least there is no doubt that Chris Stevens was gay and that pretty much anyone in the diplomatic world knew that. That includes the Libyans who were hired as security at the consulate in Benghazi who betrayed Ambassador Stevens and assisted in his murder.

Meanwhile, the White House is ignoring the fact that a gay ambassador to a Muslim country was murdered and they are in fact still pretending that all of this is about some obscure movie about Muhammad and has nothing at all to do with Barack Obama repeatedly and vociferously spiking the football over killing Osama bin Laden (which took place all throughout the Democrats' convention last week).

********************UPDATE: Here's a graphic I've seen making the rounds on Facebook that says it all'...

I think the ''ImpeachNancyPelosi'' group on Facebook started this one but I don't know that for sure.

***********************************************

UPDATE #2: Here are more tributes that are being posted on Ambassador Stevens' friend Austin's Facebook page.

* calling them ''two gay poets''

* referencing the tragic gay story ''Brideshead Revisited'' regarding Chris and Austin's relationship in the past.

People here in Chicago are very openly talking about Chris Stevens being gay'...and yet he was sent to be the ambassador to Libya at a time when Muslims were toppling governments and introducing radical Islamists into power.

******************************

UPDATE: 9/16/2012 '-- the corrupt media is still not reporting on Ambassador Stevens being raped by Muslims before and after he was assassinated. The Left is claiming ''that didn't happen'' and also showing only cropped images of the Ambassador, shirtless, with captions saying ''he's being carried to safely by helpers from the crowd!''. No, the Muslims were stripping him naked, removing his belt and pants, and raping him. The uncensored photos show the man stripped nude and being dragged off by Muslims to be violated.

The corrupt media is whitewashing all this because it (a) makes Muslims look terrible for raping Ambassador Stevens (and then his corpse) and (b) it hurts Obama for people to know that Muslims raped the male American ambassador before and after killing him. Male-rape is not what this administration wants to talk about six weeks before an election.

You can EASILY read all about the rape via foreign news sources in the Middle East which have no qualms reporting it.

One good source is the Lebanese media. If you can't read squiggles and little dots that look like bugs, they have an English version too that was linked here. The Libyan Free Press is also extensively reporting on the rape of Ambassador Stevens.

Pamela Geller at AtlasShrugs is, of course, on top of this as always. BareNakedIslam is covering it like crazy too.

If you don't know about this, it's because you either purposefully don't WANT to know or you're foolishly just getting your news from the corrupt media and receiving only the information they want to give you after it has been best censored to help Obama.

Verumserum just posted this video purporting to be of Ambassador Stevens' body being recovered from wreckage by the Muslims who would shortly thereafter drag his corpse through the streets, strip the body naked, and rape it; the corrupt media will not show you these monsters shouting ''Allah Akbar! Allah Akbar! Allah Akbar!'' as they do this, but here it is:

(C) 2012, Kevin DuJan. All rights reserved.

Kevin DuJanGay conservative political analyst, essayist, author and radio and TV commentator on politics, pop culture, LGBTQ issues, and current events. To email Kevin directly with a comment or complaint about this or any article, do so at: HillBuzz@gmail.com

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Earaq

Notice -- Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

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Archived Version

Source: White House.gov Press Office Feed

Sat, 18 May 2013 08:04

The White House

Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release

May 17, 2013

NOTICE

- - - - - - -

CONTINUATION OF THE NATIONAL EMERGENCYWITH RESPECT TO THE STABILIZATION OF IRAQ

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by obstacles to the continued reconstruction of Iraq, the restoration and maintenance of peace and security in the country, and the development of political, administrative, and economic institutions in Iraq.

The obstacles to the continued reconstruction of Iraq, the restoration and maintenance of peace and security in the country, and the development of political, administrative, and economic institutions in Iraq continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. For this reason, the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13303, as modified in scope and relied upon for additional steps taken in Executive Order 13315 of August 28, 2003, Executive Order 13350 of July 29, 2004, Executive Order 13364 of November 29, 2004, and Executive Order 13438 of July 17, 2007, must continue in effect beyond May 22, 2013. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency with respect to the stabilization of Iraq declared in Executive Order 13303.

This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.

BARACK OBAMA

THE WHITE HOUSE, May 17, 2013.

Vaccine$

Revealed Government Documents Show Vaccine Injured Children in Small African Village Used Like Lab Rats.

