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Federal Register | African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 01:00

Proclamation 8992 of May 31, 2013

A ProclamationSince our Nation's founding, people from every walk of life have set out to capture the American experience not just in poetry or prose, but also in the timeless quality of song. When the outcome of a revolution hung in the balance, drums and fifes filled brave patriots with the strength to carry on. When slavery kept millions in bondage, spirituals gave voice to a dream of true and lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national conversation, bringing us together and reminding us of the humanity we share.

African Americans have always had a hand in shaping the American sound. From gospel and Motown to bebop and blues, their story is bound up in the music they made'--songs of hurt and hardship, yearning and hope, and struggle for a better day. Those feelings speak to something common in all of us. With passion and creativity, African-American performers have done more than reinvent the musical styles they helped define; they have channeled their music into making change and advancing justice, from radio booths to the stage to our city streets.

That story is still unfolding today. We see it in the young poet putting his words to a beat; the conservatory student perfecting her technique; the jazz musician making old melodies new again. During African-American Music Appreciation Month, let us celebrate these artists and the generations who inspired them, and let us reflect on our heritage as a Nation forever enriched by the power of song.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2013 as African-American Music Appreciation Month. I call upon public officials, educators, and all the people of the United States to observe this month with appropriate activities and programs that raise awareness and foster appreciation of music that is composed, arranged, or performed by African Americans.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirty-first day of May, in the year of our Lord two thousand thirteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh.

[FR Doc. 2013-13643Filed 6-5-13; 11:15 am]

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Ray McGovern's Bio

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 16:19

Dear Web Site Friends,

Please pardon the formal tone of what follows. I had toprepare a bio for an upcoming speaking engagement, soI thought I would MIRV what I came up with. (MIRV:Multiple Independently Targetable Re-Entry Vehicle). I'llfix it up later.

Ray McGovern leads the ''Speaking Truth to Power''section of Tell the Word, an expression of the ecumenicalChurch of the Saviour in inner-city Washington. He alsoteaches at its Servant Leadership School.

Ray came from his native New York to Washington in theearly Sixties as an Army infantry/intelligence officer andthen served as a CIA analyst from the administration ofJohn F. Kennedy to that of George H. W. Bush. Ray'sduties included chairing National Intelligence Estimatesand preparing the President's Daily Brief, which hebriefed one-on-one to President Ronald Reagan's mostsenior national security advisers from 1981 to 1985.

In January 2003, Ray helped create Veteran IntelligenceProfessionals for Sanity (VIPS) to expose the wayintelligence was being falsified to ''justify'' war on Iraq. Onthe afternoon of the day (Feb. 5, 2003) Secretary of StateColin Powell misled the UN Security Council on Iraq,VIPS sent an urgent memorandum to President GeorgeW. Bush, in which we gave Powell a C minus for content.We ended the memo with this:

''No one has a corner on the truth; nor do we harbor illusions that our analysis is irrefutable or undeniable [as Powell had claimed]. But after watching Secretary Powell today, we are convinced that you would be well served if you widened the discussion beyond '... the circle of those advisers clearly bent on a war for which we see no compelling reason and from which we believe the unintended consequences are likely to be catastrophic.''

Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Jay Rockefeller, after a five-year study by his committee, described the intelligence used to ''justify'' war on Iraq as ''unsubstantiated, contradicted, or even non-existent.''

As an act of conscience, on March 2, 2006 Ray returned the Intelligence Commendation Medallion given him at retirement for ''especially meritorious service,'' explaining, ''I do not want to be associated, however remotely, with an agency engaged in torture.'' He returned it to Rep. Peter Hoekstra (R, Michigan), then-House Intelligence Committee Chairman.

Hoekstra then added to the Intelligence Authorization Act for FY'07 (HR5020) a provision that could have enabled the government to strip intelligence veterans of their government pensions. HR5020 passed the full House, but Congress opted instead for a continuing resolution. Thus, Ray was spared from having to go back to driving part-time for Red Top Cab.

On May 4, 2006, in Atlanta, Ray made national news by confronting Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on live TV with pointed questions like: ''Why did you lie to get us into a war that was not necessary and that has caused these kinds of casualties?'' (The impromptu, four-minute mini-debate that followed is still receiving hits on You Tube.)

Ray's opinion pieces have appeared in many leading newspapers here and abroad. His website writings are posted first on consortiumnews.com, and are usually carried on other websites as well. He has debated at the Oxford Forum and appeared on Charlie Rose, The Newshour, CNN, and numerous other TV & radio programs and documentaries. Ray has lectured to a wide variety of audiences here and abroad.

Ray studied theology and philosophy (as well as his major, Russian) at Fordham University, from which he holds two degrees. He also holds a Certificate in Theological Studies from Georgetown University. A Catholic, Mr. McGovern has been worshipping for over a decade with the ecumenical Church of the Saviour and teaching at its Servant Leadership School. He was co-director of the school from 1998 to 2004.

He has been invited to lecture at various interfaith and ecumenical events, and has given the sermon at a number of Christian churches and Jewish synagogues. He is particularly fond of the ''substitute teaching'' he has been invited to do at universities and colleges.

Fluent in Russian, German, and Spanish, Ray holds an M.A. in Russian from Fordham University and a Certificate in Theological Studies from Georgetown. He is also a graduate of Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program. He and his wife have been married for 50 years; they have five children and eight grandchildren.

Ray on 9.18.11 before a talk in Charlottesville, VA

Doubting Obama's Resolve to Do Right | Consortiumnews

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 09:10

Exclusive: In his counterterrorism speech, President Obama ruminated about the moral and legal dilemma of balancing the safety of the American people against the use of targeted killings abroad. But Obama's handwringing did not sit well with some critics including ex-CIA analyst Ray McGovern.

By Ray McGovern

An article in the Washington Post on July 6, 2010, reported me standing before the White House, announcing a new epithet for President Barack Obama: ''Wuss '' a person who will not stand up for what he knows is right.''

The report is correct '' and so, I believe, is the epithet. And after the sleight-of-tongue speech given by the President of the United States at the National Defense University on May 23, I feel I can rest my case. (Caution: my wife insists that I mention at the outset that I've been angry since I listened to the speech.)

President Barack Obama participates in a Memorial Day wreath laying at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, May 27, 2013. (Official White House Photo by Lawrence Jackson)

The day after Obama's speech I found myself struck by Scott Wilson's article on the front page of the Post, in which he highlighted the ''unusual ambivalence from a commander-in-chief over the morality of his administration's counterterrorism policies.''

And someone at the Post also had the courage that day to insert into a more reportorial article by Karen DeYoung and Greg Miller a hitting-the-nail-right-on-the-head quote from Benjamin Wittes, a senior fellow at Brookings: ''To put it crassly, the President sought to rebuke his own administration for taking the positions it has '' but also to make sure that it could continue to do so.''

Call me na¯ve for putting the wish before the thought, but two days later my hopes zoomed when I saw that page A5 of the Post was dominated by a long article by Glenn Kessler, the Post's normally soporific ''fact checker.'' After the first seven words of the banner headline '' ''Red herrings, dissemblance and misleading statements '...'' '' Kessler had me, so to speak.

You will understand my disappointment, then, when I read the rest of the headline: '''... from the IRS's Lerner,'' not from Obama.

And so I read Obama's speech again, initially with the thought of doing Kessler's job for him. But the lies, half-truths and pettifoggery are legion and the task truly Herculean. Besides, many readers will decipher Obama's new ''transparency'' as transparently self-serving, without any help from me.

Hooray! Obama 'Gets It'

Some progressive pundits have noted, correctly, that Obama's speech shows that he does ''get it'' when it comes to the many constitutional problems with his preferred violent approach to meeting external threats and his infringement on civil rights at home.

But it seems to me that this now-open sensitivity-to-the-problem is to be applauded ONLY if he also summons the courage to change course. One gets the idea from Obama's words that he may indeed wish to, IF only this, or IF only that. '... Have we not tired of applauding Obama in the subjunctive mood? I certainly have.

He has now been unusually candid about the dilemmas he faces. But lacking is any real sign '' there is just hope '' that he will change character. From his speech we know that he understands he needs to change course in order to discharge his duty to ''take care that the laws be faithfully executed.''

But I, for one, see little basis for hope that he will go beyond the carefully crafted all-things-to-all-people rhetoric in his speech. In my view, this makes him even more culpable '' an even more transparent flouter of his oath to defend the Constitution.

Ah, but what about the oft-expressed hope that Obama will be freer to act more responsibly in his second term? The four months we have witnessed thus far in his second term bring to mind Samuel Johnson's quip that a second marriage is ''the triumph of hope over experience.''

We have had four years and four months of experience with Obama. Those of us who care about the Constitution and rule of law now need to be guided by experience and to stop cutting him still more slack.

Presidential Whining

The whiny tone of Obama's speech offended me as much as his faux transparency and disingenuous words. I asked myself, are we supposed to find reassurance that, while our President is a wimp, he is an empathetic one?; that from time to time he experiences a pang or two of conscience when ordering people killed by drone?; that he claims that being responsible for the deaths of innocent civilians will haunt him for as long as he lives? Can we feel his pain?

''I have taken an oath to defend the Constitution of the United States,'' the President reminded us. ''I do not believe it would be constitutional for the government to target and kill any U.S. citizen '' with a drone or a shotgun '' without due process,'' says he '' the day after the Attorney General admitted that this is precisely what happened to New Mexico-born Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki.

Could it be that the commander-in-chief has a trace of PTSD? He seems to be appealing for our understanding about how conflicted he is about ordering people killed, entreating us to imagine his anguish, to appreciate how hard it is for him '' a constitutional lawyer, no less '' to do these terrible things anyway.

And then the kicker: ''Remember,'' he adds, ''that the terrorists we are after target civilians.'' (Whatever happened to the ''But we are better than that.'')

On Guantanamo, Obama expressed regret over how the prison ''has become a symbol around the world for an America that flouts the rule of law'' (and in the very next sentence trivializes this, lamenting only that ''our allies won't cooperate with us if they think a terrorist will end up at GTMO).''

Again regarding Guantanamo, he asks, ''Is that who we are? '... Is that the America we want to leave to our children?'' And he notes disapprovingly that ''we are force-feeding detainees who are holding a hunger strike.''

And so I keep asking myself, who is this ''we?'' Does the President style himself as some sort of extraterrestrial creature looking from afar on the abomination of Guantanamo? Has he forfeited his role as the leader of ''we?'' What kind of leadership is this, anyway?

History of Leadership

In a speech on March 21, second-term Obama gave us a big clue regarding his concept of leadership '' one that is marked primarily by political risk-avoidance and a penchant for ''leading from behind'': ''Speaking as a politician, I can promise you this: political leaders will not take risks if the people do not demand that they do. You must create the change that you want to see.''

John Kennedy was willing to take huge risks in reaching out to the USSR and ending the war in Vietnam. That willingness to take risks may have gotten him assassinated, as James Douglass argues in his masterful JFK and the Unspeakable.

Martin Luther King, Jr., also took great risks and met the same end. There is more than just surmise that this weighs heavily on Barack Obama's mind. Last year, pressed by progressive donors at a dinner party to act more like the progressive they thought he was, Obama responded sharply, ''Don't you remember what happened to Dr. King?''

It is not as though Obama had no tutors. He entered Harvard Law School 113 years after one of its most distinguished alumni, Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, began to study there. I find myself wondering if Brandeis has been redacted out of the lectures at Harvard Law.

Slick lawyers have done an effective job over the past dozen years trying, in effect, to render one of Brandeis's most penetrating remarks ''quaint'' and ''obsolete.'' Following is a paragraph, acutely relevant to today's circumstances; Brandeis wrote it to warn us all about how the government sets a key example on respect for the law:

''The government is the potent omnipresent teacher. For good or ill it teaches the whole people by its example. Crime is contagious. If the government becomes a lawbreaker, it breeds contempt for law; it invites every man to become a law unto himself; it invites anarchy. To declare that the end justifies the means '-- to declare that the government may commit crimes '-- would bring terrible retribution.''

Protesting Too Much

Let me provide a couple of examples from Obama's speech that illustrate the value of Brandeis's warning:

One could easily infer that the President is protesting too much (four times in the speech) in claiming that his ''preference'' is to capture terrorists rather than kill them. Clearly, though, Obama has made targeted killing his tactic of choice. What do former insiders say? The lawyer who drew up the initial White House policy on lethal drone strikes has accused the Obama administration of overusing them because of its reluctance to capture prisoners. Holding prisoners is such a nuisance.

John Bellinger, who was a lawyer on George W. Bush's National Security Council and worked on the legal framework for both detention of suspected terrorists and targeted drone killings, said on May 1 at the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington: ''This government has decided that instead of detaining members of al-Qaida, they are going to kill them.''

It should be noted that Bellinger is not opposed to targeted killings and argues that they are not only lawful but ''can be good.'' He said the big issue was not the administration's claimed legality of targeted killings but rather international acceptance of Washington's so-called global war on terrorism:

''The issue really here '... is that there is a fundamental disagreement around the world, which I experienced when I was the legal adviser, as to whether the United States really is in a war at all. And we are about the only country in the world that really thinks that we are in an armed conflict with al-Qaida.''

But Obama said, four times, that his preference is capture over killing. Someone is not telling the truth.

Here's how Spencer Ackerman posed the question in a recent piece for Wired: ''Obama turned more than a few heads by declaring his 'strong preference' for 'the detention and prosecution of terrorists' over sending an armed robot to end their lives. It's hard to know what to make of that. The simplest interpretation is that it's a lie. Whatever Obama's preferences are, he has killed exponentially more people than he has detained and prosecuted.''

Guantanamo Prison

Over 100 hunger strikers in the Guantanamo prison are being force-fed to prevent them from the only method of release they see open to them '' death. In this part of his speech, too, Obama keeps giving a bad name to hypocrisy. His handwringing sounds as though he were some kind of liberal pundit on MSNBC; as though he were powerless to do anything; as though his hands are tied by Congress. He said:

''Look at the current situation, where we are force-feeding detainees'... . Is that who we are? Is that something that our Founders foresaw? Is that the America we want to leave to our children.''

Interrupting Obama, Code Pink's Medea Benjamin appealed to the President to ''release those 86 prisoners'' (more than half of the 166 prisoners still held at Guantanamo) already cleared for release. On Jan. 22, 2010, those 86 were pronounced cleared after a year-long investigation of their individual cases by an interagency task force of officials at the Departments of State, Defense, Justice, Homeland Security and others.

But Congress has tied the President's hands, you may be thinking. Congress, to be sure, has posed legal obstacles, but is not the only fly in the ointment. Congress has also given Obama considerable leeway; but he has not had the courage to take advantage of it. One of Congress's most powerful members, Sen. Carl Levin, Chair of the Armed Services Committee, sent the White House a letter on May 6 reminding the President that, thanks to the efforts of Levin and others, Obama can release the 86 without further delay.

In other words, Medea Benjamin was right, though you would never know it from the mainstream media. Referring to congressional restrictions on detainee transfers, Levin reminded Obama: ''I successfully fought for a national security waiver that provides a clear route for transfer of detainees to third countries in appropriate cases; i.e., to make sure the certification requirements do not constitute an effective prohibition.''

Moreover, Obama did say that he will lift the restrictions he himself imposed on sending detainees to Yemen. After Obama's speech, attorney Michael Ratner, President Emeritus of the Center for Constitutional Rights, told Paul Jay of the Real News Network:

''All that has to happen is for the President to certify, as he is required to do by law, and send the detainees to Yemen. But then he [the President] says, ''I'm going to do this on a case-by-case basis. They have already been cleared on a case-by-case basis. So Obama is going to go back through it?

''The proof will be in the pudding even on Yemen. Will he actually do it? How slowly will he do it? You know, what he should actually do is just do it and get it done and then move on to the next thing. So we'll have to see'...''

Summing Up: An Epochal Speech

Benjamin Wittes of Brookings (quoted above) is hardly alone in characterizing Obama's May 23 speech as a rebuke to his own administration for taking the positions it has and then a defense of its intention to continue to do so.

Here's what Norman Pollack had to say about all this, in an article he titled ''Obama's Militarism-Imperialism Lite'':

''A tissue of lies? No, the whole Kleenex box '' one tissue interleaved with all the others. Obama is fortunate to be presiding over a country steeped in false consciousness on essentials (war, sacrifice of the social safety net for the glories of militarism, and '... authoritarian submission, a political-cultural disposition to strong leadership reinforced by appeals to patriotism and pressures toward conformity). '...

''His May 23rd address therefore fell on receptive national ears, a desperate will to believe that immorality is moral, illegality, legal, and war, the necessary defense of Homeland in its centuries'-old quest for peace, honor, the rule of law. How comforting!

''Liberals and progressives especially have taken heart in POTUS's rhetoric that a new day in American foreign policy is dawning '-- has already dawned, by the simple fact of self-declaration that the United States is always bound by the constraints of the rule of law. '... All else is enemy propaganda.

''With that as background (and a solid phalanx of flags as his backdrop) Obama spoke with becoming assurance '-- to me, arrogance '-- as the leader of the Enlightened World in its struggle against the forces of ignorance, darkness, covetousness, wholly oblivious to America's moral sense and good intentions. Such a masterful speech (as judged by the New York Times and mainstream media opinion) deserves a closer look '-- but not too close, lest the luster wear off.''

My gratitude to those who have read down this far. And my apologies for not coming across Pollack's article earlier. It's pretty much what I wanted to say all along; and he says it better '' and shorter.

Ray McGovern works with Tell the Word, a publishing arm of the ecumenical Church of the Saviour in inner-city Washington. A former CIA analyst, he has been dissecting speeches of foreign leaders for 50 years, and of American presidents for the past 12. He is co-founder of Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity (VIPS).

Tags:Barack Obama, Drone Wars, George W. Bush, Global War on Terror, Ray McGovern

Obama told friends he reneged on progressive promises out of fear of MLK's fate -- former CIA analyst says

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 09:07

Obama has abandoned progressive principles, such as stopping drone attacks and shutting down Guantanamo, because he is afraid of being assassinated, telling friends, "Don't you remember what happened to Martin Luther King Jr.?" retired CIA analyst Ray McGovern said today.

He's afraid of what happened to Martin Luther King Jr. And I know from a good friend who was there when it happened, that at a small dinner with progressive supporters '' after these progressive supporters were banging on Obama before the election, Why don't you do the things we thought you stood for? Obama turned sharply and said, "Don't you remember what happened to Martin Luther King Jr.?" That's a quote, and that's a very revealing quote.

McGovern spoke on WBAI's show Law and Disorder this morning. He was talking about his recent article calling Obama "a wuss" and speculated that Obama had also placed John Brennan as head of the CIA out of fear that the CIA might turn on him, as it had on John Kennedy.

I'm pretty convinced the President of the United States is afraid of the CIA. That's why he got John Brennan in place. He thinks John Brennan owes more personal loyalty to him than all those other thugs out there who did the torture and so forth. That's a questionable thing. But Obama thinks that. And that's why he fought so hard so that Brennan would be in place.

During his CIA career, Ray McGovern prepared daily briefings for the president and chaired the National Intelligence Estimates. He is now a leading antiwar activist.

The crucial segment of the interview begins at about 48 minutes. Hosts Michael Smith and Michael Ratner, both lawyers with long careers in civil and human rights, ask McGovern about the Obama drones speech. McGovern marveled that the Senate granted to Obama "the power to release 86 prisoners" from Guantanamo. "Why doesn't he do that?" He could release them ''at the snap of his finger.''

Ratner then said, "I represent Guantanamo people. I thought the biggest lie in the speech was'--'I have tried to close Guantanamo.'" There are half a dozen ways in which Obama "has actually sabotaged the closing of Guantanamo. Straight lie."

McGovern responded:

Which leads to the question, why would he do all these things? Why would he be afraid for example, to take the drones away from the CIA? Well, I've come to the conclusion that he's afraid. Number one, he's afraid of what happened to Martin Luther King Jr. And I know from a good friend who was there when it happened, that at a small dinner with progressive supporters '' after these progressive supporters were banging on Obama before the election, "Why don't you do the things we thought you stood for?" Obama turned sharply and said, "Don't you remember what happened to Martin Luther King Jr.?" That's a quote, and that's a very revealing quote.

The other thing is, I've always been kind of shocked that when he came into office, not only did he not prosecute the torturers, the kidnapers, the people with the black [unintelligible], even the people who violated our Fourth Amendment rights, but he left them all in place. I suspected at the time, now I'm pretty convinced the president of the United States is afraid of the CIA. That's why he got John Brennan in place. He thinks John Brennan owes more personal loyalty to him than all those other thugs out there who did the torture and so forth. That's a questionable thing. But Obama thinks that. And that's why he fought so hard so that Brennan would be in place.

Now does he have any reason to fear the CIA? Well he sure as heck does. For those of your listeners who have not read James Douglass's JFK and the Unspeakable, you need to read that, because it's coming up on 50 years. The mystery has not been solved in the mainstream press. After reading James Douglass, who took advantage of all the previous studies, plus all the more recent information released by Congress, I'm convinced that John Kennedy was assassinated largely by Allan Dulles whom he cashiered as the head of the CIA after the Bay of Pigs, and a coterie of joint chiefs of staff, FBI, even some Secret Service folks who thought that JFK was being soft on Communism by back channel communications with Krushchev, that he was playing games with Fidel Castro'...to repair the relationship, and worst of all he was giving Southeast Asia to the Communists. Now is there evidence for this? There sure as heck is. John Kennedy signed two executive orders just a month or so before he was killed. One of them said we're pulling out 1000 troops out of South Vietnam by the end of the year, the year being 1963. The other said we're going to pull out the bulk of the troops by 1965, we're finished in Vietnam. That's a matter of record. Was that a unanimous decision? Well if you say the president makes a one person decision, you know it's unanimous. Everybody else thought he was crazy, especially the joint chiefs of staff.

So you need to read this book, and then you need to reflect on Obama. If he is sort of a wuss or a wimp or a person who just has no real principles but is rather a politician through and through-- and he's got two small kids and he doesn't want to get killed. I have to say I never thought I would hear myself saying this, but it is the only logical explanation for why he is so afraid, unless you say the man is a through and through charlatan, that he actually is acting on behalf of these forces of darkness. I don't believe the latter. I think he's just afraid and he shouldn't have run for president if he was going to be this much of a wuss.

Host Michael Smith, who's read the Douglass book and found it convincing, agreed with McGovern. Ratner demurred somewhat. "I just think Obama is an accommodator. He's shown that from the very beginning. The guy is just an incredible accommodator." Smith said he doesn't see McGovern's idea and Ratner's as contradictory.

Smith and Ratner interviewed James Douglass here.

In his Article about Obama he writes how he believes the CIA is sending hecklers to show just how close they can get to him

This goes against our original theory of heckling

Does confirm our CIA runs everythig theory

CIA also hate any other intel org, including NSA

Now we get to PRISM

This is a hit, on the adnministration and the NSA

But it is ALSO distracting us from the REAL program of surveillance and the true BAD ACTOR

We ALL know about Google's NSA program

2010 The Google-NSA Alliance: Questions and Answers | PCWorld

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Archived Version

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 22:42

Google's facing a gaggle of questions over reports that it's working with the National Security Agency. According to a story first published by The Washington Post on Thursday, Google's enlisting the help of the NSA to better secure its electronic assets. The partnership is reportedly a response to the recent attack on Google's networks -- you know, the one that led to the whole "we're leaving China" debacle.

The news, not surprisingly, is generating a wave of reaction on the Web: Is this normal? Is our information still secure? Is Google really evil after all? And has the NSA been writing those crazy Google interview questions all along?

I'll leave those last two in your hands to decide. As for the rest, I spent some time sifting through the facts to find some answers.

Is the Google-NSA alliance really happening?On the record, no one is saying much. The original story in The Post cites "sources with knowledge of the arrangement " for its information. A follow-up story by The New York Times refers to details provided by "a person with direct knowledge of the agreement."

An NSA spokesperson told me the following:

"NSA is not able to comment on specific relationships we may or may not have with U.S. companies. We can say as a general matter, however, that ... [the] NSA works with a broad range of commercial partners and research associates."

A Google spokesperson also declined to comment specifically on the claims, though he did point to the company's original blog posting about the cyberattacks. The blog states that Google is "working with the relevant U.S. authorities."

What would be the point of a Google-NSA partnership?In theory, the NSA could help Google defend its systems (and thus your information) from future attacks. The newspapers' reports describe the arrangement as providing a kind of "technical assistance" that'd allow Google to better understand who breached its network and how they managed to pull it off.

Would the government gain access to my personal information?Thus far, most signs point to no. Sources from both The Post and The Times say Google would not share user search data or e-mail information as part of the NSA partnership.

Why would Google work with the NSA instead of the Department of Homeland Security?This is an interesting point: The Department of Homeland Security apparently has the legal authority to investigate criminal acts in America, while the NSA does not. The report in The New York Times suggests this distinction shows Google is trying to "avoid having its search engine, e-mail and other Web services regulated as part of the nation's 'critical infrastructure.'"

Has the NSA worked with Google before?According to the anonymous sources, this would mark the first time Google has teamed up with the NSA for any type of "formal information-sharing relationship."

What about the NSA and other tech companies?Back in 2006, reports suggested that the NSA used information provided by AT&T to secretly build detailed records of phone calls made by tens of millions of Americans.

"The NSA program reaches into homes and businesses across the nation by amassing information about the calls of ordinary Americans, most of whom aren't suspected of any crime," USA Todayreported at the time. "The spy agency is using the data to analyze calling patterns in an effort to detect terrorist activity."

So is there cause for concern now?Both sources who provided the Google-NSA information say this arrangement isn't about sharing user data, but rather analyzing Google's networks and the apparent weaknesses that were exploited. Google would more likely be sharing details about the attacks and the malicious code that was detected, the sources say.

Still, privacy advocates are expressing concern. The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) has filed a Freedom of Information Act request with the NSA to try to obtain records about the organization's relationship with Google.

"We would like to see Google develop stronger security standards and safeguards for protecting themselves," EPIC Executive Director Marc Rotenberg told PCWorld sister publication Computerworld. "But everyone knows the NSA has two missions. One is to ensure security and the other is to enable surveillance."

Where can I read more?Since neither Google nor the NSA is formally acknowledging any partnership as of now, official information is tough to come by. You can, however, read Google's original blog post about the attacks and its relationship with China. You can also check out the NSA's Information Assurance Web site, which talks about the agency's focus on protecting information systems.

JR Raphael is a PCWorld contributing editor and the co-founder of eSarcasm. He's on Facebook: facebook.com/The.JR.Raphael

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Court Upholds Google-NSA Relationship Secrecy | Threat Level | Wired.com

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Archived Version

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 22:39

A federal appeals court on Friday upheld the National Security Agency's decision to withhold from the public documents confirming or denying any relationship it has with Google concerning encryption and cybersecurity.

That's despite the fact that Google itself admitted it turned to ''U.S. authorities,'' which obviously includes the NSA, after the search giant's Chinese operation was deeply hacked. Former NSA chief Mike McConnell told the Washington Post that collaboration between the NSA and private companies like Google was ''inevitable.''

The Electronic Privacy Information Center, invoking the Freedom of Information Act, had sought such documents following the January 2010 cyberattack on Google that targeted the Gmail accounts of Chinese human rights activists. The attack was among the considerations that prompted Google to consider abandoning China, and Google announced that it was ''working with the relevant U.S. authorities.''

The Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post followed up, saying Google had contacted the NSA following the attack.

EPIC sought documents seeking to know what type of collaboration there was between Google and the NSA and, among other things, records of communication between the NSA and Google concerning Google's e-mail service Gmail.

In response, the NSA invoked a so-called ''Glomar'' response, in which the agency neither confirmed nor denied the existence of records on the topic at all. EPIC sued and lost in the lower courts.

On appeal, the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit sided with the NSA's conclusion that admitting the existence of relevant documents would harm national security (.pdf).

Judge Janice Rogers Brown, in a 3-0 opinion, sided with the government's contention that acknowledging any records ''might reveal whether the NSA investigated the threat,'' or ''deemed the threat a concern to the security of the U.S. government.''

If we removed all the legalese, the appellate court upheld the government's often-said contention that, ''if we told you, we'd have to kill you.''

Photo: DonkeyHotey/Flickr

And about Facebook's InQTel VC funding and the TIME magazine where Mueller just 'pops' in

Mark Zuckerberg - Person of the Year 2010 - TIME

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Archived Version

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 01:05

The door opened, and a distinguished-looking gray-haired man burst in '-- it's the only way to describe his entrance '-- trailed by a couple of deputies. He was both the oldest person in the room by 20 years and the only one wearing a suit. He was in the building, he explained with the delighted air of a man about to secure ironclad bragging rights forever, and he just had to stop in and introduce himself to Zuckerberg: Robert Mueller, director of the FBI, pleased to meet you.

By Lev GrossmanWednesday, Dec. 15, 2010

Martin Schoeller for TIMEOn the afternoon of Nov. 16, 2010, Mark Zuckerberg was leading a meeting in the Aquarium, one of Facebook's conference rooms, so named because it's in the middle of a huge work space and has glass walls on three sides so everybody can see in. Conference rooms are a big deal at Facebook because they're the only places anybody has any privacy at all, even the bare minimum of privacy the Aquarium gets you. Otherwise the space is open plan: no cubicles, no offices, no walls, just a rolling tundra of office furniture. Sheryl Sandberg, Facebook's COO, who used to be Lawrence Summers' chief of staff at the Treasury Department, doesn't have an office. Zuckerberg, Facebook's CEO and co-founder and presiding visionary, doesn't have an office.

The team was going over the launch of Facebook's revamped Messages service, which had happened the day before and gone off without a hitch or rather without more than the usual number of hitches. Zuckerberg kept the meeting on track, pushing briskly through his points '-- no notes or whiteboard, just talking with his hands '-- but the tone was relaxed. Much has been made of Zuckerberg's legendarily awkward social manner, but in a room like this, he's the Silicon Valley equivalent of George Plimpton. He bantered with Andrew "Boz" Bosworth, a director of engineering who ran the project. (Boz was Zuckerberg's instructor in a course on artificial intelligence when they were at Harvard. He says his future boss didn't do very well. Though, in fairness, Zuckerberg did invent Facebook that semester.) Apart from a journalist sitting in the corner, no one in the room looked over 30, and apart from the journalist's public relations escort, it was boys only. (See pictures of Mark Zuckerberg's inner circle.)

The door opened, and a distinguished-looking gray-haired man burst in '-- it's the only way to describe his entrance '-- trailed by a couple of deputies. He was both the oldest person in the room by 20 years and the only one wearing a suit. He was in the building, he explained with the delighted air of a man about to secure ironclad bragging rights forever, and he just had to stop in and introduce himself to Zuckerberg: Robert Mueller, director of the FBI, pleased to meet you.

They shook hands and chatted about nothing for a couple of minutes, and then Mueller left. There was a giddy silence while everybody just looked at one another as if to say, What the hell just happened?

It's a fair question. Almost seven years ago, in February 2004, when Zuckerberg was a 19-year-old sophomore at Harvard, he started a Web service from his dorm. It was called Thefacebook.com, and it was billed as "an online directory that connects people through social networks at colleges." This year, Facebook '-- now minus the the '-- added its 550 millionth member. One out of every dozen people on the planet has a Facebook account. They speak 75 languages and collectively lavish more than 700 billion minutes on Facebook every month. Last month the site accounted for 1 out of 4 American page views. Its membership is currently growing at a rate of about 700,000 people a day. (See a Zuckerberg family photo album.)

What just happened? In less than seven years, Zuckerberg wired together a twelfth of humanity into a single network, thereby creating a social entity almost twice as large as the U.S. If Facebook were a country it would be the third largest, behind only China and India. It started out as a lark, a diversion, but it has turned into something real, something that has changed the way human beings relate to one another on a species-wide scale. We are now running our social lives through a for-profit network that, on paper at least, has made Zuckerberg a billionaire six times over.

Facebook has merged with the social fabric of American life, and not just American but human life: nearly half of all Americans have a Facebook account, but 70% of Facebook users live outside the U.S. It's a permanent fact of our global social reality. We have entered the Facebook age, and Mark Zuckerberg is the man who brought us here. (See pictures of Facebook's overseas offices.)

Zuckerberg is part of the last generation of human beings who will remember life before the Internet, though only just. He was born in 1984 and grew up in Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., the son of a dentist '-- Painless Dr. Z's slogan was, and is, "We cater to cowards." Mark has three sisters, the eldest of whom, Randi, is now Facebook's head of consumer marketing and social-good initiatives. It was a supportive household that produced confident children. The young Mark was "strong-willed and relentless," according to his father Ed. "For some kids, their questions could be answered with a simple yes or no," he says. "For Mark, if he asked for something, yes by itself would work, but no required much more. If you were going to say no to him, you had better be prepared with a strong argument backed by facts, experiences, logic, reasons. We envisioned him becoming a lawyer one day, with a near 100% success rate of convincing juries."

Learn more about the extended version of this article, available exclusively on Amazon Kindle.

Picture yourself as TIME's Person of the Year. Create and share your TIME Person of the Year cover.

NextOnly Connect

So NO surprises, but they are all freaked out and are PROTESTING the accusations

But I believe the true PRSIM OPS are NOT on the list of companies

Lets face it, NSA needs some new powerpoint skills

Interesting to note Apple was 'added' to the program 6 months after Steve Jobs died

We get a lot of stuff from Alphabet Agencies, NSA challenge coins etc. Never anything THIS GOOD

Why Glenn Greenwald? Who is he, lets follow him

Glenn Greenwald - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Archived Version

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 22:12

Glenn Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American political journalist, lawyer, columnist, blogger, and author. He has been a columnist for the US edition of The Guardian since August 2012.[1][2] Prior to that he was a columnist for Salon.com and an occasional contributor to The Guardian.[3][4][5]

Greenwald worked as a constitutional and civil rights litigator before becoming a contributor (columnist and blogger) to Salon.com, where he focused on political and legal topics.[6] He has also contributed to other newspapers and political news magazines, including The New York Times,[7][8][9] the Los Angeles Times,[10]The American Conservative,[11]The National Interest,[12] and In These Times.[13][14]

Greenwald has written four books, three of which have been New York Times bestsellers: How Would a Patriot Act? (2006); A Tragic Legacy (2007), and With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful, released in October 2011. He also wrote Great American Hypocrites (2008).

Greenwald has received awards including the first Izzy Award for independent journalism, in 2009,[15] and the 2010 Online Journalism Award for Best Commentary.[16] Greenwald is a frequent speaker on college campuses, including Harvard Law School, Yale Law School, the University of Pennsylvania, Brown University, UCLA School of Law, the University of Wisconsin, the University of Maryland and others. He also appears on various radio and television programs as a guest political pundit.

Early life[edit]Greenwald was born on March 6, 1967, in Queens, New York City, the son of Arlene and Daniel Greenwald.[17] Shortly after his birth Greenwald moved with his family to South Florida.[6][18] He earned a B.A. from George Washington University in 1990 and a J.D. from New York University Law School in 1994.[6]

Litigation attorney[edit]Greenwald practiced law in the Litigation Department at Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz (1994''1995); in 1996 he co-founded his own litigation firm, called Greenwald Christoph & Holland (later renamed Greenwald Christoph PC), where he litigated cases concerning issues of U.S. constitutional law and civil rights.[6][18] According to Greenwald, "I decided voluntarily to wind down my practice in 2005 because I could, and because, after ten years, I was bored with litigating full-time and wanted to do other things which I thought were more engaging and could make more of an impact, including political writing."[18]

Unclaimed Territory[edit]Greenwald started his blogUnclaimed Territory in October 2005, focusing on the investigation pertaining to the Valerie Plame affair, the CIA leak grand jury investigation, the federal indictment of I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby and the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy. In April 2006, Unclaimed Territory received the 2005 Koufax Award for "Best New Blog".[6]

Salon[edit]In February 2007, Greenwald became a contributing writer at Salon.com, and the new column and blog superseded Unclaimed Territory, though Salon.com prominently features hyperlinks to it in Greenwald's dedicated biographical section.[19][20]

Among the frequent topics of his Salon articles were the investigation of the 2001 anthrax attacks, and the candidacy of former CIA official John O. Brennan for the jobs of either Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) or the next Director of National Intelligence (DNI) after the election of Barack Obama. Brennan withdrew his name from consideration for the post after opposition centered in liberal blogs and led by Greenwald.[21][22][23][23][24][25]

Greenwald's criticism of the conditions in which U.S. Army Private Bradley Manning, the accused WikiLeaks leaker, was being held ultimately led to a formal investigation by the U.N. high official on torture,[26][27] denunciations by Amnesty International,[28] and the resignation of State Department spokesman Philip J. Crowley after he publicly criticized Manning's detention conditions.[29] Since then, Greenwald has been a strong supporter of Manning. He calls Manning "a whistle-blower acting with the noblest of motives", and "a national hero similar to Daniel Ellsberg."[30]

The Guardian[edit]Greenwald left Salon.com on August 20, 2012 for The Guardian, citing "the opportunity to reach a new audience, to further internationalize my readership, and to be re-invigorated by a different environment" as reasons for the move.[31]

Guest appearances[edit]Greenwald has appeared as a 'round table' guest on ABC's Sunday morning news show "This Week", HBO's "Real Time with Bill Maher", Comedy Central's "The Colbert Report", NPR's "All Things Considered", as well as numerous times on C-SPAN's Washington Journal; Pacifica Radio's syndicated series Democracy Now! with Amy Goodman;[32] on Public Radio International's To the Point; MSNBC's Rachel Maddow Show, "Morning Joe", The Last Word with Lawrence O'Donnell, Up with Chris Hayes, and Dylan Ratigan's "Morning Meeting"; Fox News' Special Report with Brit Hume;[33]. Greenwald has been a regular guest on the Hugh Hewitt Show (and was a friend and favorite guest of Hewitt's frequent guest host, Dean Barnett) and on PBS's Bill Moyers Journal.[34][35][36]

Accolades[edit]Greenwald has been placed on numerous 'top 50' and 'top 25' lists of columnists in the United States.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] In June, 2012, Newsweek magazine named him one of America's Top 10 Opinionists, saying that "a righteous, controlled, and razor-sharp fury runs through a great deal" of his writing, and: "His independent persuasion can make him a danger or an asset to both sides of the aisle."[46]

Personal life[edit]Greenwald is gay, and lives most of the time in Rio de Janeiro, the hometown of his Brazilian partner, David Michael Miranda.[18][47][48][49][50] In a profile in Out magazine, Greenwald explained that his residence in Brazil is due to the fact that American law, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), bars the federal recognition of same-sex marriages and thus prevents his partner from obtaining immigration rights in the US.[51]

Greenwald and his partner have 11 dogs, all rescued from the street,[52][53], and he frequently picks up dogs from the street and uses his platforms to find homes for them.[54][55][56]

Greenwald's first book, How Would a Patriot Act? Defending American Values From a President Run Amok, was published by Working Assets in 2006. It was a New York Times bestseller,[57] and ranked #1 on Amazon.com both before its publication (due to pre-orders based on attention from 'UT' readers and other bloggers) and for several days after its release, ending its first week at #293.[58]

A Tragic Legacy, his second book, examines the presidency of George W. Bush "with an emphasis on his personality traits and beliefs that drove the presidency (along with an emphasis on how and why those personality traits have led to a presidency that has failed to historic proportions)."[59] Published in hardback by Crown (a division of Random House) on June 26, 2007 and reprinted in a paperback edition by Three Rivers Press on April 8, 2008, it too was a New York Times Best Seller, also ranking #1 for a day on Amazon.com's Non-Fiction Best Seller List and #2 the next day (also due to heavy "discussions and promotions by blogs'--a campaign catalyzed by Jane Hamsher [at FireDogLake]", according to Greenwald).[60]

His third book, entitled Great American Hypocrites: Toppling the Big Myths of Republican Politics, was published by Random House in April 2008, the same month that Three Rivers Press reissued A Tragic Legacy in paperback.[61][62]

His fourth book, With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful, was released by Metropolitan Books (of Henry Holt and Company) in October 2011.