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Archived Version

Source: WT news feed

Sun, 19 May 2013 07:26

Children vaccinated in Africa were severely harmed by vaccines.

In December 2012, vaccine tragedy hit the small village of Gouro, Chad, Africa, situated on the edge of the Sahara Desert. Five hundred children were locked into their school, threatened that if they did not agree to being force-vaccinated with a meningitis A vaccine, they would receive no further education. These children were vaccinated without their parents' knowledge. This vaccine was an unlicensed product still going through the third and fourth phases of testing.

Within hours, one hundred six children began to suffer from headaches, vomiting, severe uncontrollable convulsions and paralysis. The children's wait for a doctor began. They had to wait one full week for a doctor to arrive while the team of vaccinators just carried on vaccinating others from the village. More children became sick.

When the doctor finally came, he could do nothing for the children. The team of vaccinators, upon seeing what had happened, fled the village in fear.

Fifty children were finally transferred to a hospital in Faya and later taken by plane to two hospitals in N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad. After being shuttled around like cattle, these sick, weak children were dumped back in their village without a diagnosis and each family was given an unconfirmed sum of £1000 by the government. No forms were signed and no documentation was seen. They were informed that their children had not suffered a vaccine injury. However, if this were true, why would their government award each family £1000 in what has been described as hush money?

Interestingly, during the time the children spent in the hospital, two more children joined them from another village.

To read the full stories of this tragedy, please see references at the end of this article from previous Vactruth world-exclusive reports. [1,2,3,4]

Since this time, Vactruth has been passed a series of secret documents, which fill in some missing gaps in this story and expose just how corrupt the organizations behind this tragedy really are.

The Exclusive, Heartbreaking DetailsOn January 14, 2013, arrangements were made for seven female patients between the ages of 8-18 to be evacuated from the Hospital of Mother and Child (HME) and the General Hospital of National Referrals (HGRN) in N'Djamena and transferred by air to a clinic in Tunisia. This was scheduled to take place between January 16 and 22.

The documents in our possession state that the Chadian government arranged for the patients to be accompanied by Dr. Joseph Mad-Toingue, Chief Service of Infectious Diseases of the National General Referral Hospital; Dr. Moumar Mbaileyo, anesthesiologist employee of the National General Referral Hospital; and Mr. Dihoulne Kakiang, state-certified nurse, employee of the National General Referral Hospital.

On January 29, 2013, a letter passed between The Chief Service of Infectious Diseases of HGRN-N'Djam(C)na and Mr. Director General of the National General Referral Hospital, stating:

''Mr. Director General,

Herewith I have the honor of putting into your hands the report of the mission completed in Tunisia between 15 and 22 of January 2013 regarding the medical evacuation of 7 patients.

The Chief of Service.''

Vactruth now has this report.

A Parent's Worst NightmareThe report states that seven female patients between the ages of 8 and 18 had suffered adverse reactions after receiving the meningitis A vaccination during a national campaign, which took place on December 11, 2012, for the prevention of this illness. These patients had originally been taken to the Regional Hospital of Faya, before being transferred on December 26, 2012, to the Hospital of Mother and Child (HME) and the General Hospital of National Referrals (HGRN) in N'Djamena.

Arrangements were later made for a medical evacuation to transfer these patients to Tunisia for further tests and treatment.

According to the report, the departure took place in N'Djam(C)na on January 15, 2013, at 10:50 pm after a long wait at the Hassan airport in N'Djamena because of the late arrival of the plane.

The journey took place on board a Tunisian plane chartered by the International Medical Society (SMEDI). The party consisted of seven patients, three members of the medical team and seven parents (two men and five women) who accompanied the sick children.

Interestingly, the document states that the party did not fly alone.

The government report states that twenty other passengers traveling to Tunisia for the same reason (medical evacuation) also joined the party. Sadly, there were no further details on these patients in the report.

Were these patients also vaccine-damaged by the meningitis A vaccination, and where did these twenty other sick patients come from?

Just before the plane took off, an 18 year-old patient had what the report describes as a 'shaking episode,' and was given a 10 mg vial of diazepam before boarding the plane. Other than this incident, the flight went well.

The Specialists Say ''Case Closed''The group arrived in Tunisia on January 16, 2013, and was received by SMEDI agents who took care of the police formalities (entry visa) before dividing the group into three parties. The patients were transported by ambulance to the clinic, the medical staff was taken to a hotel, and the patients' parents were taken to a center.