Political views[edit]Greenwald is critical of actions jointly supported by Democrats and Republicans, writing: "the worst and most tyrannical government actions in Washington are equally supported on a fully bipartisan basis."[63] In the preface to his first book, How Would a Patriot Act? (2006), Greenwald opens with some of his own personal political history, describing his 'pre-political' self as neither liberal nor conservative as a whole, voting neither for George W. Bush nor for any of his rivals (indeed, not voting at all).[64]

Bush's ascendancy to the U.S. Presidency "changed" Greenwald's previous uninvolved political attitude toward the electoral process "completely":

Over the past five years, a creeping extremism has taken hold of our federal government, and it is threatening to radically alter our system of government and who we are as a nation. This extremism is neither conservative nor liberal in nature, but is instead driven by theories of unlimited presidential power that are wholly alien, and antithetical, to the core political values that have governed this country since its founding"; for, "the fact that this seizure of ever-expanding presidential power is largely justified through endless, rank fear-mongering'--fear of terrorists, specifically'--means that not only our system of government is radically changing, but so, too, are our national character, our national identity, and what it means to be American."[64]

Believing that "It is incumbent upon all Americans who believe in that system, bequeathed to us by the founders, to defend it when it is under assault and in jeopardy. And today it is", he stresses: "I did not arrive at these conclusions eagerly or because I was predisposed by any previous partisan viewpoint. Quite the contrary."[64]

Resistant to applying ideological labels to himself, he emphasizes repeatedly that he is a strong advocate for U.S. constitutional "balance of powers"[14] and for constitutionally-protected civil and political rights in his writings and public appearances.[6]

Throughout his work he has relentlessly criticized the policies of the George W. Bushadministration and those who support or enable it, arguing that most of the American "Corporate News Media" excuse Bush's policies and echo administration talking points rather than asking hard questions.[49][32]

Regarding civil liberties in the age of Obama, he elaborated on his conception of change when he said, "I think the only means of true political change will come from people working outside of that [two-party electoral] system to undermine it, and subvert it, and weaken it, and destroy it; not try to work within it to change it."[65] He did, however, raise money for Russ Feingold's 2010 Senate re-election bid,[66] Bill Halter's 2010 primary challenge to Democratic Sen. Blanche Lincoln [67] as well as several Congressional candidates in 2012 he described as "unique".[68]

Greenwald has been criticized regarding his positions which are critical of Israel's foreign policy and influence on U.S. politics.[69][70][71][72][73]

^Greenwald, Glenn (2012-07-19). "Glenn Greenwald Moves From Salon to Guardian U.S.". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2012-07-19). "I'll be writing in a new venue beginning next month". Salon.com. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2011-12-14). "Bradley Manning deserves a medal". The Guardian (London). ^Greenwald, Glenn (2011-07-21). "Barack Obama is gutting the core principles of the Democratic party". The Guardian (London). ^Greenwald, Glenn (2011-10-07). "The CIA's impunity on 'torture tapes'". The Guardian (London). ^ abcdef"Glenn Greenwald". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-13. ^"What Kind of Democrat Will Specter Be?". The New York Times. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 2009-04-28. ^"Does Bipartisanship Matter?". The New York Times. 2009-02-23. Retrieved 2009-02-23. ^"When Bonus Contracts Can Be Broken". The New York Times. 2009-03-17. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^"Bush's final days". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-01-14. ^"Author Search: Glenn Greenwald". The American Conservative. Retrieved 2008-12-14. The Search facility (which times out after linking) lists 4 articles when "Glenn Greenwald" is provided as a search term selecting the "author" field: (1) "Madness of Crowds" ("Loyalty to Bush is the criterion for conservatism."); (2) "Selective Amnesia" ("Being a pro-war pundit means never having to say you're wrong."); (3) "Watching the Detectives" (a review of State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration, by James Risen); and (4) "Authoritarian Temptation" ("In an age of expansive executive power, the take-no-prisoners style that made Giuliani a respected mayor might be taken literally.")^Greenwald, Glenn (2008-04-25). "The Perilous Punditocracy". The National Interest. The Nixon Center. Retrieved 2008-12-14. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2006-07-21). "Author Profile:Glenn Greenwald". In These Times. Retrieved 2008-12-14. ^ abGreenwald, Glenn (2006-07-21). "Rechecking the Balance of Powers". In These Times30 (8). Retrieved 2008-12-14. ^"Glenn Greenwald And Amy Goodman Share Inaugural Izzy Award For Independent Media". Ithaca News Release. Ithaca College. 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-03-12. ^"Online Journalism Awards, 2010". Online Journalism Awards. 2010-10-31. Retrieved 2010-10-31. ^Stein, Gary (1985-03-13). "At 18, Future Holds Promise". Sun Sentinel. ^ abcdGreenwald, Glenn (2006-07-20). "Response to Right-wing Personal Attacks: My Law Practice; My Sexual Orientation; Where I Live". Unclaimed Territory. Retrieved 2007-02-02. In the entry, he describes and sets the record straight about his legal career and related professional and personal matters.^Greenwald, Glenn (2007-02-01). "Blog News". Unclaimed Territory. Glenn Greenwald. Retrieved 2007-02-02. ^Singal, Jesse (2007-09-17). "Glenn Greenwald: On Terrorism, Civil Rights, and Building a Blog". Campus Progress (Blog). Retrieved 2008-04-05. ^Ambinder, Marc (2008-11-20). "Brennan, Harding Slated for Top Intelligence Jobs". The Atlantic Monthly. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2008-11-16). "John Brennan and Bush's interrogation/detention policies". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-12. ^ abSullivan, Andrew (2008-11-21). "No Way. No How. No Brennan". The Daily Dish of No Party or Clique (Blog). Theatlantic.com. Retrieved 2008-12-12. ^"Brennan Out Of Running for Top Intelligence Post". International Herald Tribune (The New York Times Company). 2008-11-25. Retrieved 2008-12-15. ^Hamsher, Jane (2008-11-25). "'The Rachel Maddow Show' for Tuesday November 25, 2008: Transcript". The Rachel Maddow Show. MSNBC. Retrieved 2008-12-12. "I think as Atrios said, 'Behold the power of Glenn Greenwald.' ... Glenn, writing at Salon.com, had made a singular case against Brennan and said really, 'this is unacceptable.'" ^Greenwald, Glenn (2010-12-15). "The inhumane conditions of Bradley Manning's detention". Salon.com. Retrieved 2011-03-20. ^MacAskill, Ewen (2010-12-23). "UN to investigate treatment of jailed leaks suspect Bradley Manningx". guardian.co.uk (London). Retrieved 2010-12-23. ^"Amnesty International condemns 'inhumane' treatment of Bradley Manning". The Raw Story. Raw Story. 2011-01-24. ^"Amnesty International condemns 'inhumane' treatment of Bradley Manning". Politiconewspaper. Politico. 2011-03-13. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2010-06-18). "The strange and consequential case of Bradley Manning, Adrian Lamo and WikiLeaks". Salon.com. Retrieved 2011-03-20. ^Byers, Dylan (19 July 2012). "Glenn Greenwald to move to The Guardian". Politico. Retrieved 21 July 2012. ^ abGoodman, Amy (2008-04-18). "Great American Hypocrites: Glenn Greenwald on the Corporate Media's Failures in the 2008 Race". Democracy Now!. Pacifica Radio. Retrieved 2008-12-12. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2008-12-23). "Some observations after being involved in a Fox News report". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-23. ^"Glenn Greenwald on the High Cost of Government Secrecy". Bill Moyers & Company. 2013-04-26. Retrieved 2013-04-26. ^"Interview with Glenn Greenwald". Bill Moyers' Journal. 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-12-12. ^Moyers, Bill (2009-04-03). "Independent Journalism". PBS. Retrieved 2009-04-03. ^Tunku Varadarajan; Elisabeth Eaves; Hana R. Alberts (2009-01-22). "25 Most Influential Liberals in the U.S. Media". Forbes. Retrieved 2009-08-18. ^"Who's left? The top 20 US progressives". Newstatesman.com. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^Amira, Dan (2008-08-24). "Intelligencer:Conventional Wisdom". New York (News & Features). Retrieved 2008-12-12. "Who's the most popular? We developed a highly [sic] scientific formula to measure their star power, counting blog, newspaper, magazine, and TV-news mentions so far this year, Google hits, and how many presidential debates (in the primaries or planned for the general election) they moderated. Then, each pundit's popularity in each category was calculated as a percentage of the highest score, and those five percentages were averaged. (So, theoretically, a dominating pundit who topped each tally would end up with a popularity score of 100.) Here's the top 40. ..." ^"Power Grid: Print/Online Columnists". Mediaite. Retrieved 2009-07-06. ^"Food for Thought". Paul Krugman, NYT. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-07-09. ^"Top 100 Blogs". Technorati. Retrieved 2008-12-16. ^"What Is Authority?". Support at Technorati. Archived from the original on 2008-04-30. Retrieved 2008-12-15. ^"The Atlantic 50". Retrieved 2009-12-16. ^"The Politix 50: Here Are The Only Pundits You Need To Pay Attention To Between Now And The Election". Business Insider. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^"Digital Power Index: Opinionists '' Newsweek and The Daily Beast". Thedailybeast.com. 2012-06-24. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^"Glenn Greenwald: Life Beyond Borders | Out Magazine". Out.com. 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^"Glenn Greenwald interview '' Books". The Listener. 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^ abSilverstein, Ken (2008-02-21). "Six Questions for Glenn Greenwald on Campaign Coverage". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved 2008-12-15. ^Art of The Possible (2006-01-16). "Interview with Glenn Greenwald". Art of the Possible Blog. Retrieved 2008-12-13. ^"Glenn Greenwald: Life Beyond Borders | Out Magazine". Out.com. 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^"Glenn Greenwald interview". New Zealand Listener. 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-04-12. ^"Glenn Greenwald: Life Beyond Borders | Out Magazine". Out.com. 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2012-12-09. ^"Insight into one of DU's most loved/hated personalities, Glenn Greenwald". Democratic Underground. 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2011-08-27. ^"We are the proud parents of a Glenn Greenwald puppy...she was born early this morning". Democratic Underground. 2011-09-01. Retrieved 2011-09-01. ^"Glenn Greenwald: War crimes and puppies". Citizens Radio. 2011-09-01. Retrieved 2011-09-01. ^"The New York Times Book Review Best Sellers". The New York Times Book Review. The New York Times Company. 2006-06-11. Archived from the original on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2008-12-12. ^Garofoli, Joe (2006-05-12). "Book Tops Charts Before It's Published". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-12-12. "There's been no advertising for "How Would a Patriot Act." Didn't need any. It was more important to get love from a handful of key bloggers, who plugged the 144-page book on their sites, leading to a virtually overnight advance sales bump this week'--and a second printing of 20,000 copies. "Patriot" remained at the peak of the Amazon charts for days. ... While "Patriot" parachuted to 293rd place by week's end after hitting No. 1, the book's publisher, the San Francisco phone company and liberal benefactor Working Assets, has been encouraged to continue its fledgling program of plucking sharp bloggers to write politically pointed books." ^Greenwald, Glenn (2006-11-09). "Untitled Comments: #54519". Comments Forum (HaloScan). Retrieved 2007-12-12. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2007-06-27). "Blogs and the establishment media". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-12. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2008-03-09). "Various items". Salon.com. Retrieved 2000-12-12. ^Hamm, Theodore (May 2008). "A Party of Frauds? Glenn Greenwald in conversation with Theodore Hamm". The Brooklyn Rail. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2010-12-14). "Attempts to prosecute WikiLeaks endanger press freedoms". Salon.com. Retrieved 2011-03-20. ^ abcGreenwald, Glenn. "Preface". How Would a Patriot Act?. San Francisco: Working Assets, 2006. pp. 1''2. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2008-12-14. ^Greenwald, Glenn (2011-07-03). "Civil liberties under Obama". International Socialist Organization. Retrieved 2011-07-07. ^http://www.salon.com/2010/09/14/feingold_7/^Hamsher, Jane (2010-05-01). "Accountability Recruits First Candidate for 2010: Bill Halter". Huffington Post. ^http://www.salon.com/2012/03/29/3_congressional_challengers_very_worth_supporting/^"AKUS 'dares' to criticize Glenn Greenwald". CIFWatch. Retrieved 2012-09-27. ^Jeffrey Goldberg (2012-01-26). "More on Glenn Greenwald, 'Israel-Firsters,' and Idiot Editors (Updated)". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2012-10-26. ^Adam Levick (2012-07-25). "The Guardian and Glenn Greenwald: The anti-imperialism of fools". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 2012-10-26. ^David Bernstein (2010-11-06). "Greenwald: Israel has a "Higher Standard of Living" than the U.S.". The Volokhh Conspiracy. Retrieved 2012-10-26. ^David Bernstein (2012-01-28). "Glenn Greenwald and the Neocons". The Volokhh Conspiracy. Retrieved 2012-10-26. References[edit]"Glenn Greenwald Exposes Frank Gaffney". Crooks and Liars, February 16, 2007. [Includes 3-part MP3 clip of radio interview broadcast on the Alan Colmes Show, on Fox News Radio, during which Greenwald debates Frank Gaffney.]"Glenn Greenwald on Joe Klein, Dave Tomlin on Bilal Hussein". Counterspin, November 30, 2007 '' December 6, 2007. Accessed December 12, 2008. MP3 clips hosted on Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR).]Bernstein, Fred A., "Glenn Greenwald: Life Beyond Borders". Out magazine, April 19, 2011. Accessed April 20, 2011.Goodman, Amy."Great American Hypocrites: Glenn Greenwald on the Corporate Media's Failures in the 2008 Race. Democracy Now!, Pacifica Radio, April 18, 2008. Accessed December 12, 2008. ("We speak with Glenn Greenwald, author of Great American Hypocrites: Toppling the Big Myths of Republican Politics. [includes rush transcript].")''''''. "Obama Adviser Cass Sunstein Debates Glenn Greenwald". Democracy Now!, Pacifica Radio, July 22, 2008. Accessed December 13, 2008. (Includes rush transcript.)Greenwald, Glenn. "Book Forum: A Tragic Legacy: How a Good vs. Evil Mentality Destroyed the Bush Presidency". Cato Institute, August 7, 2007. [Panel discussion featuring Greenwald, "with comments by Lee Casey, Partner, Baker Hostetler." (Hyperlinked MP3 podcast and RealVideo formats.)]''''''. "Media: Glenn Greenwald at YearlyKos". Salon.com, August 7, 2007. Accessed December 13, 2008. [Video segment from Glenn Greenwald's panel at YearlyKos 2007, "where he stresses the continued need for adversarial, skeptical reporting." ("VideoDog" format.)]Pitney, Nico. "A Secure America: Video: Glenn Greenwald Debates Spying Program On C-Span". Online posting of clip of program broadcast on C-SPAN, February 6, 2006. ThinkProgress.com, February 6, 2006. Accessed December 12, 2008. [Greenwald debates University of Virginia law professor Robert Turner.]Silverstein, Ken. "Six Questions for Glenn Greenwald on Campaign Coverage". Harper's Magazine, February 21, 2008. Accessed December 12, 2008.Singal, Jesse, and Glenn Greenwald. "On Terrorism, Civil Rights, and Building a Blog". Campus Progress, September 17, 2007. Accessed December 12, 2008. [Interview.]Greenwald, Glenn. "Civil liberties under Obama". International Socialist Organization, July 3, 2011. Accessed July 7, 2011. [Video.]Bibliography[edit]External links[edit]PersondataNameGreenwald, GlennAlternative namesShort descriptionAmerican political journalist, lawyer, columnist, blogger, and authorDate of birth1967-03-06Place of birthNew York CityDate of deathPlace of death

Former Lawyer

Lives in Brazil with boyfriend

Worked at Salon magazine since 2007 before a high profile move to Guardian USA less than a year ago

Hates Obama

LOVES Patreus

Obama Picks John Brennan as CIA Chief

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 00:30

John Brennan's name was first floated in 2008 to head the CIA'--and now he's back. Eli Lake reports on Obama's latest nomination. Plus, Daniel Klaidman profiles Brennan.

For John Brennan, President Obama's choice to be the next CIA director, the second time is a charm. Brennan's name was first floated for the job after Obama's historic 2008 election. But that time the Democratic Party's progressive base opposed the nomination, claiming Brennan was a senior official at the agency as it developed an interrogation regime its critics have called torture.

John Brennan. (Carolyn Kaster/AP)

Glenn Greenwald, a lawyer and popular blogger for TheGuardianwrote Brennan's appointment ''is to cross multiple lines that no Obama supporter should sanction.''

Obama backed off of the pressure and ended up appointing Leon Panetta to the post. Brennan instead became the White House czar for counter-terrorism and homeland security, a job where he built a fiefdom inside the old executive office building near the White House. From that perch, Brennan and his staff would approve the specific targets in the secret drone war in Yemen, Somalia, and Pakistan.

With Brennan going to the CIA, that authority will likely go with him to the agency. Indeed, U.S. intelligence officials said David Petraeus, who helmed the CIA until he resigned in scandal last year over an adulterous affair with his biographer, often fought with Brennan over the future of the drone program and who would have the authority to make the targeting decisions.

In Obama's first term, Brennan earned the trust of the president for some of the biggest tasks in national security. He briefed the press, for example, after the near terrorist attack on Christmas Day 2009. He later briefed the press on the Navy SEAL raid that killed Osama bin Laden. But Brennan in that briefing said the al Qaeda leader died in a firefight, a claim the White House later retracted.

In choosing Brennan, Obama has also passed over for now Michael Morell, the acting director of the CIA who played a key role in supporting the initial intelligence that found bin Laden's location.

Like The Daily Beast on Facebook and follow us on Twitter for updates all day long.

Eli Lake is the senior national-security correspondent for Newsweek and the Daily Beast. He previously covered national security and intelligence for the Washington Times. Lake has also been a contributing editor at The New Republic since 2008 and covered diplomacy, intelligence, and the military for the late New York Sun. He has lived in Cairo and traveled to war zones in Sudan, Iraq, and Gaza. He is one of the few journalists to report from all three members of President Bush's axis of evil: Iraq, Iran, and North Korea.

For inquiries, please contact The Daily Beast at editorial@thedailybeast.com.

FBI's abuse of the surveillance state is the real scandal needing investigation

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That the stars of America's national security establishment are being devoured by out-of-control surveillance is a form of sweet justice

General John Allen, the US's leading military commander in Afghanistan, is being investigated over his 'communications' with Jill Kelley. Photograph: Jalil Rezayee/EPA

The Petraeus scandal is receiving intense media scrutiny obviously due to its salacious aspects, leaving one, as always, to fantasize about what a stellar press corps we would have if they devoted a tiny fraction of this energy to dissecting non-sex political scandals (this unintentionally amusing New York Times headline from this morning - "Concern Grows Over Top Military Officers' Ethics" - illustrates that point: with all the crimes committed by the US military over the last decade and long before, it's only adultery that causes "concern" over their "ethics"). Nonetheless, several of the emerging revelations are genuinely valuable, particularly those involving the conduct of the FBI and the reach of the US surveillance state.

As is now widely reported, the FBI investigation began when Jill Kelley - a Tampa socialite friendly with Petraeus (and apparently very friendly with Gen. John Allen, the four-star U.S. commander of the war in Afghanistan) - received a half-dozen or so anonymous emails that she found vaguely threatening. She then informed a friend of hers who was an FBI agent, and a major FBI investigation was then launched that set out to determine the identity of the anonymous emailer.

That is the first disturbing fact: it appears that the FBI not only devoted substantial resources, but also engaged in highly invasive surveillance, for no reason other than to do a personal favor for a friend of one of its agents, to find out who was very mildly harassing her by email. The emails Kelley received were, as the Daily Beast reports, quite banal and clearly not an event that warranted an FBI investigation:

"The emails that Jill Kelley showed an FBI friend near the start of last summer were not jealous lover warnings like 'stay away from my man', a knowledgeable source tells The Daily Beast. . . .

"'More like, 'Who do you think you are? . . .You parade around the base . . . You need to take it down a notch,'" according to the source, who was until recently at the highest levels of the intelligence community and prefers not to be identified by name.

"The source reports that the emails did make one reference to Gen. David Petraeus, but it was oblique and offered no manifest suggestion of a personal relationship or even that he was central to the sender's spite. . . .

"When the FBI friend showed the emails to the cyber squad in the Tampa field office, her fellow agents noted the absence of any overt threats.

"No, 'I'll kill you' or 'I'll burn your house down,'' the source says. 'It doesn't seem really that bad.'

"The squad was not even sure the case was worth pursuing, the source says.

"'What does this mean? There's no threat there. This is against the law?' the agents asked themselves by the source's account.

"At most the messages were harassing. The cyber squad had to consult the statute books in its effort to determine whether there was adequate legal cause to open a case.

"'It was a close call,' the source says.

"What tipped it may have been Kelley's friendship with the agent."

That this deeply personal motive was what spawned the FBI investigation is bolstered by the fact that the initial investigating agent "was barred from taking part in the case over the summer due to superiors' concerns that he was personally involved in the case" - indeed, "supervisors soon became concerned that the initial agent might have grown obsessed with the matter" - and was found to have "allegedly sent shirtless photos" to Kelley, and "is now under investigation by the Office of Professional Responsibility, the internal-affairs arm of the FBI".

[The New York Times this morning reports that the FBI claims the emails contained references to parts of Petraeus' schedule that were not publicly disclosed, though as Marcy Wheeler documents, the way the investigation proceeded strongly suggests that at least the initial impetus behind it was a desire to settle personal scores.]

What is most striking is how sweeping, probing and invasive the FBI's investigation then became, all without any evidence of any actual crime - or the need for any search warrant:

"Because the sender's account had been registered anonymously, investigators had to use forensic techniques - including a check of what other e-mail accounts had been accessed from the same computer address - to identify who was writing the e-mails.

"Eventually they identified Ms. Broadwell as a prime suspect and obtained access to her regular e-mail account. In its in-box, they discovered intimate and sexually explicit e-mails from another account that also was not immediately identifiable. Investigators eventually ascertained that it belonged to Mr. Petraeus and studied the possibility that someone had hacked into Mr. Petraeus's account or was posing as him to send the explicit messages."

So all based on a handful of rather unremarkable emails sent to a woman fortunate enough to have a friend at the FBI, the FBI traced all of Broadwell's physical locations, learned of all the accounts she uses, ended up reading all of her emails, investigated the identity of her anonymous lover (who turned out to be Petraeus), and then possibly read his emails as well. They dug around in all of this without any evidence of any real crime - at most, they had a case of "cyber-harassment" more benign than what regularly appears in my email inbox and that of countless of other people - and, in large part, without the need for any warrant from a court.

But that isn't all the FBI learned. It was revealed this morning that they also discovered "alleged inappropriate communication" to Kelley from Gen. Allen, who is not only the top commander in Afghanistan but was also just nominated by President Obama to be the Commander of US European Command and Supreme Allied Commander Europe (a nomination now "on hold"). Here, according to Reuters, is what the snooping FBI agents obtained about that [emphasis added]:

"The U.S. official said the FBI uncovered between 20,000 and 30,000 pages of communications - mostly emails spanning from 2010 to 2012 - between Allen and Jill Kelley . . . .

"Asked whether there was concern about the disclosure of classified information, the official said, on condition of anonymity: 'We are concerned about inappropriate communications. We are not going to speculate as to what is contained in these documents.'"

So not only did the FBI - again, all without any real evidence of a crime - trace the locations and identity of Broadwell and Petreaus, and read through Broadwell's emails (and possibly Petraeus'), but they also got their hands on and read through 20,000-30,000 pages of emails between Gen. Allen and Kelley.

This is a surveillance state run amok. It also highlights how any remnants of internet anonymity have been all but obliterated by the union between the state and technology companies.

But, as unwarranted and invasive as this all is, there is some sweet justice in having the stars of America's national security state destroyed by the very surveillance system which they implemented and over which they preside. As Trevor Timm of the Electronic Frontier Foundation put it this morning: "Who knew the key to stopping the Surveillance State was to just wait until it got so big that it ate itself?"

It is usually the case that abuses of state power become a source for concern and opposition only when they begin to subsume the elites who are responsible for those abuses. Recall how former Democratic Rep. Jane Harman - one of the most outspoken defenders of the illegal Bush National Security Agency (NSA) warrantless eavesdropping program - suddenly began sounding like an irate, life-long ACLU privacy activist when it was revealed that the NSA had eavesdropped on her private communications with a suspected Israeli agent over alleged attempts to intervene on behalf of AIPAC officials accused of espionage. Overnight, one of the Surveillance State's chief assets, the former ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, transformed into a vocal privacy proponent because now it was her activities, rather than those of powerless citizens, which were invaded.

With the private, intimate activities of America's most revered military and intelligence officials being smeared all over newspapers and televisions for no good reason, perhaps similar conversions are possible. Put another way, having the career of the beloved CIA Director and the commanding general in Afghanistan instantly destroyed due to highly invasive and unwarranted electronic surveillance is almost enough to make one believe not only that there is a god, but that he is an ardent civil libertarian.

The US operates a sprawling, unaccountable Surveillance State that - in violent breach of the core guarantees of the Fourth Amendment - monitors and records virtually everything even the most law-abiding citizens do. Just to get a flavor for how pervasive it is, recall that the Washington Post, in its 2010 three-part "Top Secret America" series, reported: "Every day, collection systems at the National Security Agency intercept and store 1.7 billion e-mails, phone calls and other types of communications."

Equally vivid is this 2007 chart from Privacy International, a group that monitors the surveillance policies of nations around the world. Each color represents the level of the nation's privacy and surveillance policies, with black being the most invasive and abusive ("Endemic Surveillance Societies") and blue being the least ("Consistently upholds human rights standards"):

And the Obama administration has spent the last four years aggressively seeking to expand that Surveillance State, including by agitating for Congressional action to amend the Patriot Act to include Internet and browsing data among the records obtainable by the FBI without court approval and demanding legislation requiring that all Internet communications contain a government "backdoor" of surveillance.

Based on what is known, what is most disturbing about the whole Petraeus scandal is not the sexual activities that it revealed, but the wildly out-of-control government surveillance powers which enabled these revelations. What requires investigation here is not Petraeus and Allen and their various sexual partners but the FBI and the whole sprawling, unaccountable surveillance system that has been built.

(1) One of the claims made over the last week was that Broadwell, in public comments about the Benghazi attack, referenced non-public information - including that the CIA was holding prisoners in Benghazi and that this motivated the attack - suggesting that someone gave her classified information. About those claims, a national security reporter for Fox reported:

"that a well-placed Washington source confirms that Libyan militiamen were being held at the CIA annex and may have been a possible reason for the attack. Multiple intelligence sources, she also reported, said 'there were more than just Libyan militia members who were held and interrogated by CIA contractors at the CIA annex in the days prior to the attack. Other prisoners from additional countries in Africa and the Middle East were brought to this location.'"

Though the CIA denies that "the agency is still in the detention business", it certainly should be investigated to determine whether the CIA is maintaining off-the-books detention facilities in Libya.

(2) I've long noted that Michael Hastings is one of the nation's best and most valuable journalists; to see why that is so, please watch the amazing 8-minute clip from last night's Piers Morgan Show on CNN embedded below, when he appeared with two Petraeus-defending military officials (via the Atlantic's Adam Clark Estes). When you're done watching that, contrast that with the remarkably candid confession this week from Wired's national security reporter Spencer Ackerman on how he, along with so many other journalists, hypnotically joined what he aptly calls the "Cult of David Petraeus".

(3) I gave a 40-minute speech this summer on the Surveillance State and the reasons it is so destructive, which can be viewed on the video below; Alternet transcribed the speech here:

DN!

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NERMEENSHAIKH: We turn now to the latest developments in the scandal that has brought down CIA director David Petraeus and ensnared General John Allen, the top U.S. commander in Afghanistan. The Pentagon says the FBI has uncovered thousands of, quote, "potentially inappropriate" emails between Allen and Jill Kelley, the woman who complained of harassment from Petraeus's lover, Paula Broadwell. Kelley's complaint to the FBI led to the discovery of Broadwell and Petraeus's relationship, prompting Petraeus's resignation on Friday. Allen succeeded Petraeus in Afghanistan last year. The Pentagon says Allen will remain the U.S. commander in Afghanistan for now, but that plans to nominate him to become NATO's Supreme Allied Commander are on hold pending the outcome of the investigation. Responding to the revelations, White House spokesperson Jay Carney reaffirmed on Tuesday President Obama's faith in General Allen.

JAYCARNEY: I can tell you that the president thinks very highly of General Allen and his service to his country, as well as the job he has done in Afghanistan. At the request of the secretary of defense, the president has put on hold General Allen's nomination as Supreme Allied Commander Europe, pending the investigation of General Allen's conduct by the Department of Defense.

AMYGOODMAN: To talk more about the significance of this inquiry and much more, we're joined now by Glenn Greenwald, columnist and blogger for The Guardian, author of With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful. His most recent piece in The Guardian is called "FBI's Abuse of the Surveillance State is the Real Scandal Needing Investigation."

Glenn Greenwald, welcome back to Democracy Now! Elaborate.

GLENNGREENWALD: I think there is a lot of media focus on the salacious aspects of this case for reasons that are obvious, which is that the media loves sex scandals. But there are real issues arising from this of genuine importance and substance, beginning with the fact that the FBI, based on really no evidence of any actual crime, engaged in this massive surveillance effort of, first, obtaining all kinds of intimate and private information about two women, one of whom complained, one of whom was the target of the complaint, Paula Broadwell and Jill Kelley; learned the locations and email accounts of Paula Broadwell, who was the subject of this fairly innocuous complaint; read through all of her emails; learned the identity of her anonymous lover, David Petraeus; likely read'--certainly read through all of her emails, probably read through his; and then, in the process, as well, learned about an affair between the complainant, Jill Kelley'--or not an affair, but inappropriate communications, as they're calling it, and the four-star general in Afghanistan, General Allen; and then obtained 20,000 to 30,000 pages of emails between them, as well.

So you're talking about a massively invasive investigation without any of their knowledge, obtaining their most private and intimate communications'--all without evidence of any predicate crime, really without the need, except in a few cases, for judicial view or oversight. And, to me, it really illustrates how'--how invasive and sprawling this unaccountable surveillance state has become. This happens all the time, just generally to people less powerful and influential than the two generals in question here. And so we can really learn lessons, I hope, about what we've allowed the government to do in terms of its investigative powers.

AMYGOODMAN: Earlier this year, Paula Broadwell discussed her book on General David Petraeus'--oh, because, we should explain, Paula Broadwell is David Petraeus's biographer'--with Jon Stewart of The Daily Show.

JONSTEWART: People in these books very rarely'--they always think, I'll be the one to outsmart the'--I'll be the one to outsmart'--I'll give the access'--and it never'--but in this'--I mean, the most controversial thing is'--I would say the real controversy here is, is he awesome or incredibly awesome? It's very'--it's a nice portrait.

PAULABROADWELL: I have a detail to share with you.

JONSTEWART: All right.

PAULABROADWELL: He can turn water into bottled water.

JONSTEWART: What?

PAULABROADWELL: Isn't that your line?

JONSTEWART: One thing we did find out is his nickname is Peaches.

PAULABROADWELL: Was'--it was Peaches when he was in'--he was in high school, and it followed him to West Point and has stuck a little bit.

AMYGOODMAN: In a separate interview, Paula Broadwell explained why she admires and respects General David Petraeus.

PAULABROADWELL: When I realized the opportunity I had to tell this message, to present this portrait of strategic leadership'--you know, it's not'--it's not a hagiography; I'm not in love with David Petraeus. But I think he does present a terrific role model for young people, for executives, for men and women. No matter what, there's a great role model there who is'--who is values-oriented, who speaks the truth to power.

AMYGOODMAN: Glenn Greenwald?

GLENNGREENWALD: One of the things that I think is so interesting is that what she was saying in those interviews and in her book fit very comfortably into the general media narrative about David Petraeus. She may have had a deeply personal relationship with him, but the affection that she had for him was shared by most of the people in the media who were covering and discussing him. And one of the national security reporters for Wired magazine, Spencer Ackerman, actually wrote a commendably candid piece this week confessing that he had essentially hypnotically joined what he called "the cult of David Petraeus," along with most of the'--his colleagues in the national media who cover national security. And I think it really evinces this sort of reverence for all things military, and specifically for General Petraeus.

NERMEENSHAIKH: You actually, Glenn, spoke in one of your most recent pieces about how popular the military is in the U.S. In fact, it is the single most popular and affirmed institution: 78 percent of Americans profess, quote, a "great deal" or a lot of confidence in the military, according to a Gallup poll. One of the few journalists, apart from yourself, who's expressed some skepticism about General David Petraeus is Michael Hastings. He's a reporter for BuzzFeed and Rolling Stone, and he recently appeared on CNNPiers Morgan Tonight and said there are many reasons Petraeus should have resigned, reasons that have nothing to do with his affair with Paula Broadwell.

MICHAELHASTINGS: I mean, I think's many other reasons Petraeus should have resigned besides who he's sleeping with that's not his wife. But I just want to make a point here. The larger point that I've been making is that essentially the media has played a role in protecting David Petraeus and promoting David Petraeus and mythologizing David Petraeus. And we saw it here tonight. General Kimmitt, who was a spokesperson in Baghdad, who was a roommate of Petraeus, who was involved in one of the biggest debacles in recent foreign policy history, is on TV, you know, defending David Petraeus without actually addressing the real problems with David Petraeus's record. And those are the fact that he manipulated the White House into escalating in Afghanistan; he ran a campaign in Iraq that was brutally savage, included arming the worst of the worst, Shiite death squads, Sunni militiamen; and then you go back to the training of the Iraqi army program that also had similar problems. So, for me, all the while, he's going around the country talking about honor and integrity.

NERMEENSHAIKH: That was Michael Hastings speaking on CNN's Piers Morgan [Tonight]. Glenn Greenwald, your response?

GLENNGREENWALD: Well, I think Michael Hastings is a fascinating case. If you recall, he's the reporter who wrote the Rolling Stone cover story about General McChrystal who ended General McChrystal's, Stanley McChrystal's, career, who at the time was the commander of the war in Afghanistan. And what was amazing about that was, nobody doubted the authenticity of the quotes that he included in his article, and yet huge numbers of the most prominent media figures who cover the war in Afghanistan attacked Michael Hastings viciously'--John Burns at the New York Times, Lara Logan at CBS.

And what they were essentially accusing him of doing was violating the trust of the general, not because he had reported things that were supposed to be off the record, but because they said that you develop a bond with these generals. John Burns talked about how you end up sleeping in the same tent with them, flying over war zones in Afghanistan, and that they really have an expectation that you should honor, as a reporter, to protect and shield them and their reputation. And that's what these journalists see themselves as doing, as serving as spokespeople for these military figures, and that's why they were so angry at Michael Hastings.

He was attacked again because of that CNN interview. There's an article in Politico essentially describing him as'--as this sort of unhinged person who, as they put it'--this is a quote'--is "muddying" the "sacred waters" of journalism through his, quote-unquote, "advocacy." And so, what you really see is there's'--there's a perception that there's no national religion in the United States. Christianity is not the state religion'--that's true. But the national religion in the United States is worship of all things military. And journalists are its high priests.

AMYGOODMAN: So now what does this mean for Afghanistan, for the CIA? First of all, you had this general, a military general, becoming head of the CIA. Now David Petraeus is out. And then you have whatever is going to happen to John Allen happen. What does this mean?

GLENNGREENWALD: I'm not sure it really means anything for the policies of the national security state. The national security state seems to endure no matter what happens to its particular figureheads. I think they'll simply be replaced. I'm not sure, actually, that General Allen is going anywhere. Certainly, David Petraeus was an important person in the sense that he was so revered, almost as a religious figure, that he shielded the CIA and other military institutions from any kind of criticism. But I think you'll see most of that enduring.

AMYGOODMAN: And has been pushing for an expansion of the drone war.

GLENNGREENWALD: Right. But, of course, President Obama, who's the commander-in-chief and his boss, is very much on board with an expansion, not just of a drone war, but of the conversion of the CIA into even more of a paramilitary organization than it has ever been before. Obama is enamored of this idea, and I think that will continue fully apace, so whoever steps in will be fully on board with that.

Says The leak, he said, came from ''a reader of mine'' who was comfortable working with him. The source, Mr. Greenwald said, ''knew the views that I had and had an expectation of how I would display them.''

So lets find out about Greenwald's history

Salon magazine is a ODG

SLNM Income Statement | SALON MEDIA GRP Stock - Yahoo! Finance

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SLNM Income Statement | SALON MEDIA GRP Stock - Yahoo! FinanceMore On SLNM

QuotesChartsNews & InfoCompanyAnalyst CoverageOwnershipFinancialsSalon Media Group Inc. (SLNM)-OTC Markets

0.110.00(0.00%)May 31, 1:04PM EDT

View: Annual Data | Quarterly DataAll numbers in thousandsPeriod EndingDec 30, 2012Sep 29, 2012Jun 29, 2012Mar 30, 2012Total Revenue1,032 853 836 1,113 Cost of Revenue(627)627 - - Gross Profit1,659 226 836 1,113 Operating ExpensesResearch Development- - - - Selling General and Administrative2,393 1,059 2,300 2,485 Non Recurring- - - - Others- - - - Total Operating Expenses- - - - Operating Income or Loss(734)(833)(1,464)(1,372)Income from Continuing OperationsTotal Other Income/Expenses Net- - - - Earnings Before Interest And Taxes(934)(833)(1,464)(1,174)Interest Expense(128)69 59 332 Income Before Tax(806)(902)(1,523)(1,506)Income Tax Expense- - - - Minority Interest- - - - Net Income From Continuing Ops(806)(902)(1,523)(1,506)Non-recurring EventsDiscontinued Operations- 242 (9)(51)Extraordinary Items- - - - Effect Of Accounting Changes- - - - Other Items- - - - Net Income(806)(660)(1,532)(1,557)Preferred Stock And Other Adjustments- - - - Net Income Applicable To Common Shares(806)(660)(1,532)(1,557)Currency in USD.

95941440

95941440

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SLNM Income Statement | SALON MEDIA GRP Stock - Yahoo! FinanceMore On SLNM

QuotesChartsNews & InfoCompanyAnalyst CoverageOwnershipFinancialsSalon Media Group Inc. (SLNM)-OTC Markets

0.110.00(0.00%)May 31, 1:04PM EDT

View: Annual Data | Quarterly DataAll numbers in thousandsPeriod EndingDec 30, 2012Sep 29, 2012Jun 29, 2012Mar 30, 2012Total Revenue1,032 853 836 1,113 Cost of Revenue(627)627 - - Gross Profit1,659 226 836 1,113 Operating ExpensesResearch Development- - - - Selling General and Administrative2,393 1,059 2,300 2,485 Non Recurring- - - - Others- - - - Total Operating Expenses- - - - Operating Income or Loss(734)(833)(1,464)(1,372)Income from Continuing OperationsTotal Other Income/Expenses Net- - - - Earnings Before Interest And Taxes(934)(833)(1,464)(1,174)Interest Expense(128)69 59 332 Income Before Tax(806)(902)(1,523)(1,506)Income Tax Expense- - - - Minority Interest- - - - Net Income From Continuing Ops(806)(902)(1,523)(1,506)Non-recurring EventsDiscontinued Operations- 242 (9)(51)Extraordinary Items- - - - Effect Of Accounting Changes- - - - Other Items- - - - Net Income(806)(660)(1,532)(1,557)Preferred Stock And Other Adjustments- - - - Net Income Applicable To Common Shares(806)(660)(1,532)(1,557)Currency in USD.

95941440

95941440

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$0.11/share? Losing $1mm a year? $3mm a year being pumped in?

Salon (website) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 22:23

Salon is a news website created by David Talbot in 1995 and part of Salon Media Group (OTCQB: SLNM). It focuses on U.S. politics and current affairs, and on reviews and articles about music, books and films.[1][2][3]

Salon's headquarters is located west of downtown San Francisco, California.[4] As of November 2010, its editor-in-chief is Kerry Lauerman. His predecessor Joan Walsh stepped down from that position in November 2010 but remained as editor at large.[5]

Content and coverage[edit]Salon magazine covers a variety of topics. It has reviews and articles about music, books, and films.[4] It also has articles about "modern life", including relationships, friendships and human sexual behavior. It covers technology, with a particular focus on the free software/open source movement.

In 2008, Salon launched the interactive initiative Open Salon, a social content site/blog network for its readers.

Responding to the question, "How far do you go with the tabloid sensibility to get readers?", former Salon.com editor-in-chief David Talbot said:

Is Salon more tabloid-like? Yeah, we've made no secret of that. I've said all along that our formula here is that we're a smart tabloid. If by tabloid what you mean is you're trying to reach a popular audience, trying to write topics that are viscerally important to a readership, whether it's the story about the mother in Houston who drowned her five children or the story on the missing intern in Washington, Chandra Levy.