On the afternoon of January 16, the three medical staff were introduced to SMEDI's Director General, M. Ghazi Mejbri, to get acquainted. This was followed by a work session with the medical coordinator, Dr. Folla Amara. In the course of this meeting, the condition of the patients was discussed and plans were arranged for their care.

The patients were taken to the neurological department of SMEDI's La Sourka clinic. The clinic had received the children's medical records in advance and was reported to have conducted their own clinical and biological tests on the patients before meeting with the medical team that had accompanied them.

On January 17, a meeting took place with Professor Rachid Namai (''chef de clinique''), Dr. Kefi and Dr. Mabet. It was concluded that the children's 'shaking attacks' or convulsionswere of no consequence. On the paraclinical level, the report stated that the liquor tests of five patients did not reveal any anomalies, nor did the EEG of six patients.

The EEG of the seventh patient showed minor anomalies in the immediate post-critical phase, but was reported to have stabilized. An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) was to take place of all seven patients. After the meeting, the team visited the patients who were all reported to be well, except for one child who had developed tonsillitis and had to receive appropriate treatment.

On January 19, a second meeting took place at the La Soukra Clinic during which they examined the patients' medical records that gave the results of all the medical tests that had taken place. Among the biological perturbations there was reported to be one case of persistent thrombopenia (a lower than normal number of blood cell fragments called platelets), two cases of of elevated immunoglobulines E (Ig E) and five cases of gram negative bacteria directly upon examination '-- culturing has not been contributory.

The report stated that, generally speaking, the patients showed a raised tendency for hypoalbuminemia (swelling), hypo creatininemia (renal dysfunction), and hyper glucorrhagia (no definition found).

The MRI results showed no anomalies, and the HIV and hepatitis serologies were negative. The medical team found the children's health to be satisfactory. The report states that the children had no infectious cause for their illness and the hypothesis of an immuno-allergic reaction was deemed to be more probable.

At this point, it was decided to close the investigation due to the advice from specialists and followed up with epidemiological and pharmacodynamical studies.

No Reason For Concern?On January 21, the mission members visited the clinic at La Soukra for a last time. They found all patients waiting for their stay to end. The report states that a short meeting took place with the chief of service who promised to give his medical report shortly. The mission ended with a visit to the Dr. Naoui Mohamed N(C)jib's laboratory where the biological tests of all the patients had been performed.

The mission members left Tunisia on January 22, 2013, around 2:00 pm and arrived in N'Djam(C)na at 4:00 pm.

They concluded that the medical evacuation to Tunisia had given them the opportunity to investigate more thoroughly seven patients who had developed post-vaccination reactions during the national vaccination campaign against meningitis.

It was stated that, generally speaking, the clinical state of the patients did not give any reasons for concern and that the paraclinical balance of the majority did not show major perturbations.

The mission was deemed a success.

The report was signed by Dr. Joseph Mad-To¯ng(C) in N'Djam(C)na on January 28, 2013.

Determined Parents Won't Give UpThe parents tell a very, very different story. According to parents and relatives, these children were locked into their school, threatened with no education and forcibly vaccinated without their parents' knowledge.

They state that the children are still desperately ill and that they have no way of getting any medical care. After the mission, they were left in Faya and had to make their own way back to the village.

The children are still suffering severe convulsions. One relative told me:

''The children drop suddenly to the ground and shake violently before going paralyzed. We do not know what is wrong and we want answers. No one will help us. Our children were well and fit, we have never had meningitis in our area, so why did they vaccinate our children with this vaccination?

Our children have since become aggressive in their behavior and have a rash all over their bodies. They are having terrible frightening convulsions. Why won't anyone help us?''

I have been informed that the parents have formed an activist group to put out their plea to the world.

Unanswered QuestionsThe parents ask:

Were the vaccines used on our children out-of-date?

Had some of the batches used been spoiled in the heat?

Did the vaccinators vaccinate our children inadvertently with an unsafe product?

Was the maximum duration of four days without refrigeration respected and adhered to?

Were the vaccinators adequately trained?

They state:

''All this disturbs us and makes us fear the worst effects for the future. We do not know what is going on behind the scenes and what the Minister of Health, the organizations involved with the tragedy (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PATH WHO, MVP and UNICEF) are saying or are going to do. As parents, our priority is to get back the health our children. We feel that it is very sad that [our] entire city is paralyzed and is suffering from epilepsy. We were hoping that our government would make a stand and save our children but it has so far failed to do so. Therefore we call assistance for everyone in the world to intervene.

Our needs as listed below:

A health specialist, an organization or an individual to assist the sick children, who are innocent victims and help them to get their health back.Human rights organization or an individual lawyer who could help the parents' association with legal issues and get justice for the children against the Chad government, WHO, MVP, PATH, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Indian company Serum Institute of India Ltd.Parents need independent and freelance journalists to help them to get media coverage and tell the world what has happened to the children of Gouro, Chad.''ConclusionThe parents' requests are simple and the same as any other parent left in this impossible situation. They feel deserted and betrayed by the Chadian government, who have left their children to die, while at the same time announcing the vaccination program to be a success. All the parents are very angry and are pleading with the world to help. They state they need lawyers, doctors, medication and above all, support.

This whole debacle has been a coverup from the very beginning. One of the children's relatives has told me that there has never been a case of meningitis in this part of Africa. So, why vaccinate children needlessly for a disease that does not exist in this area? Worse still, according to my source, this particular part of Chad is not even on the meningitis belt, and yet this vaccine was given to these children. He could be right, as according to a map attributed to the Gates Foundation, it is not. [5]

The abnormal tests demonstrate that the vaccines caused these problems (especially the abnormal immunoglobin levels). Had the doctors done more specific tests proving vaccine damage (especially anti-myelin antibodies), they would have found abnormal levels, which indicate vaccine injury. Did they avoid doing these tests on purpose?

It seems very likely that these children, who are now sick and vulnerable, were used as lab rats and have since been left to die by some of the biggest organizations known to mankind. Five months have passed and a lot of covering up the truth has gone on and still, the world waits for answers. The children of Gouro and their parents want the following organizations '' PATH, WHO, UNICEF, and the Gates Foundation '-- to make a public apology and to own up to what has happened. They want and need accountability.

This is a violation of the Nuremberg code and these government ''officials'' are guilty of crimes against humanity.

AcknowledgementVacTruth wishes to thank medical research journalist and author Desiree Rover who translated all reports and documents from French.

Photo Credit

SWINE FLU MINUTE! Swine flu virus detected in elephant seals off West Coast - Science.

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Archived Version

Source: It's Not News Yet

Sat, 18 May 2013 23:54

Joachim Ploetz, Alfred Wegener Institute

A male elephant seal opens wide at sea. Scientists have found the H1N1 virus strain in northern elephant seals off the coast of California, the first such detection in marine mammals.

By Megan Gannon, LiveScience

The H1N1 virus strain that caused a 2009 swine flu outbreak in humans was detected in northern elephant seals off the coast of central California.

Scientists say this is the first time marine mammals have been found to carry the H1N1 flu strain, which originated in pigs. The seals seem to have picked up the virus while at sea, but it's unclear how this happened.

"We thought we might find influenza viruses, which have been found before in marine mammals, but we did not expect to find pandemic H1N1," Tracey Goldstein, an associate professor with the UC Davis One Health Institute and Wildlife Health Center, said in a statement. [10 Deadly Diseases That Hopped Across Species]

"H1N1 was circulating in humans in 2009," Goldstein added. "The seals on land in early 2010 tested negative before they went to sea, but when they returned from sea in spring 2010, they tested positive. So the question is, where did it come from?"

Contact with humans carrying the virus is unlikely when the elephant seals are at sea, because the creatures spend most of their time looking for food in a remote part of the northeast Pacific Ocean off the continental shelf.

Exposure could have occurred through feces dumped out of shipping vessels passing through this area. The researchers noted in their report in the journal PLOS ONE this week that H1N1 has been detected in stool samples of hospital patients. Another possible avenue of transmission might have been contact with aquatic birds, thought to be reservoirs for other flu viruses, the researchers say.

Goldstein and colleagues tested nasal swabs from more than 900 Pacific marine mammals from 10 different species from Alaska to California between 2009 and 2011. The elephant seals that were studied had been satellite-tagged and tracked so that researchers could tell where they had been before and after they were tested for disease.

H1N1 was detected in two northern elephant seals within days of their return to land after they went out to sea to forage for a few months. Antibodies to the virus were found in another 28 elephant seals. None of the seals had any signs of illness, which means marine mammals can be infected with zoonotic pathogens but be asymptomatic, the researchers said.

The report recommends that people working with and around marine mammals need to take proper biosafety precautions to prevent exposure to diseases that could be quite harmful in humans, even if they don't cause illness in seals.