Staff and contributors[edit]Regular contributors include the political opinion writer Alex Pareene; political analyst Steve Kornacki and David Sirota; critics Laura Miller and Andrew O'Hehir; pop-culture columnist Mary Elizabeth Williams; aviation columnist Patrick Smith; Tracy Clark-Flory writing on feminist and gender topics; advice columnist Cary Tennis; and economics writer Andrew Leonard.

David Talbot is founder and original editor-in-chief. He has served several stints as CEO,[7] most recently replacing Richard Gingras who left to join Google as head of news products in July 2011.[8] The company's current CEO is Cynthia Jeffers.[9] Kerry Lauerman is the editor-in-chief, Gail Williams manages The WELL, and Norman Blashka is the CFO and VP of Operations.

In April 2010 Salon hired Alex Pareene, a writer for Gawker Media, to write about politics.[10] Pareene composes the site's Hack 30: The Worst Pundits in America, a list of people described as "the most predictable, banal, intellectually dishonest and all-around hacky newspaper columnists, cable news shouting heads and political opinion-mongers working today."[11][12]

History[edit]Salon was founded by David Talbot[13] and was first published in 1995. It purchased the virtual communityThe WELL in April 1999, and made its initial public offering of Salon.com on the NASDAQ stock exchange on June 22 of that year.

Salon Premium, a pay-to-view (online) content subscription was introduced on April 25, 2001. The service signed over 130,000 subscribers and staved off discontinuation of services. However, less than two years later, in November 2002, the company announced it had accumulated cash and non-cash losses of $80 million, and by February 2003 it was having difficulty paying its rent, and made an appeal for donations to keep the company running.

On October 9, 2003, Michael O'Donnell, the chief executive and president of Salon Media Group, said he was leaving the company after seven years because it was "time for a change." When he left, Salon.com had accrued $83.6 million in losses since its inception, and its stock traded for 5 on the OTC Bulletin Board. David Talbot, Salon's chairman and editor-in-chief at the time, became the new chief executive. Elizabeth "Betsy" Hambrecht, then Salon's chief financial officer, became the president.

In July 2008, Salon launched Open Salon, a "social content site" and "curated blog network".[14] It was nominated for a 2009 National Magazine Award.[15] in the category "best interactive feature."

On June 10, 2011, Salon closed its online chat board Table Talk. Salon.com has not given an official reason for ending that section of its site.[16]

On July 16, 2012, Salon announced that it will be featuring content from Mondoweiss.[17]

In September 2012, Salon Media Group sold The WELL to the group of members.[18]

Business model and operations[edit]Salon has been unprofitable through its entire history. Since 2007, the company has been dependent on ongoing cash injections from board Chairman John Warnock and William Hambrecht, father of former Salon CEO Elizabeth Hambrecht. During the nine months ended December 31, 2012, these cash contributions amounted to $3.4 million, compared to revenue in the same period of $2.7 million.[19]

Aspects of the Salon.com site offerings, ordered by advancing date:

Free content, around 15 new articles posted per-day, revenues wholly derived from in-page advertisements.Per-day new content was reduced for a time.Salon Premium subscription. Approximately 20 percent of new content made available to subscribers only. Other subscription benefits included free magazines and ad-free viewing. Larger, more conspicuous ad units introduced for non-subscribers.A hybrid subscription model. Readers now can read content by viewing a 15-second full screen advertisement to earn a "day pass" or gain access by subscribing to Salon Premium.After Salon Premium subscriptions declined from about 100,000 to 10,000, it was rebranded in 2011 as Salon Core subscriptions featuring a different mix of benefits.[7]Salon Book Awards and What To Read Awards[edit]From 1996 to 2011, the Salon Book Awards were an annual literary award given by the editors of Salon.com to fiction and nonfiction books published the previous year. The editors' criteria for winning books are:

"..the books we'd wholeheartedly recommend to our friends, books we'd clear our social calendar to finish, books we returned to eagerly even when we could barely focus our eyes on a page. They remind us of why we fell in love with reading and why we keep at it in a world that's simultaneously cluttered with mediocre books and increasingly indifferent to the written word."[20]In 2012, a new award was established called What To Read Awards after the Salon column "What to Read", although Laura Miller continued to maintain a separate Best Books of the Year top-10 list. The What to Read Awards were chosen as follows:

"we surveyed our favorite book critics, both print and online, from high-profile publications to the hottest literary blogs. We asked for their top-10 books of 2012, and then tabulated the winners by assigning 10 points for a No. 1 selection, 9 for No. 2, all the way to 1 point for No. 10."[21]What To Read Awards winners[edit]2012

New award established as "What To Read Awards" with books chosen by a system of points from an array of other journalists top-10 lists.[21] See also Laura Miller's top-10 picks.[22]

Katherine Boo, Behind the Beautiful ForeversHilary Mantel, Bring Up the BodiesBen Fountain, Billy Lynn's Long Halftime WalkZadie Smith, NW, and Andrew Solomon, Far From the Tree (co-winners)Sheila Heti, How Should a Person BeGillian Flynn, Gone GirlLauren Groff, ArcadiaJess Walter, Beautiful RuinsSarah Manguso, The GuardiansSalon Book Awards winners[edit]1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

No awards were given for the year of 2002.

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Published by Laura Miller December 7, 2010.[23]

2011

Published by Laura Miller December 8, 2011.[24]

See also[edit]References[edit]^New York Times^New York Times^Los Angeles Times^ abSalon: About Salon^Joan Walsh (November 8, 2010). "I'm not leaving Salon!". Retrieved December 12, 2010.^"Interview with Salon.com's David Talbot". JournalismJobs.com. June 2001. Retrieved April 22, 2010. ^ abCalderone, Michael (September 27, 2011). "Salon CEO Calls For 'American Spring' With Site's Relaunch". Huffington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2011. ^"Form 8-K, Salon Media Group, Inc". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. July 7, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2012. ^[1]^Alex Pareene Leaving Gawker to Join Salon, John Koblin, The New York Observer, April 7, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2012^Meet Salon's ''Hack 30'": ''The Worst Pundits In America'', Hillary Busis, Mediaite, November 22, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2012^Introducing the Hack 30, Alex Pareene, Salon, November 22, 2010^Herhold, Scott (December 28, 1997). "Net magazine Salon epitomizes fate of mind over matter". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on February 21, 1999. Retrieved 2011-07-07. ^Lauerman, Kerry (July 28, 2008). "Welcome to our public beta". Opensalon.com. Retrieved April 21, 2010. ^Lauerman, Kerry (March 18, 2009). "Congratulations! You've just been nominated...". Opensalon.com. Retrieved April 21, 2010. ^Salon.com June 10, 2011 "Requiem for Table Talk"^Salon:Mondoweiss^Salon Media Group Sells The WELL to The Well Group^http://edgar.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1084332/000143774913001586/smg_10q-123112.htm^Salon Book Awards, December 1996, inaugural year.^ abDavid Daley (December 23, 2012). "The What To Read Awards: Top 10 Books of 2012". [[Salon (website)|]]. Retrieved December 24, 2012. ^Laura Miller (December 22, 2012). "Laura Miller's best books of 2012". Salon. Retrieved December 24, 2012. ^Laura Miller. "The best nonfiction books of 2010", "The best fiction of 2010" '' Salon, Dec 7, 2010.^Laura Miller. "The best fiction of 2011", "The best nonfiction of 2011" '' Salon, Dec 8, 2011.External links[edit]

Who do we see on the board?

Business model and operations[edit]Salon has been unprofitable through its entire history. Since 2007, the company has been dependent on ongoing cash injections from board Chairman John Warnock and William Hambrecht, father of former Salon CEO Elizabeth Hambrecht. During the nine months ended December 31, 2012, these cash contributions amounted to $3.4 million, compared to revenue in the same period of $2.7 million.[19]

Bill Hambrecht - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 22:26

William R. "Bill" Hambrecht (born 1935) is an Americaninvestment banker and chairman of WR Hambrecht + Co which he founded in 1998. He helped persuade Google to use an Internet-based auction for their initial public offering (IPO) in 2004, instead of a more traditional method using banks and other financial companies to find buyers. He is credited with popularizing this "OpenIPO" model, using Dutch auctions to allow anyone, not just investing insiders, to buy stock in an IPO, potentially raising more money for startups. Some of the companies he has helped have an IPO like this include Overstock.com, Ravenswood Winery, Andover.net and Salon.com.[1][2]

Hambrecht is also credited as one of the first major investors to recognize the value of technology and biotech companies, helping to take Apple Computer, Genentech and Adobe Systems public in the 1980s with his earlier San Francisco-based company Hambrecht & Quist, which he founded in 1968 and which also backed the IPOs of Netscape, MP3.com, and Amazon.com. The firm was bought by Chase Manhattan in 1999.[3] In 1997, he sponsored the foundation of BOOM Securities (H.K.) Limited.[4]

Hambrect is a 1957 graduate of Princeton University.[5] He has been listed as one of the top political donors in the country, giving mostly to Democratic candidates, and credits Nancy Pelosi, whom he met in the 1970s, with inspiring him to get involved in politics.[6]

William Hambrecht is on the Board of Trustees of the American University of Beirut,[7]Lebanon.[8] He was on the Motorola Board of Directors from 2008 - 2011 and the AOL Inc. Board of Directors from Dec. 2010 to Feb. 2011.[9]

In the 1980s Hambrecht was a minority investor in the Oakland Invaders, a charter member of the failed United States Football League.[2]

In 2007 Hambrect was again in the news for planning a professional football league, the United Football League. Along with AOLCEOTim Armstrong, Hambrecht pledged $2 million to start the league up and arranged its original owners. On August 11, 2009, Hambrecht stepped forward to be the owner of the Las Vegas Locomotives franchise. The league remains under his overall leadership and direction. [10] The William Hambrecht Trophy, awarded to the winner of the UFL Championship Game, is named in his honor.

^"2006 Fast 50". fastcompany.com. Retrieved 2007-05-30. ^ abYoung, Eric (2007-05-30). "Investment banker Hambrecht plans pro football league". San Francisco Business Times. ^Scherer, Michael (2001-03-05). "William R. Hambrecht (with Sally)". Mother Jones. ^"About BOOM, a Hong Kong Online Stock Broker". ^"Bill Hambrecht on NNDB". Retrieved 2007-05-30. ^McCormick, Erin and Sandalow, Marc (2006-04-03). "Pelosi mines 'California gold' for Dems nationwide". San Francisco Chronicle. ^http://www.aub.edu.lb/^Board of Trustees, AUB, Lebanon^Meet AOL's BOD: Tim Armstrong May Be Youthful, but His Directors-To-Be Aren't^"Football's new game in town Fortune magazine". October 8, 2010. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010. PersondataNameHambrecht, BillAlternative namesHambrecht, WilliamShort descriptionDate of birth1935Place of birthDate of deathPlace of death

John Warnock - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 22:24

John E. WarnockBorn(1940-10-06) October 6, 1940 (age 72)Salt Lake City, Utah, United StatesFieldsComputer ScienceInstitutionsUniversity of UtahAlma materUniversity of UtahDoctoral advisorDavid C. EvansIvan SutherlandKnown forAdobe SystemsPostScriptPortable Document Format (PDF)Notable awardsSoftware Systems Award (1989, Association for Computing Machinery); Edwin H. Land Medal (2000, Optical Society of America); Bodley Medal (2003, Bodleian Library at Oxford University); Lovelace Medal (2004, British Computer Society); Medal of Achievement (2006, AeA); Computer Entrepreneur Award (2008, IEEE Computer Society); United States National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2009), Marconi Prize (2010)John Edward Warnock (born October 6, 1940) is an American computer scientist best known as the co-founder with Charles Geschke of Adobe Systems Inc., the graphics and publishing software company. Dr. Warnock was President of Adobe for his first two years and Chairman and CEO for his remaining sixteen years at the company. Although retired as CEO in 2001, he still co-chairs the board with Geschke. Warnock has pioneered the development of graphics, publishing, Web and electronic document technologies that have revolutionized the field of publishing and visual communications.

Biography[edit]Warnock was born in Salt Lake City, Utah and currently lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. He is married and has three children. Warnock has a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and Philosophy, a Master of Science in Mathematics, a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering (Computer Science), and an honorary degree in Science, all from the University of Utah. At the University of Utah he was a member of the Gamma Beta Chapter of the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity.[1] He also has an honorary degree from the American Film Institute.

In 1976, while Warnock worked at Evans & Sutherland, a Salt Lake City-based computer graphics company, the concepts of the PostScript language were seeded. Prior to co-founding Adobe, with Geschke and Putman, Warnock worked with Geschke at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox PARC), where he had started in 1978. Unable to convince Xerox management of the approach to commercialize the InterPress graphics language for controlling printing, he, together with Geschke and Putman, left Xerox to start Adobe in 1982. At their new company, they developed an equivalent technology, PostScript, from scratch, and brought it to market for Apple's LaserWriter in 1984.

Warnock's earliest publication and subject of his master's thesis, was his 1964 proof of a theorem solving the Jacobson radical for row-finite matrices,[2] which was originally posed by the American mathematician Nathan Jacobson in 1956.

In his 1969 doctoral thesis, Warnock invented the Warnock algorithm for hidden surface determination in computer graphics.[3] It works by recursive subdivision of a scene until areas are obtained that are trivial to compute. It solves the problem of rendering a complicated image by avoiding the problem. If the scene is simple enough to compute then it is rendered; otherwise it is divided into smaller parts and the process is repeated.[4]

In the Spring of 1991, Warnock outlined a system called "Camelot",[5] that evolved into the Portable Document Format (PDF) file-format. The goal of Camelot was to "effectively capture documents from any application, send electronic versions of these documents anywhere, and view and print these documents on any machines". Warnock's document contemplated, "Imagine if the IPS (Interchange PostScript) viewer is also equipped with text searching capabilities. In this case the user could find all documents that contain a certain word or phrase, and then view that word or phrase in context within the document. Entire libraries could be archived in electronic form..."

One of Adobe's popular typefaces, Warnock, is named after him.

Adobe's PostScript technology made it easier to print text and images from a computer, revolutionizing media and publishing in the 1980s.

In 2003 Warnock and his wife donated 200,000 shares of Adobe Systems valued at over 5.7 million dollars[6] to the University of Utah as the main gift for a new engineering building. The John E. and Marva M. Warnock Engineering Building was completed in 2007 and houses the University of Utah College of Engineering.

Dr. Warnock holds seven patents. In addition to Adobe Systems, he serves or has served on the board of directors at ebrary, Knight-Ridder, MongoNet, Netscape Communications and Salon Media Group. Warnock is a past Chairman of the Tech Museum of Innovation in San Jose. He also serves on the Board of Trustees of the American Film Institute and the Sundance Institute.

Hobbies include photography, skiing, Web development, painting, hiking, curation of rare scientific books and historical Native American objects.[7]

A strong supporter of higher education, Warnock and his wife, Marva, have supported three presidential endowed chairs in computer science, mathematics and fine arts at the University of Utah and also an endowed chair in medical research at Stanford University.

Recognition[edit]The recipient of numerous scientific and technical awards, Warnock won the Software Systems Award from the Association for Computing Machinery in 1989.[8] In 1995 Warnock received the University of Utah Distinguished Alumnus Award and in 1999 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Warnock was awarded the Edwin H. Land Medal from the Optical Society of America in 2000.[9] In 2002, he was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum for "his accomplishments in the commercialization of desktop publishing with John Warnock and for innovations in scalable type, computer graphics and printing." Oxford University's Bodleian Library bestowed the Bodley Medal on Warnock in November, 2003.[10][11] In 2004, Warnock received the Lovelace Medal from the British Computer Society in London.[12] In October 2006, Warnock'--along with Adobe co-founder Charles Geschke'--received the American Electronics Association's Annual Medal of Achievement Award, being the first software executives to receive this award. In 2008, Warnock and Geschke received the Computer Entrepreneur Award from the IEEE Computer Society "for inventing PostScript and PDF and helping to launch the desktop publishing revolution and change the way people engage with information and entertainment".[13] In September 2009, Warnock and Geschke were chosen to receive the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, one of the nation's highest honors bestowed on scientists, engineers and inventors.[14][15] In 2010, Warnock and Geschke received the Marconi Prize, considered the highest honor specifically for contributions to information science and communications.[16]

Warnock is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, the latter being America's oldest learned society.

He has received Honorary Degrees from the University of Utah, American Film Institute and The University of Nottingham, UK.[17]

See also[edit]References[edit]^http://utah-beta.org/?page_id=14^Sexauer NE and; Warnock, J. E (1969). "The Radical of the Row-Finite Matrices over an Arbitrary Ring". Transactions of the American Mathematical Society (American Mathematical Society) 139: 281''295. JSTOR 1995321. ^Warnock, John (1969). "A hidden surface algorithm for computer generated halftone pictures" (PDF). University of Utah. "The algorithm was Warnock's doctoral thesis." , 32 pages^Daintith, John; Wright, Edmund (2009). Oxford Dictionary of Computing. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-923400-4. , 608 pages^Warnock, John (1991). "The Camelot Project" (PDF). PlanetPDF. "This document describes the base technology and ideas behind the project named ''Camelot.'' This project's goal is to solve a fundamental problem [...] there is no universal way to communicate and view ... printed information electronically." ^"U Receives Cornerstone Gift for New Engineering Building: President J. Bernard Machen Announces Plans for the John E. and Marva M. Warnock Engineering Building". University of Utah. 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-21. "The stock currently valued at over $5.7M is the cornerstone gift of a $13M capital campaign to construct a new engineering building dedicated to undergraduate instruction and emerging areas of research." [dead link]^Nagy C, et al (2009). Warnock J and Warnock M, ed. The Splendid Heritage:perspectives on American Indian art. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. p. 223. ISBN 0-87480-954-1 9780874809541 0874809606 9780874809602 . OCLC 294998662. ^"Software Systems Award Awardees List". Retrieved 2009-09-19. ^"Edwin H. Land Medal Winners List". Retrieved 2009-09-19. ^"Speech of welcome at the [[Bodleian Library]]'s San Francisco dinner, 13 November 2003". Retrieved 2009-09-18. "Speech by Bodleian Library's 23rd Librarian, Reg Carr" ^"Speech of welcome to the Bodley Medal Event". Retrieved 2009-09-19. "Bodleian Librarian Speech on History of the Bodley Medal" ^"[[Lovelace Medal]]". Retrieved 2008-12-10. "2004 winner, Dr John E Warnock, Chairman of the Board, Adobe Systems" ^Tyrus Manuel. "2008 Computer Entrepreneur Award: Charles M. Geschke and John E. Warnock". Retrieved 2009-09-19. ^Steve Johnson. "Adobe co-founders to receive national science award". Retrieved 2009-09-19. ^"The National Medal of Technology and Innovation". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2009.^"Geschke and Warnock Revolutionized Industry-Standard Printing and Imaging Technology". The Marconi Society. 2010-10-15. Retrieved 2010-10-10. ^"Honorary Degree for John Warnock". University of Nottingham. 2010-07-20. External links[edit]PersondataNameWarnock, JohnAlternative namesShort descriptionAmerican computer programmerDate of birth1940-10-06Place of birthSalt Lake City, UtahDate of deathPlace of death

Which company has is TRULY inside ALL intelligence ops?

ADOBE

F-Secure advises against using Adobe Reader - The H Security: News and Features

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 22:38

On the periphery of the current RSA conference, Mikko Hypponen, the chief research officer of Finnish anti-virus software vendor F-Secure, has recommended that, due to security problems with Adobe Reader, users should switch to an alternative program.

Of the targeted attacks on managers, politicians and other high-ranking individuals registered this year, almost 50 per cent have exploited six security vulnerabilities in Adobe's PDF products. In 2008 it was Microsoft Word which proved the most popular target '' with 35 per cent '' for such attacks, although the number of vulnerabilities in Adobe Reader (19) was already exceeding the number in Word (15) by four. Hypponen notes that while the number of infected PDF files observed between January and April 2008 was just 128, over the same period this year it rose to more than 2300.

The attacks involve criminals sending prepared documents to their victims in order to infect and spy on their PCs. The methods used by the recently reported spy network which infiltrated computers belonging to the Tibetan Government in Exile also included crafted PDF files. PDF and Flash browser plug-ins also present a risk.

According to Hypponen, users often fail to update their applications and are not aware that important security updates have been released. Automatic update requests were also often ignored. In Hypponen's opinion, Adobe should establish a regular update cycle for its products in the same way as Microsoft.