The new research on marine mammals is part of an effort to understand emerging viruses in animals and people by the Centers of Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance program, funded by the National Institutes of Health.

"The study of influenza virus infections in unusual hosts, such as elephant seals, is likely to provide us with clues to understand the ability of influenza virus to jump from one host to another and initiate pandemics," Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, a professor of microbiology, said in a statement. Garcia-Sastre directs of the Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine, which collaborated with the team from UC Davis on the study.

Follow Megan Gannon on Twitter and Google+. Follow us @livescience, Facebook and Google+. Original article on LiveScience.com.

Copyright 2013 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

NWO

Pope Francis urges global leaders to end 'tyranny' of money - Telegraph

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Archived Version

Sun, 19 May 2013 09:56

In poorer countries, people's lives were becoming ''undignified'' and marked by violence and desperation, he said.

Francis made the strongly-worded remarks in his first major speech on finance and the economy, during an address to foreign ambassadors in the Vatican.

It underlined a reputation he has established in the last two months for showing deep concern for the plight of the poor and vulnerable.

''The worship of the golden calf of old has found a new and heartless image in the cult of money and the dictatorship of an economy which is faceless and lacking any truly human goal,'' Francis told the ambassadors.

As the leader of the Roman Catholic Church in Argentina, he often spoke out about the plight of the poor during the country's economic crisis.

Unchecked capitalism had created ''a new, invisible, and at times virtual, tyranny'', said the former Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio.

''The Pope loves everyone, rich and poor alike, but the Pope has the duty, in Christ's name, to remind the rich to help the poor, to respect them, to promote them,'' he said.

Francis will make the first foreign trip of his papacy to Brazil in July, during which he will visit a slum in Rio de Janeiro and meet young prison inmates.

He will attend World Youth Day, a week-long event which is expected to attract more than two million people.

Pre-Stream

Kanye West's ''New Slaves'' Calls Out New World Order, Entertainment Biz, Prison Industrial Complex

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Archived Version

Source: WTF RLY REPORT

Sat, 18 May 2013 08:23

| WTF News |

In a guerilla media style production, rapper Kanye West released his new song New Slaves, by projecting a video on the side of 66 buildings worldwide. The method of release is what is making the most news but West more explicitly called attention to the ''New World Order'' in his song.

This might seem strange to some because the illuminati moniker has been associated with him as well as Jay-Z, but others have thought for years that both were covertly against it.

This is the same person that had the courage to state the obvious about the Hurricane Katrina ''rescue'', that ''George Bush does not care about black people'' live on international television. He stunned Mike Myers, the guy that played the unflappable Austin Powers, Dr. Evil and Fat Bastard.

Of course he is still a jerk to most for the Taylor Swift thing but that doesn't mean he is wrong. As he says ''But I'd rather be a dick than a swallower'', he holds the line.

[Verse 1]My mama was raised in an era when/Clean water was only served to the fairer skinDoing clothes you would have thought I had help/But they wouldn't be satisfied unless I picked the cotton myselfYou see its broke nigga racism/That's that ''don't touch anything in the store''And there's rich nigga racism/That's that ''come in and buy more''What you want a Bentley, fur coat and diamond chain?/All you blacks want all the same thingsUsed to only be niggas /Now everybody play meSpending everything on that Alexander Wang/New Slaves

[Hook]You see it's leaders and it's followers/But I'd rather be a dick than a swallowerYou see it's leaders and it's followers/But I'd rather be a dick than a swallower

[Verse 2]I throw these Maybach keys/I wear my heart on my sleeveI know that we the new slaves/I see the blood on the leavesI see the blood on the leaves/I see the blood on the leavesI know that we the new slaves/I see the blood on the leavesThey throwing hate at me/Want me to stay at easeFuck you and your corporation/Y'all niggas can't control meI know that we the new slaves/I know that we the new slavesI'm about to wild the fuck out/I'm going Bobby BoucherI know that pussy ain't free/You niggas pussy, ain't meY'all throwing contracts at me/You know that niggas can't readThrow him some Maybach keys/Fuck it, c'est la vieI know that we the new slaves/Y'all niggas can't fuck with meY'all niggas can't fuck with Ye/Y'all niggas can't fuck with YeI move my family out the country /So you can't see where I staySo go and grab the reporters/So I can smash their recordersYeah they confuse us with bullshit/Like the New World OrderMeanwhile the DEA/Teamed up with the CCAThey tryna lock niggas up/They tryna make new slavesSee that's that private-owned prison/Get your piece todayThey prolly all in the Hamptons/Braggin' 'bout they maidFuck you and your Hampton house/I'll fuck your Hampton spouseCame on her Hampton blouse/And in her Hampton mouthY'all 'bout to turn shit up/I'm 'bout to tear shit downI'm 'bout to air shit out/Now what the fuck they gon' say now?