Hypponen did not mention specific alternative PDF viewers, but merely referred to the website PDFReaders.org, which lists a number of free readers. The Foxit-Reader is, however, absent from this list. However the list does include open source readers KPDF (for KDE) and Xpdf, which were also recently found to contain critical security vulnerabilities very similar to those found in Adobe's products. Foxit has also previously harboured a number of critical bugs. Users will have to decide for themselves whether switching to an alternative PDF reader, or the rapid installation of security updates, represents the more sensible solution.

(dab)

See also:

(crve)

If you want to hide something, do it in plain sight:

We all know FLASH is a security risk

The Dead Man Talks

Thoughts on Flash

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 00:58

Apple has a long relationship with Adobe. In fact, we met Adobe's founders when they were in their proverbial garage. Apple was their first big customer, adopting their Postscript language for our new Laserwriter printer. Apple invested in Adobe and owned around 20% of the company for many years. The two companies worked closely together to pioneer desktop publishing and there were many good times. Since that golden era, the companies have grown apart. Apple went through its near death experience, and Adobe was drawn to the corporate market with their Acrobat products. Today the two companies still work together to serve their joint creative customers '' Mac users buy around half of Adobe's Creative Suite products '' but beyond that there are few joint interests.

I wanted to jot down some of our thoughts on Adobe's Flash products so that customers and critics may better understand why we do not allow Flash on iPhones, iPods and iPads. Adobe has characterized our decision as being primarily business driven '' they say we want to protect our App Store '' but in reality it is based on technology issues. Adobe claims that we are a closed system, and that Flash is open, but in fact the opposite is true. Let me explain.

First, there's ''Open''.

Adobe's Flash products are 100% proprietary. They are only available from Adobe, and Adobe has sole authority as to their future enhancement, pricing, etc. While Adobe's Flash products are widely available, this does not mean they are open, since they are controlled entirely by Adobe and available only from Adobe. By almost any definition, Flash is a closed system.

Apple has many proprietary products too. Though the operating system for the iPhone, iPod and iPad is proprietary, we strongly believe that all standards pertaining to the web should be open. Rather than use Flash, Apple has adopted HTML5, CSS and JavaScript '' all open standards. Apple's mobile devices all ship with high performance, low power implementations of these open standards. HTML5, the new web standard that has been adopted by Apple, Google and many others, lets web developers create advanced graphics, typography, animations and transitions without relying on third party browser plug-ins (like Flash). HTML5 is completely open and controlled by a standards committee, of which Apple is a member.

Apple even creates open standards for the web. For example, Apple began with a small open source project and created WebKit, a complete open-source HTML5 rendering engine that is the heart of the Safari web browser used in all our products. WebKit has been widely adopted. Google uses it for Android's browser, Palm uses it, Nokia uses it, and RIM (Blackberry) has announced they will use it too. Almost every smartphone web browser other than Microsoft's uses WebKit. By making its WebKit technology open, Apple has set the standard for mobile web browsers.

Second, there's the ''full web''.

Adobe has repeatedly said that Apple mobile devices cannot access ''the full web'' because 75% of video on the web is in Flash. What they don't say is that almost all this video is also available in a more modern format, H.264, and viewable on iPhones, iPods and iPads. YouTube, with an estimated 40% of the web's video, shines in an app bundled on all Apple mobile devices, with the iPad offering perhaps the best YouTube discovery and viewing experience ever. Add to this video from Vimeo, Netflix, Facebook, ABC, CBS, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News, ESPN, NPR, Time, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Sports Illustrated, People, National Geographic, and many, many others. iPhone, iPod and iPad users aren't missing much video.

Another Adobe claim is that Apple devices cannot play Flash games. This is true. Fortunately, there are over 50,000 games and entertainment titles on the App Store, and many of them are free. There are more games and entertainment titles available for iPhone, iPod and iPad than for any other platform in the world.

Third, there's reliability, security and performance.

Symantec recently highlighted Flash for having one of the worst security records in 2009. We also know first hand that Flash is the number one reason Macs crash. We have been working with Adobe to fix these problems, but they have persisted for several years now. We don't want to reduce the reliability and security of our iPhones, iPods and iPads by adding Flash.

In addition, Flash has not performed well on mobile devices. We have routinely asked Adobe to show us Flash performing well on a mobile device, any mobile device, for a few years now. We have never seen it. Adobe publicly said that Flash would ship on a smartphone in early 2009, then the second half of 2009, then the first half of 2010, and now they say the second half of 2010. We think it will eventually ship, but we're glad we didn't hold our breath. Who knows how it will perform?

Fourth, there's battery life.

To achieve long battery life when playing video, mobile devices must decode the video in hardware; decoding it in software uses too much power. Many of the chips used in modern mobile devices contain a decoder called H.264 '' an industry standard that is used in every Blu-ray DVD player and has been adopted by Apple, Google (YouTube), Vimeo, Netflix and many other companies.

Although Flash has recently added support for H.264, the video on almost all Flash websites currently requires an older generation decoder that is not implemented in mobile chips and must be run in software. The difference is striking: on an iPhone, for example, H.264 videos play for up to 10 hours, while videos decoded in software play for less than 5 hours before the battery is fully drained.

When websites re-encode their videos using H.264, they can offer them without using Flash at all. They play perfectly in browsers like Apple's Safari and Google's Chrome without any plugins whatsoever, and look great on iPhones, iPods and iPads.

Fifth, there's Touch.

Flash was designed for PCs using mice, not for touch screens using fingers. For example, many Flash websites rely on ''rollovers'', which pop up menus or other elements when the mouse arrow hovers over a specific spot. Apple's revolutionary multi-touch interface doesn't use a mouse, and there is no concept of a rollover. Most Flash websites will need to be rewritten to support touch-based devices. If developers need to rewrite their Flash websites, why not use modern technologies like HTML5, CSS and JavaScript?

Even if iPhones, iPods and iPads ran Flash, it would not solve the problem that most Flash websites need to be rewritten to support touch-based devices.

Sixth, the most important reason.

Besides the fact that Flash is closed and proprietary, has major technical drawbacks, and doesn't support touch based devices, there is an even more important reason we do not allow Flash on iPhones, iPods and iPads. We have discussed the downsides of using Flash to play video and interactive content from websites, but Adobe also wants developers to adopt Flash to create apps that run on our mobile devices.

We know from painful experience that letting a third party layer of software come between the platform and the developer ultimately results in sub-standard apps and hinders the enhancement and progress of the platform. If developers grow dependent on third party development libraries and tools, they can only take advantage of platform enhancements if and when the third party chooses to adopt the new features. We cannot be at the mercy of a third party deciding if and when they will make our enhancements available to our developers.

This becomes even worse if the third party is supplying a cross platform development tool. The third party may not adopt enhancements from one platform unless they are available on all of their supported platforms. Hence developers only have access to the lowest common denominator set of features. Again, we cannot accept an outcome where developers are blocked from using our innovations and enhancements because they are not available on our competitor's platforms.

Flash is a cross platform development tool. It is not Adobe's goal to help developers write the best iPhone, iPod and iPad apps. It is their goal to help developers write cross platform apps. And Adobe has been painfully slow to adopt enhancements to Apple's platforms. For example, although Mac OS X has been shipping for almost 10 years now, Adobe just adopted it fully (Cocoa) two weeks ago when they shipped CS5. Adobe was the last major third party developer to fully adopt Mac OS X.

Our motivation is simple '' we want to provide the most advanced and innovative platform to our developers, and we want them to stand directly on the shoulders of this platform and create the best apps the world has ever seen. We want to continually enhance the platform so developers can create even more amazing, powerful, fun and useful applications. Everyone wins '' we sell more devices because we have the best apps, developers reach a wider and wider audience and customer base, and users are continually delighted by the best and broadest selection of apps on any platform.

Conclusions.

Flash was created during the PC era '' for PCs and mice. Flash is a successful business for Adobe, and we can understand why they want to push it beyond PCs. But the mobile era is about low power devices, touch interfaces and open web standards '' all areas where Flash falls short.

The avalanche of media outlets offering their content for Apple's mobile devices demonstrates that Flash is no longer necessary to watch video or consume any kind of web content. And the 250,000 apps on Apple's App Store proves that Flash isn't necessary for tens of thousands of developers to create graphically rich applications, including games.

New open standards created in the mobile era, such as HTML5, will win on mobile devices (and PCs too). Perhaps Adobe should focus more on creating great HTML5 tools for the future, and less on criticizing Apple for leaving the past behind.

Steve JobsApril, 2010

Third, there's reliability, security and performance.

Symantec recently highlighted Flash for having one of the worst security records in 2009. We also know first hand that Flash is the number one reason Macs crash. We have been working with Adobe to fix these problems, but they have persisted for several years now. We don't want to reduce the reliability and security of our iPhones, iPods and iPads by adding Flash.

Steve Jobs' death clears way for Adobe CTO defection ' The Register

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Long-standing chief technology officer Kevin Lynch has left Adobe, but why?

Adobe has just announced first quarter 2013 results that were a little ahead of its target and show strong take-up of Creative Cloud - by which it offers up its cloudy software services for subscription rather than one-off purchase - roughly akin to an Office 265 for Creative Suite. There was more significant news though, noted in a form 8-K SEC filing:

On March 18, 2013, Kevin Lynch resigned from his position as Executive Vice President, Chief Technology Officer, of Adobe Systems Incorporated, effective March 22, 2013, to pursue other opportunities.

Adobe later issued a statement:

Kevin Lynch, Adobe CTO, is leaving the company effective March 22 to take a position at Apple. We will not be replacing the CTO position; responsibility for technology development lies with our business unit heads under the leadership of Adobe Systems CEO Shantanu Narayen.

The 46-year-old joined Adobe via its acquisition of Macromedia, the company which developed Flash, in December 2005. But Lynch had roots in Apple software development. ''I was a Mac software developer. I helped develop the first Mac release of FrameMaker and then led their core technology team,'' Lynch writes on his personal site.

Later he joined General Magic, an Apple spin-off, where he worked on the user interface for a handheld device.

He might have been expressing his love for the Mac, but it's Flash that Lynch has been closely associated with in recent years. And Steve Jobs barred Flash from all our futures by blocking it from the iPhone and iPad.

That's making Lynch's hire as much a head-scratcher as a craw-sticker for the Apple faithful, none more so than fan blogger John Gruber who has spent years crowing about the inevitable brilliance of Apple's Jobsian way.

Flash boom bangSo, why is Lynch leaving Adobe? The news comes in the context of turbulent change for the company.

Adobe's product strategy was once built on Flash, a strategy that was killed by Apple which refused to allow it on the iPhone and iPad.

''Flash is a cross-platform development tool. It is not Adobe's goal to help developers write the best iPhone, iPod and iPad apps. It is their goal to help developers write cross-platform apps. And Adobe has been painfully slow to adopt enhancements to Apple's platforms,'' said Steve Jobs in his Thoughts on Flash, in April 2010.

Apple followed up with a change in its terms for developers, later withdrawn, that required iOS applications to be ''originally written in Objective-C, C, C++ or JavaScript''. It was a war against Flash, won by Apple.

The impact on Adobe came to light gradually. In October 2011 the company acquired Nitobi and with it PhoneGap, technology to wrap HTML applications as native code for mobile devices. That was a sign of a new direction, yet the company's MAX conference that month was still more focused on Flash than HTML technology.

Radical change followed. In November 2011 Adobe told financial analysts in New York that it was investing in HTML tooling, repositioning Flash to a lesser role, and focusing on digital media and marketing. That announcement marked the end of Flash as a strategic product for Adobe, taking many in the Adobe community by surprise. ''Leaving the Adobe MAX conference one month ago I felt reassured that the future of Flash and Flex were bright. Now I feel betrayed,'' said one signatory to an online petition in response.

The move was nevertheless the right one for Adobe, which in the circumstances has managed a smooth transition, not only from Flash to HTML tooling, but also towards a business model based on subscriptions and cloud services. Lynch oversaw that transition, and most recently was working on linking Creative Cloud, based on Adobe's design software, with the Digital Marketing Suite, based on web analytics.

Cloud Man?One interpretation is that Apple considers Lynch a strategic hire to assist with its own transition towards cloud services, and to realise the potential of iCloud, though according to CNBC Lynch will be reporting to hardware guy Bob Mansfield, senior veep of technologies. That said, Apple announced in June 2012 that Mansfield is retiring, with his role to be taken by another engineering vice president, Dan Riccio. It is not yet clear what Lynch will be doing at Apple.

It is also possible that Lynch had become a poor fit at Adobe, following its transition to digital media and digital marketing.

''This news is pretty big, but bigger for Adobe than Apple,'' said RedMonk analyst James Governor. ''Since Shantanu was handed the reins to Omniture [web analytics] it hasn't been clear what exactly Lynch's role is. Kevin Lynch is a UX guy, not a Big Data/marketing analytics guy - but at Adobe the money is now in marketing analytics. So it's no surprise at all Lynch would leave for Apple.''

Some observers consider that Lynch was too much wedded to Flash to be comfortable in the new Adobe. I have heard that he was opposed to the moves to cut back on Flash investment, placing him in an uncomfortable position once the deal was done. This part, at least, made Lynch a bad hire according to fan chief Gruber. ''I get that the guy worked for Adobe and had to play for the home team, but as CTO he backed a dying technology for years too long,'' the Fireball splutters.

One thing is for sure: Apple is unlikely to have hired Lynch for his Flash expertise. ®

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Adobe Acquires Omniture: It's All About the Revenue Model

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PreviousNextAdobe is looking to stall falling sales and profit by entering into a new market: analytics. But rather looking to R&D, Adobe is instead coughing up $1.8 billion for analytics leader Omniture. This is the largest acquisition by Adobe since the purchase of Macromedia for $3 billion in 2005.

The acquisition has puzzled many, since Adobe and Omniture products really have no natural cooperation. There have been comments about the measurement capabilities that Omniture will give to content built with Adobe products. But in the end the entire deal revolves around two words: recurring revenue. Adobe's quarterly earnings have fallen due to declining sales of software licenses, and the SaaS model of Omniture will bring the company a recurring stream of revenue.

Omniture is a top dog in analytics. But even though it competes with just about everyone, including Google, in the measurement market, some industry analysts have pointed out that it's really run out of new ideas. In trying to explain the acquisition during an earnings call, Adobe CEO Shantanu Narayen asserted that buying Omniture was meeting customer needs.

What we found is that as we've been talking to our customers, it's clear that they would like us to do a lot more. For example, the chief digital officers that we talk to at media companies have been telling us that they want to understand which content was performing the best so that they could feature it more prominently and increase their ad revenue.

Advertisers and agencies were using Flash to produce rich ads but they were telling us that they really wanted to understand what the click-through rates of those ads were in real time, to be able to take more advantage of it.

But few analysts have agreed that adding measurement power to content is really the core of this deal. Adobe announced the acquisition alongside a decrease in quarterly earnings. Even if Omniture is no longer at the forefront of innovation in analytics, its steady stream of revenue from SaaS subscriptions is a cash cow that Adobe can't afford to pass up right now.

Tags:Steven Walling is a Writer for ReadWriteWeb based in Portland, Oregon. Having joined the team in June 2009, he's also a consultant for tech startups like AboutUs, Inc. and has written film and performing arts criticism in the past. In his spare time, he's an active volunteer for the free culture projects of the Wikimedia Foundation. You can contact Steven at steven@readwriteweb.com.Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.

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Omniture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Omniture was an online marketing and web analytics business unit in Orem, Utah that was acquired by Adobe Systems. The company operated until 2011 as a business unit within Adobe called the Omniture Business Unit, but as of 2012, Adobe began the process of retiring the Omniture name as former Omniture products were integrated into the Adobe Marketing Cloud.[2]

History[edit]The company was founded in 1996 by Josh James and John Pestana and was backed by venture capitalists including Hummer Winblad Venture Partners, University Venture Fund, and Scale Venture Partners. During a period of rapid growth, the company was one of Inc. Magazine's 500 fastest-growing private companies. Omniture was listed on the NASDAQ as OMTR[3] in 2006.[4]

Omniture bought behavioral targeting company Touch Clarity for $51.5 million.[5] In late 2007 the company acquired web analytics company Visual Sciences, Inc. (formerly WebSideStory) for $394 million,[6] and also purchased Offermatica for $65 million. In October, 2008 it agreed to acquire the Israeli e-commerce search solution provider Mercado for $6.5 million.[7]

On September 15, 2009, Omniture, Inc. and Adobe Systems announced that Adobe would be acquiring Omniture for roughly $1.8 billion.[8] The deal was completed on October 23, 2009,[9] and is now joined by other Adobe acquisitions such as Day Software and Efficient Frontier, as the main components of Adobe's Digital Marketing Business Unit.[10][11]

Adobe vacated the former Omniture offices in Orem, Utah in November, 2012, moving a large portion of its Digital Marketing Business Unit to a new facility in Lehi, Utah.

Products[edit]SiteCatalyst, Omniture's software as a service application, offers web analytics (client-side analytics).SearchCenter+ assists with paid search and content network optimization in systems such as Google's AdWords, Yahoo! Search Marketing, Microsoft Ad Center, and Facebook Ads.DataWarehouse, data warehousing of SiteCatalyst data.Test&Target, A/B and MVT (multi-variate testing), derived from OffermaticaTest&Target 1:1, Omniture's main behavioural targeting solution, derived in part from Touch Clarity, drills down to the individual level of testing.Discover, an advanced segmentation tool.Insight, a multichannel segmentation tool (both client-side and server-side analytics). Formerly called Discover on Premise, it was derived from Omniture's Visual Sciences acquisition in 2007.Insight for Retail, an Insight offering geared toward multiple online and offline retail channels.Genesis, a third-party data integration tool (the majority of integrations work with SiteCatalyst).Recommendations offers automated product and content recommendations.SiteSearch, an on-demand enterprise search product.Merchandising, a search and navigation offering for online stores.Publish, for web content management.Survey, to gather visitor sentiment.DigitalPulse, a Web analytics code configuration monitoring tool.VISTA, server-side analytics.Omniture's latest offerings as of 2010 include some social media tracking capabilities. Major competitors are Rapleaf, WebTrends, Personyze and Eloqua.

Criticism[edit]Critics have accused Omniture of attempting to hide the fact they are collecting data.[12] Critics claim they do this by sending the information to a domain name that looks and sounds similar to an IP address used to connect to devices on the local network and not the Internet. This has led to speculation that the domain name is used to trick users or firewall rules.[13] Omniture's SiteCatalyst and SearchCenter products use the 2o7.net domain name.[14]

Omniture collects data from Apple[12] and Adobe, who use Omniture to collect usage statistics across their products.[13] It is possible to opt-out of the Omniture data-collection system, and to block the tracking.[14]

References[edit][1] - Inc Article about Josh James, Founder, and John Pestana, CofounderExternal links[edit]

Josh James - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 01:54

Josh James is an Americanentrepreneur and founder and CEO of Domo (formerly Corda[2]), a software-as-a-service (SaaS) company he started in 2010 to fix the fundamental problems he saw in the business intelligence market. He raised $63 million [3] in Series A funding from Benchmark Capital, IVP and a number of other high-profile Silicon Valley venture capital firms and angel investors.[4] He also is the founder of CEO.com, an online resource for CEO-related news and information.

Prior, James co-founded and served as CEO of Omniture, a web analytics company. On his 33rd birthday, James rang the bell of the NYSE as Omniture went public in 2006[5] and later sold the company to Adobe in 2009 for USD $1.8 billion. From 2006 to 2009, the three years that Omniture was public, James was the youngest CEO of a Nasdaq or New York Stock Exchange-traded company.[6] Omniture was one of the top performing IPOs in 2006 and the number one returning venture investment out of 1,008 venture capital investments in 2004.[7] James served as Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Omniture Business Unit at Adobe until July 2010.

In 2012, Mountain West Capital Network named James its Entrepreneur of the Year.[8] On June 27, 2012, James and Domo, Inc. received the Utah Valley Business Q "2012 UV50 TOP 10 Startups To Watch" award.[9] James was featured as #26 on Fortune 40 under 40 in 2009 and #1 on Fortune 40 under 40 "Ones to Watch" in 2011.[10][11][12] He received the 2006 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award and was named Technology Entrepreneur of the Decade by Brigham Young University. He was also recognized as Mountain West Capital's 2012 Entrepreneur of the Year. On November 30, 2012, James was inducted into the Utah Technology Hall of Fame along with Fred Lampropoulous, founder of Merit Medical Systems.[13]

James maintains a list of entrepreneurial advice for startup companies.[14]

He serves as a Young Global Leader with the World Economic Forum.[15] He also serves on the boards of Demand Media, a NYSE-traded company; Rakuten, a publicly traded, five billion dollar revenue company that is one of largest e-commerce companies in Japan; and Save the Children, the leading independent organization creating lasting change in the lives of children in need in the United States and around the world.

Before co-founding Omniture James co-founded an interactive agency and two other businesses, which were subsequently sold to WebMediaBrands (formerly known as Jupitermedia) and Verisign. James founded Silicon Slopes, a private-sector initiative that promotes the interests of the high-tech industry in Utah. He attended Brigham Young University into his senior year but did not graduate.

James is the oldest of six children. His father was an airline pilot and colonel in the Marines. He moved 17 times growing up. James served a two-year mission in Tokyo for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He had roles as a child actor, which included appearing in episodes of Touched by an Angel and in a Kellogg's Honey Smacks commercial.[16][17][18] He is the brother of Zach James, co-founder of MovieClips [19]

External links[edit]References[edit]PersondataNameJames, JoshAlternative namesShort descriptionEntrepreneur, Co-founder of Omniture, CEO of DomoDate of birth1973Place of birthDate of deathPlace of death

MORMON DATABASE

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Adobe acquires video ad platform Auditude for $120M (updated) | VentureBeat

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July 9-10, 2013San Francisco, CA

Tickets On Sale NowAdobe has acquired video advertising platform Auditude, the companies announced today. [Update: While financial terms of the deal were not publicly disclosed, Adobe is said to have paid close to $120 million (mostly in cash) for the startup, according to sources familiar with the matter.]

Auditude allows its clients to manage and monetize advertising around premium video content. Its service lets publishers and media companies create high-quality advertising experiences across multiple platforms and devices. The company's clients include Comcast, Sony Music and Universal Music Group.

''We felt that Auditude was really a market leader, not only from a technology perspective, but also in the way that they look at the market,'' said Adobe Vice President and General Manager of Media Solutions Todd Teresi in an interview with VentureBeat. ''Auditude is not only focused on video, but alternative devices as well '... connected devices like tablets, smartphones, gaming consoles.''

''At Adobe, we really see those devices as the future of video growth and premium content,'' Teresi said in response to a question about what makes Auditude stand out over other video ad platforms.

The acquisition will allow Adobe to provide a complete ''end-to-end'' experience, meaning its clients will be able to create, publish, monetize and optimize videos from one place. The company said it plans to integrate Auditude with its other products, such as Adobe Digital Marketing Suite, Adobe Flash Media Server and Adobe Pass. The integration is tentatively scheduled to begin rolling out in early 2012, according to Teresi.

Founded in 2007, the Palo Alto-based startup previously raised a total of $38 million in funding to date from Redpoint Ventures and Greylock Partners.

Video advertising | Adobe Auditude '' Adobe.com

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Adobe Auditude now offers turnkey integration with Adobe SiteCatalyst®, a leading web analytics system, allowing for a holistic view across content and ad performance, wherever video is viewed.

The integration between Auditude and SiteCatalyst provides a deeper understanding of content and ad performance to arrive at a single "engagement ROI" metric '-- data on how engagement translates directly to revenue '-- and allows for targeting of individual site visitors. Discovery and targeting mechanisms help ensure that video publishers serve relevant and meaningful ads at premium CPMs to high-value visitors. The integration offers automatic alignment and association of Auditude ad data with SiteCatalyst content data, without the need for custom integrations.

Generate more revenueFrom live broadcasts to video on demand (VOD), Adobe Auditude provides premium TV-like commercial breaks supported by robust tools and services to drive the highest volume of advertising demand from direct and indirect sales.

Enhance ad experiencesDeliver relevant, targeted advertising with full control over ad quality and sequencing. Viewers get an enjoyable TV-like commercial experience, which attracts investment from major brand advertisers.

Reach virtually every deviceAn open architecture and interoperability across Internet-enabled devices allow seamless ad insertion across Android' and iOS devices, set-top boxes, game consoles, and more.

Simplify workflowsA unified solution creates a more efficient and cost-effective workflow to help reduce operational costs and drive revenue higher.

Auditude smoothly integrates into Adobe's end-to-end video technology solution. With compatible technologies from start to finish, Project Primetime is a unified video platform that helps you achieve broadcast audience reach, lower operating costs, and boost revenue from ad sales.

Adobe Photoshop Touch for iPad, Plus iOS-Friendly Video Ad Platform - Lauren Goode - News

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 01:13

You might already be aware of this, but Adobe and Apple haven't always had a warm and fuzzy relationship.

Now, Adobe is bringing Photoshop Touch to the iPad as part of a suite of creative apps for Apple's iOS. The app was previously only available for Android devices.

Photoshop Touch lets users layer images, touch up photos and use ''paint'' tools, with a few swipes on the iPad. It also includes a Scribble Selection Tool for removing objects from photos, the ability to search for images through Google Image search, and a quick-sharing option through Facebook.

The app costs $9.99 and currently works only on iPad 2. Adobe already has an iPad app available for photo touch-ups '-- Adobe Photoshop Express '-- but it's a much more limited version of Photoshop.

Adobe plans to introduce a handful of other creative apps for iPad 2 later this year, including Adobe Collage, Adobe Ideas and Adobe Proto, for Web site and mobile-app prototyping. These apps will all work with Adobe's Creative Cloud services.

The new Adobe apps for iPad show not only that companies are increasingly viewing tablets as devices for content creation '-- just a few weeks ago, Avid introduced a full video-editing app for iPad '-- but also signals the importance of getting aboard the iOS boat.

Back in 2010, Apple CEO Steve Jobs likened Adobe's Flash technology to floppy disks and serial ports, when he explained why Apple wouldn't support Adobe's flagship Flash product on its mobile devices. Then, in June of last year, Adobe CEO Shantanu Narayen said that the Flash argument between Adobe and Apple was over. In November, Adobe said it would no longer develop Flash for mobile devices, and would instead focus on HTML5, seen by many as a concession in the war between Apple and Adobe over the future of Flash technology.

Now, in addition to the iPad apps, Adobe is also introducing a video ad service, codenamed Project Primetime, for producing and publishing ads that will work across Apple iOS and Google Android devices, desktops operating systems, and ''smart'' (Internet-connected) TVs, including Samsung TVs.

Adobe will support a few different video formats in Primetime, including H.264 and MPEG-DASH as well as Adobe's standard Flash-based video protocol, but Adobe says it hopes to reduce fragmentation in the video technology market. Essentially, it's doing so by introducing more non-Flash solutions.

Its Adobe Access 4 software, for example, formerly known as Adobe Flash Access, will now support iOS apps, and is expected to be available to broadcast and media companies in spring of this year.

Adobe announces Project Primetime video platform, Highlights available now for iPad (update: video)

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 01:11

Adobe Announces Integrated Video Publishing, Advertisingand Analytics PlatformProject "Primetime", the Industry's first Integrated Video Content and Ad Service Across Devices, Promises to Accelerate Advertising Revenue

MIAMI, Florida and BARCELONA, Spain - Feb. 27, 2012 - At the IAB Annual Leadership Summit and Mobile World Congress, Adobe Systems Incorporated (Nasdaq: ADBE) today unveiled the industry's first fully integrated video technology platform, code named Project Primetime, to enable smooth, TV-like experiences for ad-supported videos across Web-connected devices. This new platform delivers premium video and ad content consistently across all major platforms,including Apple iOS, Google Android, desktop operating systems and connected TVs. Shown for the first time at these two major industry events, elements of Primetime will be available throughout 2012.

Primetime creates a single, end-to-end workflow that interconnects Adobe streaming technologies, content protection, analytics and optimization with the recently acquired Auditude video advertising platform. This integration enables premium video providers to give customers a superior viewing experience through seamless dynamic ad insertion into any content type, whetherlinear, live or on-demand across Web-connected devices. Adobe Digital Marketing Suite is integral to Primetime, ensuring that media companies are able to combine consumption and revenue data to personalize their content and ads.

"Adobe's new video technology platform is transforming the way video content and ads are being served and consumed," said David Wadhwani, senior vice president, Digital Media Business, Adobe. "Project Primetime gives media companies one solution to deliver and monetize their content seamlessly across tablets, mobile phones, TVs and PCs while delivering better consumer experiences over IP."

As part of the first phase of bringing the platform to market, Adobe is making "Primetime Highlights" available today. The new video publishing offering integrates a Web-based video clip editor with the Adobe Auditude ad platform enabling the industry's first single workflow for creating and monetizing live video clips in real time. Video publishers are able to deliver ad supported clips that are instantly available '' even while an event is still ongoing '' making content more timely and less expensive to produce. Clips can be delivered via an Adobe-provided video player within an existing mobile application or embedded in a web site. Primetime Highlights enables a viewing experience that is smooth and comparable to traditional TV broadcasts with seamless content and ad transitions. Video publishers can start publishing and monetizing video clips to the iPad today. Other platforms are expected to be supported in 2012.

Expanded support for standards; Industry certificationAdobe Auditude has received the Media Rating Council's (MRC) accreditation of the Digital Video Ad Impression Statistics for ads delivered by its ad management and monetization platform. With this accreditation, customers can be assured that Adobe's methods for generating ad impression statistics are in accordance with industry-established guidelines published by the MRC.

Adobe Access 4 software will support native iOS apps, extending its existing support for desktop operating systems, Android apps and connected TVs. With added support for content using the HLS (HTTP Live Streaming) protocol for iOS devices, Adobe Access now enables premium video publishers to reach the broadest possible audience across devices with a single content protection workflow and infrastructure. Adobe Access, formerly known as Adobe Flash Access, already protects videos delivered across browsers and applications using RTMP and HDS (HTTP Dynamic Streaming) protocols.

Adobe streaming technologies will support MPEG-DASH, a set of emerging standards for streaming multimedia content over the Web that will help reduce technology fragmentation. Support for MPEG-DASH, which is expected to become a profile of HDS, comes as Adobe continues to collaborate in this area with a large number of industry partners. At the same time, Adobe will continue to innovate and develop its HTTP streaming protocol, HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS), which is used by major broadcasters worldwide.

AvailabilityPrimetime is being showcased to broadcasters and media companies starting today and is expected to be available in 2012 with support for Windows, Mac OS, Apple iOS, Google Android, Samsung SmartTVs and other platforms. The individual products and technologies of the platform continue to be available as separate offerings. Adobe Access support for iOS is expected to ship in spring 2012. For more information and a demo video visit the Digital Media blog.

Major components of Primetime- Adobe Auditude provides an ad management and monetization platform for high-quality advertising experiences, allowing publishers and media companies to increase the value of their content across connected devices, while also lowering operational costs.

- The Adobe Digital Marketing Suite is an integrated portfolio of analytics and optimization products that provide insight into the performance of digital marketing initiatives and allow marketers to personalize those initiatives for greater relevance and engagement.

- Adobe Access helps content owners, distributors and advertisers content protect premium videos and more securely deliver them to connected devices.

- Adobe streaming technologies serve rich media content across platforms including Apple iOS with a choice of powerful protocols that help save significant bandwidth costs and lighten network load.

- Adobe Pass verifies a user's entitlement to content in a manner that is both simple and secure.

- Primetime Highlights, Adobe's new video publishing offering, integrates a Web-based video clip editor with Adobe Auditude, enabling a single workflow for creating and monetizing live video clips on the fly.

Adobe Primetime works on iOS

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 23:23

Adobe® Primetime lets content programmers and distributors profit from video on every connected screen. It eliminates the complexity of reaching, monetizing, and activating global audiences across devices by providing a modular platform for video publishing, advertising, and analytics. The results? Greater revenue from ad sales and subscriptions, lower operating costs, and audiences that are more engaged. Read the Primetime overview 'º

What did Steve know? What Elite$ die from cancer these days?

Obama Modest Encroachments

Definition of Encroach

When Can The Government Read Your Email - Business Insider

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Fri, 07 Jun 2013 17:31

The revelation that the National Security Agencycan monitor your every move onlineshouldn't come as a total shock. A1986 lawlets the Fedsread emailsthat have been stored on a server for at least six months.The Electronic Communications Privacy Act was enacted long before everybody had email, but the government says the law lets it access 180-day old email without a warrant. Here's the relevant text of the law:

A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communications services of the contents of a wire or electronic communication that has been in electronic storage in an electronic communications system for more than one hundred and eighty days by the means available under subsection (b) of this section.

In May, the ACLU got its hands on the government's justification for using this law to gather six-month-old emails. Here's the justification from the 2012 Version of FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide, which the ACLU got through a FOIA request:

In enacting the ECPA, Congress concluded that customers may not retain a ''reasonable expectation of privacy'' in information sent to network providers. . . [I]f the contents of an unopened message are kept beyond six months or stored on behalf of the customer after the e-mail has been received or opened, it should be treated the same as a business record in the hands of a third party, such as an accountant or attorney. In that case, the government may subpoena the records from the third party without running afoul of either the Fourth or Fifth Amendment.

The Fourth Amendment protects Americans from unreasonable searches and often requires police to get search warrants before encroaching on your privacy. Americans should be appalled that the government can snoop into their old emails without such a warrant.

President Obama said today that "nobody's listening to the content of people's phone calls." However, the Feds might be reading a very private six-month-old email '-- and they don't even need permission from a judge to do so.

There is a bright spot, though. In May, Eric Holder testified that he thinks the government should have to get a warrant before it accesses any email regardless of its age.

The Justice Department submitted this statement to Congress in March:

Many have noted and we agree that some of the lines drawn by the SCA that may have made sense in the past have failed to keep up with the development of technology, and the ways in which individuals and companies use, and increasingly rely on, electronic and stored communications. We agree, for example, that there is no principled basis to treat email less than 180 days old differently than email more than 180 days old.

U.S. Internet spying foiled plot to attack NY subways - sources | Reuters

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Track and analyse performance of all BSE sectoral indices and other global indices on a single page. Full Coverage

A sign advertises Wi-Fi service in the Times Square Subway station in New York, April 25, 2013.

Credit: Reuters/Brendan McDermid/Files

By Mark Hosenball

WASHINGTON | Sat Jun 8, 2013 2:00am IST

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A secret U.S. intelligence program to collect emails that is at the heart of an uproar over government surveillance helped foil an Islamist militant plot to bomb the New York City subway system in 2009, U.S. government sources said on Friday.

The sources said Representative Mike Rogers, chairman of the House of Representatives Intelligence Committee, was talking about a plot hatched by Najibullah Zazi, an Afghan-born U.S. resident, when he said on Thursday that such surveillance had helped thwart a significant terrorist plot in recent years.

President Barack Obama's administration is facing controversy after revelations of details of massive programs run by the National Security Agency for collecting information from telephone and Internet companies.

The surveillance program that halted the Zazi plot was one that collected email data on foreign intelligence suspects, a U.S. government source said.

The Washington Post and Britain's Guardian newspaper on Thursday published top-secret information from inside NSA that described how the agency gathered masses of email data from prominent Internet firms, including Google, Facebook and Apple under the PRISM program. Some of the companies denied that the NSA and FBI had "direct access" to their central servers.

On Friday, CBS News correspondent John Miller, a former U.S. intelligence and FBI official, reported that U.S. authorities had discovered the Zazi plot after running across an email sent to a rarely used al Qaeda address that was associated with a notorious bomb-maker based in Pakistan.

Miller said authorities traced the sender of the email to a suburb of Denver. At the time of Zazi's arrest, U.S. authorities revealed that he had been tracked from Denver to New York, where, after a brief interlude during which U.S. investigators lost track of him, he was arrested by the FBI.

In February 2010, Zazi pleaded guilty in federal court in Brooklyn, New York, to charges that included conspiracy to use weapons of mass destruction and providing material support to terrorists.

(Editing by Alistair Bell and Peter Cooney)

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(13) Jeff Jarvis - Google+ - Government's Secrets: A Discussion of Principles America'...

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 21:21

Government's Secrets: A Discussion of PrinciplesAmerica is supposed to be a nation governed by principles, which are undergirded by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights and carried into law. The discussion about the government and its capture of our data should be held on the level of principles.

* Privacy: Our direct and personal communication in any medium and by any means '-- mail, email, phone, VOIP, Twitter DM, and any technology yet to be invented '-- should be considered private, as our physical mail is, and subject to government intervention only through lawful warrant. That is not the case. Thus it is quite reasonable to be disturbed at the news that government can demand and receive communication we believe to be private. Government may call itself the protector of our privacy but it is our privacy's worst enemy.

* Transparency: The actions of government should be known to citizens. I argue in Public Parts that our institutions should be public by default, secret by necessity; now they are secret by default and open by force. There are necessary secrets. There is a need for intelligence. There I agree with David Simon. I saw people die before me on 9/11 and I fault intelligence or not stopping it.

But we are left out of the discussion of where the line of necessity should be. If President Obama believes in the transparency he talks about and if he now says he welcomes the debate about security and freedom then it should have occurred before government took the actions now being reported and not by force through leaks. There I agree with James Fallows that this leak is not harmful '-- what bad guys didn't already realize that their phones could be tracked? '-- and will be beneficial for democracy.

* Balance of powers: The best protection of our nation's principles is the balance of powers. Yes, Congress passed the Patriot Act and yes, a FISA court does approve the executive branch's actions. But both our representatives and our justices are prevented from sharing anything with us, as are the companies that are forced to be their accomplices. The true balance of powers is the exercise of democracy by citizens, but without information we have no power and government has it all.

* Freedom of speech and of the press: Information comes to the public from the press, which is now anyone with information to share. And citizens exercise power through speech. But in its jihad against leaks'... that is whistleblowers'... that is reporting'... that is journalism and the public's right to know, the White House is chilling both the press and speech. I pray that Glenn Greenwald doesn't have a Verizon phone.

This discussion is less about privacy and more about transparency and speech. The principles most offended here are those embedded in the First Amendment for those are the principles we rely upon to take part in the debate that is democracy.

I am asking for government to behave according to principles. I am also asking companies to do so. Twitter '-- whose behavior toward developers and users can sometimes mystify me '-- is apparently the platform most stalwart in standing for its users' rights as a matter of principle. They apparently refused to make it easier for government to get data. Now one could argue that helping government thwart terrorists is also behaving according to principle. But again we and these companies aren't allowed to have that debate. So I'd now advise following what is apparently Twitter's route in only responding to demands, nothing more. And I'd advise following Google's example in revealing government demands for information (though under FISA, once again, they're not allowed to reveal '-- even by a count '-- them all).

There is much debate and sometimes conspiracy theorizing swirling around about what Google, Facebook, et al did and didn't provide to government. I take Larry Page's and Mark Zuckerberg's statements at their literal word and agree with Declan McCullagh that I so far see no evidence that these companies handed the keys to their servers to the NSA. We know and they have long said that they comply with government orders, whether in the U.S. or China.

Though some are attacking him on this issue and though I often disagree with him on the state of the news business, I again say that I agree with David Simon on the unsophisticated and emotional interpretation of this news. Since the initial New York Times report on NSA ''warrantless wiretapping,'' I have understood that one of government's goals is to use data to find anomalies but to do that it has to have a baseline of normal behavior. We're the normal. This has been going on for sometime, as Simon says; we just haven't known how.

Are we as a nation OK with allowing government to make such an analysis to find the terrorists' anomalous behaviour or not? That's a discussion that should occur according to principles, properly informed about the risks and benefits. Are we OK with government using that same data to fish for other crimes '-- like, say, leaking a PowerPoint to the Guardian? I am not. Are we OK with government treating whistleblowers and leakers as traitors '-- starting with Bradley Manning? I am not. I agree with Bruce Shneier: ''We need whistleblowers.'' Are we OK with government having access to our private communications without warrants? I say: most definitely not, as a matter of principle.

Under a regime of secrecy, assuming the worst becomes the default in the discussion. We assume the worst of government because they keep from us even activities they say are harmless and beneficial. We see people who want to be suspicious of technology and technology companies assuming the worst of them because, after all, we can't know precisely what they are doing. I agree with Farhad Manjoo about the danger. People in other nations '-- I'm looking at you, EU '-- already distrust both the American government and American technology companies, often in the past for emotional reasons or with anti-American roots but now with more cause. You can bet we'll hear governments across Europe and elsewhere push harder for legislation now in process to require that their citizens' data be held outside the U.S. and to European standards because, well, they assume the worst. We'll hear calls to boycott American-made platforms because '-- even if they try not to go along '-- their acquiescence to our government means they cannot be trusted. This is bad for the net and bad for the country. The fault lies with government.