West said quite a lot while only touching a few facets of the corporate prison system taking over the world.

West is also speaking out against the dark side of the music industry which, whatever label one chooses, exists and that extends to Hollywood as well. The entertainment industry is a tool that powerful interest control because it is used to distract the masses from the grind of a working American life. The apathetic and/or or ignorant mental state of the public allows the shadow governments, criminal syndicates and lone wolves to prey on humanity at large and the criminality is defended by the press that does not cover it.

Hopefully this is a statement of disapproval and non-compliance with the New World Order takeover.

CCA refers to Corrections Corporation of America which may play a role in a jail near you soon. Search the internet for the ''Prison Industrial Complex'' to learn more. This is a future that will be a result of the coming economic collapse.There are many articles detailing the litany of cash crops that can be harvested from prisoners. The CIA is a continuous presence in the global drug trade not to mention the corruption in federal and local law enforcement.

For the critics, just don't pretend it doesn't exist.

George Bush Sr

Again.

Kissinger

Cheney

Recently, Joe Bidenat at the Export-Import Bank conference in Washington on April 5, 2013.

If you are completely new, this is ultimately the discussion of a technological class system that rules the world that is almost complete. This system may or may not require the death of a billion or 2 people.

Then there's the big ass granite monument in Georgia that suggests the death of over 6 billion people would be a good thing.

The Georgia Guidestones.

A message consisting of a set of ten guidelines or principles is engraved on the Georgia Guidestones in eight different languages, one language on each face of the four large upright stones. Moving clockwise around the structure from due north, these languages are: English, Spanish, Swahili, Hindi, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese and Russian.

1. Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature.2. Guide reproduction wisely '-- improving fitness and diversity.3. Unite humanity with a living new language.4. Rule passion '-- faith '-- tradition '-- and all things with tempered reason.5. Protect people and nations with fair laws and just courts.6. Let all nations rule internally resolving external disputes in a world court.7. Avoid petty laws and useless officials.8. Balance personal rights with social duties.9. Prize truth '-- beauty '-- love '-- seeking harmony with the infinite.10. Be not a cancer on the earth '-- Leave room for nature '-- Leave room for nature.

Click to zoom

Click to zoom

Wow, that thing must have cost more than many Americans take home in annual salary. That's an expensive joke.

Listen to billionaire Ted Turner discuss depopulation.

VIDEO

Krauthammer on IRS Testimony: 'You've Got to be a Knave or a Fool to Say That and an Idiot to Believe It'

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Sat, 18 May 2013 07:54

MRC TV is an online platform for people to share and view videos, articles and opinions on topics that are important to them -- from news to political issues and rip-roaring humor.

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Rep Mike Kelley DESTROYS IRS Commissioner Steven Miller and gets standing ovation

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Sat, 18 May 2013 07:54

MRC TV is an online platform for people to share and view videos, articles and opinions on topics that are important to them -- from news to political issues and rip-roaring humor.

MRC TV is brought to you by the Media Research Center, a 501(c) 3 nonprofit research and education organization. The MRC is located at: 325 South Patrick Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. For information about the MRC, please visit www.MRC.org.

Copyright (C) 2013, Media Research Center. All Rights Reserved.

Carney: 'This Administration Has a Record on Transparency That Outdoes Any Previous Administration's'

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Fri, 17 May 2013 14:51

MRC TV is an online platform for people to share and view videos, articles and opinions on topics that are important to them -- from news to political issues and rip-roaring humor.

MRC TV is brought to you by the Media Research Center, a 501(c) 3 nonprofit research and education organization. The MRC is located at: 325 South Patrick Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. For information about the MRC, please visit www.MRC.org.

Copyright (C) 2013, Media Research Center. All Rights Reserved.

NBC Touts Obama 'Trying to Move Past' Scandals, Believing It's 'Just A Blip'

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Fri, 17 May 2013 14:50

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On Friday's NBC Today, co-host Matt Lauer described how President Obama was "trying to move past" the scandals plaguing his administration. In the report that followed, chief White House correspondent Chuck Todd began by parroting the President's attempts to downplay the political firestorm: "Aides say the President's keeping things in perspective and believes this is just a blip, he'll bounce back."

After playing clips of Obama's Thursday news conference, including Reuters reporter Jeff Mason asking about comparisons to Nixon, Todd promoted more White House spin: "In the end, aides say Mr. Obama does not feel under siege this week. The New York Times reporting the President has 'talked longingly of going Bulworth,' referencing the movie featuring Warren Beatty as a senator who suddenly decides to speak his mind whatever the political cost."

More in the cross-post on the MRC's NewsBusters blog.

ABC Lectures: 'Real Concern' GOP May Be 'Overplaying Their Hand' on IRS

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Fri, 17 May 2013 11:42

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The reporters at Good Morning America on Friday continued White House damage control efforts on the growing scandal involving the Internal Revenue Service targeting conservative groups. Former Democratic operative turned journalist George Stephanopoulos insisted that Barack Obama is "trying to turn the corner after a tough week fending off controversy." Talking to Jon Karl, he wondered, "Are some of [the GOP] leaders worried that some of the Republicans may be overplaying their hand?" Karl lectured, "There's real concern about this.

Video cross-posted at NewsBusters.

Chris Matthews: 10-20 Percent Of America Don't Support Obama Because They Believe 'White Race Must Rule'

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Thu, 16 May 2013 17:19

MRC TV is an online platform for people to share and view videos, articles and opinions on topics that are important to them -- from news to political issues and rip-roaring humor.

MRC TV is brought to you by the Media Research Center, a 501(c) 3 nonprofit research and education organization. The MRC is located at: 325 South Patrick Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. For information about the MRC, please visit www.MRC.org.

Copyright (C) 2013, Media Research Center. All Rights Reserved.

'Morning Joe' Panel Ready to Forgive and Forget Obama Administration Scandals

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Thu, 16 May 2013 17:14

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A day after MSNBC's Morning Joe panel criticized President Obama for his lack of transparency on the three scandals plaguing his administration, the panel kicked off their Thursday show by heaping praise on the president for yesterday's news conference.

Russia Outs CIA Moscow Station Chief

Is Video Of The Current Mayor Of Toronto Smoking Crack Cocaine Worth $200,000 Dollars?

Boston Bombing Suspect Wrote Note Explaining Motive While Hiding In Boat

VIDEO-Hacktivist targets Marathon bombing conspiracy theorists - Boston News, Weather, Sports | FOX 25 | MyFoxBoston

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Sun, 19 May 2013 09:09

BOSTON (MyFoxBoston.com) -- A self-described hacktivist is pushing to stop a web-based movement claiming the Boston Marathon bombings were a government conspiracy.

The person known only as "Jester" communicated with FOX 25's Ted Daniel via a secure private chat service Wednesday. Jester says over the last few weeks, he's been targeting people he believes are trying to capitalize on the Marathon tragedy.

Jester has published the name, phone number, and address of the person he blames for a doctored image of bombing victim Martin Richard that made the rounds on Twitter.

The computer vigilante also launched a denial of service attacks on websites belonging to people associated with movements that claim the bombings are a government conspiracy. One of those sites has still not recovered.

"Since the Boston bombing, I have seen some really offensive stuff happening online," says Jester.

As for the right to free speech, the self-described professional pitier of fools says, "I would describe my actions as necessary. Some say I am against Freedom of Speech, but this is not the case. I fully support Freedom of Speech. The First Amendment protects us against government infringing on our speech rights, it doesn't apply to citizens."

Three people, including 8-year-old Martin Richard, were killed and over 260 others were injured in the April 15 bombings near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. One suspect in the bombings, 26-year-old Tamerlan Tsarnaev died days later following a shoot out with police and after being hit by a car reportedly driven by his teenage brother. The men are also accused of fatally shooting MIT officer Sean Collier.

Dzhokhar Tsarnaev remains in custody at FMC Devens. A social media movement calling for Tsarnaev's release was created shortly after his April 19 arrest.

Price Of Gold Slips Below $1,400 Dollars

TO ME This Sounds Like Authorities Tortured Boston Bombing Suspect To Get An Admission Of Guilt

Russian Speaking Truck Driver Charged With Teaching People To Build Bombs In Idaho

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