This is a story about transparency and the lack of it. It is a story about secrecy and its damages. It is a story about principles that are being flouted. It should be a discussion about upholding principles.

This post with links -- which matter here -- on my blog:http://buzzmachine.com/2013/06/08/matters-of-principle/

President Of China Refuses To Stay At Designated Resort While Visiting With Obama Because Of Eavesdropping Worries

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Source: Weasel Zippers

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 00:43

President Xi wont be staying at luxurious Sunnylands retreat because of eavesdropping worries instead he and his wife at nearby Hyatt

'-- Andrea Mitchell (@mitchellreports) June 7, 2013

They spy on us and steal massive amounts of secret data, and they're worried we might spy on them? Heaven forfend'...

Jackie Calmes | Washington Week

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 09:13

Jackie Calmes joined The New York Times as a national correspondent in August 2008 and now covers the White House. Previously she had been chief political correspondent for The Wall Street Journal's Washington bureau. During her 18 years at The Wall Street Journal, Ms. Calmes covered the White House and Congress, focusing mostly on budget and tax legislation, and also reported on congressional and presidential election campaigns as well as issues confronting state and local governments.

From mid-1997 to mid-1999, she was one of the Journal's two White House correspondents, and in 1999-2000, she covered national politics and the Bush campaign. After the 2000 presidential recount, she covered election reform and politics, and in June 2001, she became a news editor for the Journal's "Politics and Policy" page, and took over as writer and a reporter of the well-known "Washington Wire" column in Friday's Journal. She returned to full-time reporting in late 2002, and through 2004 was again a White House correspondent.

In May 2005, Ms. Calmes was awarded the Gerald R. Ford Journalism Prize for Reporting on the Presidency.

Ms. Calmes began her journalism career in 1978 at the Abilene (Texas) Reporter-News. In 1979, she went to the Austin, Texas, capital bureau of Harte-Hanks Newspapers and in 1981 joined the Austin bureau of the Dallas Morning News. She worked for the Congressional Quarterly from 1984 until 1990, except for 1988 when she worked in the Washington bureau of the Atlanta Constitution and Cox Newspapers Inc.

A native of Toledo, Ohio, Ms. Calmes earned a bachelor's degree in journalism from the University of Toledo and a master's degree in journalism from Northwestern University. She is most proud of her two daughters, Sarah and Carrie, neither of whom wants to be a journalist.

See Jackie Calmes' Most Recent AppearancesBack to Panelists

slight paranoia: Analyzing Yahoo's PRISM non-denial

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 08:10

Today, Yahoo's General Counsel posted a carefully worded denial regarding the company's alleged participation in the NSA PRISM program. To the casual observer, it might seem like a categorical denial. I do not believe that Yahoo's denial is as straightforward as it seems.

Below, I have carefully parsed Yahoo's statement, line by line, in order to highlight the fact that Yahoo has not in fact denied receiving court orders under 50 USC 1881a (AKA FISA Section 702) for massive amounts of communications data.

We want to set the record straight about stories that Yahoo! has joined a program called PRISM through which we purportedly volunteer information about our users to the U.S. government and give federal agencies access to our user databases. These claims are false. [emphasis added]

No one has claimed that the PRISM program is voluntary. As the Director of National Intelligence has confirmed, the PRISM program involves court orders granted using Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

By falsely describing PRISM as a voluntary scheme, Yahoo's general counsel is then able to deny involvement outright. Very sneaky.

Yahoo! has not joined any program in which we volunteer to share user data with the U.S. government. We do not voluntarily disclose user information.

Again, PRISM has nothing to do with voluntary disclosures. These are compelled disclosures, pursuant to an order from the FISA court.The only disclosures that occur are in response to specific demands.

The government can make a specific demand for information about all communications coming to or from a particular country. This is an empty statement.And, when the government does request user data from Yahoo!, we protect our users.

Claiming to "protect our users" means nothing.We demand that such requests be made through lawful means and for lawful purposes. We fight any requests that we deem unclear, improper, overbroad, or unlawful.

When the law allows blanket surveillance, "lawful means and lawful purposes" doesn't mean anything.We carefully scrutinize each request, respond only when required to do so, and provide the least amount of data possible consistent with the law.

When a FISA court order demands blanket surveillance, responding only when required to do so is an empty promise, as is providing the least amount of data possible.The notion that Yahoo! gives any federal agency vast or unfettered access to our users' records is categorically false.

Elsewhere in the post, Yahoo's uses the terms "user data" and "user information". Why the sudden switch to the term "users' records"? This seems to deny participation in a Section 215 metadata disclosure program (see: the Verizon Business order revealed earlier this week), which has nothing to do with PRISM.

In any case, the PRISM scandal is not about unfettered access to users' data. It is about giving the government data in which one party of the communication is not in the US. Yahoo is not accused of giving the government unfettered access to communications where all parties are in the US.

Of the hundreds of millions of users we serve, an infinitesimal percentage will ever be the subject of a government data collection directive.

Note the use of the word directive in this statement, which does not mean voluntary. Now see below.Where a request for data is received, we require the government to identify in each instance specific users and a specific lawful purpose for which their information is requested.

Here, Yahoo switches to using the term "requests" which are voluntary, not demands. The government is not obligated to describe "a specific legal purpose" when it has obtained a court order compelling the disclosure of data. It is only when the government is making a voluntary request of Yahoo that the company has the ability to set terms for the disclosure.Then, and only then, do our employees evaluate the request and legal requirements in order to respond'--or deny'--the request.

Yahoo has flexibility when the government makes a request for data. The company has far less flexibility when it receives a court order demanding the disclosure of data.We deeply value our users and their trust, and we work hard everyday to earn that trust and, more importantly, to preserve it.

If that were true, Yahoo would protect the privacy and security of its customers by enabling HTTPS by default for Yahoo Mail. Yahoo was the last big email provider to even offer HTTPS as an opt-in option, and has still not enabled it by default.

United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court

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Archived Version

Sun, 09 Jun 2013 00:12

Each application for one of these surveillance warrants (called a FISA warrant) is made before an individual judge of the court. Like a grand jury, FISC is not an adversarial court: the federal government is the only party to its proceedings. However, the court may allow third parties to submit briefs as amici curiae. When the Attorney General determines that an emergency exists he may authorize the emergency employment of electronic surveillance before obtaining the necessary authorization from the FISA court, after which the Attorney General or his designee must notify a judge of the court not more than 72 hours after the Attorney General authorizes such surveillance.[2]

If an application is denied by one judge of the FISC, the federal government is not allowed to make the same application to a different judge of the court, but must appeal to the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. Such appeals are rare: the first appeal from the FISC to the Court of Review was made in 2002, 24 years after the founding of the FISC.

It is also rare for FISA warrant requests to be turned down by the court. Through the end of 2004, 18,761 warrants were granted, while just five were rejected (many sources say four)[citation needed] . Fewer than 200 requests had to be modified before being accepted, almost all of them in 2003 and 2004. The four known rejected requests were all from 2003, and all four were partially granted after being resubmitted for reconsideration by the government. Of the requests that had to be modified, few if any were before the year 2000. In subsequent years, according to journalist Joshua Micah Marshall, the breakdown was as follows:[3]

YearModified requests20001 request modified20012 requests modified20022 requests modified (both modifications later reversed)200379 requests modified (out of 1724 granted)200494 requests modified (out of 1758)On May 17, 2002, the court rebuffed then-Attorney GeneralJohn Ashcroft, releasing an opinion that alleged that FBI and Justice Department officials had "supplied erroneous information to the court in more than 75 applications for search warrants and wiretaps, including one signed by then-FBI Director Louis J. Freeh".[4] Whether this rebuke is related to the court starting to require modification of drastically more requests in 2003 is unknown.

On December 16, 2005, the New York Times reported that the Bush administration had been conducting surveillance against U.S. citizens without the knowledge of the FISC since 2002.[5] On December 20, 2005, Judge James Robertson resigned his position with the FISC, apparently in protest of the secret surveillance.[6] The government's apparent circumvention of the FISC started prior to the increase in court-ordered modifications to warrant requests.

Amazon.com: Deep State: Inside the Government Secrecy Industry (9781118146682): Marc Ambinder, D.B. Grady: Books

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 21:59

1594204802,156858671X,1608463109,1594036403,0465021948,0812244966,038553647X,1780324456,1589019563,1451642636,0805086919,0752487345,1591844754,1591431468,1935439618,1573245909,B00AF3O2V0,030759596X,0307957136,038553292X,156858394X,0786472715,1589019261,0393081451,1939149045,0061455342,1620875896,161200167X,0300189206,080704475X,1118239245,1401943098,0525953205,019932798X,1594204624,0199583757,1591143349,160819096X,0871404249,0872865894,1591431158,080212061X,1605983985,0982969007,1400097827,0674066421,0307279391,0062123408,0307718026,1607067196,143914768X,1594203415,061889425X,0700618805,1937907104,0691156492,0813345111,1936587998,0062130315,0815723784,1595588671,1607065614,0399161309,1595588264,1476726590,0544002695,B00AKR9EGE,1849545138,0374102414,1936296551,0801474361,080509430X,0393082423,0452298962,1451669380,0700619178,1250024978,B009AMAL4Y,1621570916,0760343276,0984825630,0307958280,1594203342,1591844762,1620874679,0385521324,1250006473,1781680779,0231704089,0871404508,0805096159,0745650767,1610392566,0700619097,1888729465,193555414X,1610392116,1476739870,0307377229,0760338965

After PRISM, 'Boundless Informant' tool comes to light | Politics and Law - CNET News

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 21:41

Meet the U.S. National Security Agency's global intelligence tracking tool, Boundless Informant, the latest intelligence secret exposed by leaked information.

Levels of country-specific surveillance are color-coded depending on severity; green the least and moving through yellow and orange to red if a country is under heavy surveillance.

(Credit: Detail of an image in The Guardian)The stream of leaks revealing the U.S. National Security Agency's secrets carries on with the public outing of a powerful intelligence tracking tool.

In a fresh wave of documents obtained by The Guardian, the details of the NSA's data mining tool "Boundless Informant" are laid out for the world to see.

Whereas PRISM is involved in the collection of data, Boundless Informant focuses on organizing and indexing metadata. The tool categorizes communications records rather than the content of a message itself, such as a text message or phone call.

A leaked fact sheet (PDF) explains that almost 3 billion pieces of intelligence had been collected from U.S. computer networks in the 30-day period ending with March of this year, as well as indexing almost 100 billion pieces worldwide. Countries are ranked based on how much information has been taken from mobile and online networks, and color-coded depending on how extensively the NSA is spying on a country.

Users of the tool are able to select a country on Boundless Informant's "heat map" to view details including the metadata volume and different kinds of NSA information collection.

Iran is top of the surveillance list, with more than 14 billion data reports categorized by the tracking tool in March, with Pakistan coming in close second at 13.5 billion reports. Jordan, Egypt, and India are also near the top.

Levels of country-specific surveillance are color-coded depending on severity; green the least and moving through yellow and orange to red if a country is under heavy surveillance.

Example use cases include "How many records (and what type) are collected against a particular country?" and "Are there any visible trends for the collection?"

The other leaked document (PDF) says the tool is designed to give NSA officials answers to questions including what coverage the agency has on specific countries, how data collection compares in different regions, and how many records are being produced.

Both documents were protectively marked as "top secret" and "NOFORN" (which means not authorized for viewing by non-U.S. citizens).

According to the documents, Boundless Informant is hosted on corporate servers and leverages open-source FOSS technology. Raw data is analyzed and processed in the cloud. The level of data categorized can also be broken down to determine which intercepts originate from the U.S., and this detail includes IP addresses -- which can be tracked back to determine a user's country of origin, state, and city.

In a March hearing last year, NSA Director General Keith Alexander denied that the U.S. government spies on its citizens. When asked by Rep. Hank Johnson (R-Ga.) if the NSA has the technological capacity to identify citizens based on the content of their e-mails, Alexander said:

No, no, we don't have the technical insights in the United States. In other words, you have to have something to intercept or some way of doing that either by going to a service provider with a warrant or you have to be collecting in that area. We're not authorized to do that nor do we have the equipment in the United States to collect that kind of information.

The exposure of the NSA's internal Boundless tracking tool -- which is likely used only by the intelligence agency -- may cause some to doubt Alexander. The NSA has maintained its position and denies spying on U.S. citizens; a representative for the agency telling The Guardian:

NSA has consistently reported -- including to Congress -- that we do not have the ability to determine with certainty the identity or location of all communicants within a given communication. That remains the case. The continued publication of these allegations about highly classified issues, and other information taken out of context, makes it impossible to conduct a reasonable discussion on the merits of these programs.

The original version of this story appeared as "Boundless Informant: US gov't collects 100 billion surveillance records a month" on ZDNet.

The NSA's "Boundless Informant" Collects 3 Billion Intelligence Pieces From US Computer Networks In One Month | Zero Hedge

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 21:35

There's one reason why the administration, James Clapper and the NSA should just keep their mouths shut as the PRISM-gate fallout escalates: with every incremental attempt to refute some previously unknown facet of the US Big Brother state, a new piece of previously unleaked information from the same intelligence organization now scrambling for damage control, emerges and exposes the brand new narrative as yet another lie, forcing even more lies, more retribution against sources, more journalist persecution and so on.

The latest piece of news once again comes from the Guardian's Glenn Greenwald who this time exposes the NSA's datamining tool "Boundless Informant" which according to leaked documents collected 97 billion pieces of intelligence from computer networks worldwide in March 2013 alone, and "3 billion pieces of intelligence from US computer networks over a 30-day period."

This is summarized in the chart below which shows that only the middle east has more active NSA-espionage than the US. Also, Obama may not want to show Xi the activity heatmap for China, or else the whole "China is hacking us" script may promptly fall apart.

Using simple, non-AES 256 breaking math, 3 billion per month amounts to some 100 million intrusions into the US per day, or looked at from another perspective, just a little more than the "zero" which James Clapper vouched announced earlier today is the applicable number of US citizens falling under the NSA's espionage mandate: "Section 702 cannot be used to intentionally target any U.S. citizen, or any other U.S. person, or to intentionally target any person known to be in the United States." Oops.

But it gets worse for the NSA. As the Guardian reports, "Emmel, the NSA spokeswoman, told the Guardian: "Current technology simply does not permit us to positively identify all of the persons or locations associated with a given communication (for example, it may be possible to say with certainty that a communication traversed a particular path within the internet. It is harder to know the ultimate source or destination, or more particularly the identity of the person represented by the TO:, FROM: or CC: field of an e-mail address or the abstraction of an IP address). Thus, we apply rigorous training and technological advancements to combine both our automated and manual (human) processes to characterize communications '' ensuring protection of the privacy rights of the American people. This is not just our judgment, but that of the relevant inspectors general, who have also reported this."

In other words, Americans are absolutely the target of billions of monthly intrusions, but said data "mining" is exempted because it is difficult to identify in advance if a US citizen is implicated in any metadata chain.

Only it isn't as it is the whole premise behind Boundless Informant.

An NSA factsheet about the program, acquired by the Guardian, says: "The tool allows users to select a country on a map and view the metadata volume and select details about the collections against that country."

The focus of the internal NSA tool is on counting and categorizing the records of communications, known as metadata, rather than the content of an email or instant message.

The Boundless Informant documents show the agency collecting almost 3 billion pieces of intelligence from US computer networks over a 30-day period ending in March 2013. One document says it is designed to give NSA officials answers to questions like, "What type of coverage do we have on country X" in "near real-time by asking the SIGINT [signals intelligence] infrastructure."

Under the heading "Sample use cases", the factsheet also states the tool shows information including: "How many records (and what type) are collected against a particular country."

A snapshot of the Boundless Informant data, contained in a top secret NSA "global heat map" seen by the Guardian, shows that in March 2013 the agency collected 97bn pieces of intelligence from computer networks worldwide.

Iran was the country where the largest amount of intelligence was gathered, with more than 14bn reports in that period, followed by 13.5bn from Pakistan. Jordan, one of America's closest Arab allies, came third with 12.7bn, Egypt fourth with 7.6bn and India fifth with 6.3bn.

Next up: more NSA lies of course.

The disclosure of the internal Boundless Informant system comes amid a struggle between the NSA and its overseers in the Senate over whether it can track the intelligence it collects on American communications. The NSA's position is that it is not technologically feasible to do so.

At a hearing of the Senate intelligence committee In March this year, Democratic senator Ron Wyden asked James Clapper, the director of national intelligence: "Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?"

"No sir," replied Clapper.

Judith Emmel, an NSA spokeswoman, told the Guardian in a response to the latest disclosures: "NSA has consistently reported '' including to Congress '' that we do not have the ability to determine with certainty the identity or location of all communicants within a given communication. That remains the case."

Other documents seen by the Guardian further demonstrate that the NSA does in fact break down its surveillance intercepts which could allow the agency to determine how many of them are from the US. The level of detail includes individual IP addresses.

IP address is not a perfect proxy for someone's physical location but it is rather close, said Chris Soghoian, the principal technologist with the Speech Privacy and Technology Project of the American Civil Liberties Union. "If you don't take steps to hide it, the IP address provided by your internet provider will certainly tell you what country, state and, typically, city you are in," Soghoian said.

...

At a congressional hearing in March last year, Alexander denied point-blank that the agency had the figures on how many Americans had their electronic communications collected or reviewed. Asked if he had the capability to get them, Alexander said: "No. No. We do not have the technical insights in the United States." He added that "nor do we do have the equipment in the United States to actually collect that kind of information".

Turns out they do, and that perjury in the US is now merely another facet of the "New Normal." Plus what difference does it make that yet another member of the most transparent administration perjured themselves. Then again, when the head of the Department of Justice is being investigated for lying to Congress under oath, one can only laugh.

That laughter risks becoming an imbecilic cackle when reading the following veiled threat to the Guardian from the NSA's Judith Emmel: "The continued publication of these allegations about highly classified issues, and other information taken out of context, makes it impossible to conduct a reasonable discussion on the merits of these programs."

In other words, the best discussion is one that would simply not take place as reporters should promptly stop actually reporting, and fall back to their New Normal role of being access journalists to important people (see Andrew Ross Sorkin's rise to fame on... nothing) with zero critical insight or investigative effort. Or else...

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The PRISM spin war has begun | FP Passport

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 21:26

The war over how to spin revelations of the National Security Agency's latest spying program has officially begun.

On the heels of media reports that the NSA has gained accessto the servers of nine leading tech companies -- enabling the spy agency toexamine emails, video, photographs, and other digital communications -- Google has issued astrongly worded statement denying that the company granted the government "directaccess" to its servers. That statement goes so far as to say that the companyhasn't even heard of "a program called PRISM until yesterday."

At first glance, Google's statement is difficult to believe.Senior intelligence officials have confirmed the program's existence, andGoogle's logo is prominently listed on internal NSA documents describing participating companies. But Google may be engaging in a far more subtle publicrelations strategy than outright denial.

Google's statement hinges on three key points: that it didnot provide the government with "direct access" to its servers, that it did notset up a "back door" for the NSA, and that it provides "user data togovernments only in accordance with the law."

According to Chris Soghoian, a tech expert and privacyresearcher at the American Civil Liberties Union, the phrase "direct access" connotes a very specificform of access in the IT-world: unrestricted, unfettered access to informationstored on Google servers. In order to run a system such as PRISM, Soghoian explains, such accesswould not be required, and Google's denial that it provided "direct access" does not necessarily imply that the company is denying having participated in the program.Typically, the only people having "direct access" to the servers of a companylike Google would be its engineers. (Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg has issued asimilarly worded denial in which he says his company has not granted thegovernment "direct access" to its servers," but his language mirrors Google's denial about direct access.)

A similar logic applies to Google's denial that it set up a "backdoor." According to Soghoian, the phrase "back door" is a term of art that describesa way to access a system that is neither known by the system's owner nor documented. Bydenying that it set up a back door, Google is not denying that it worked with theNSA to set up a system through which the agency could access the company'sdata.

According to Soghoian, the NSA could have gained access totech company servers by working with the companies to set upsomething similar to an API -- a tool these firms use to give developerslimited access to company data. Google hasdenied that an API was used, but that denial doesn't exclude thepossibility that a similar tool was used.

To protect itself against allegations that itinappropriately compromised user data, Google further notes in its statementthat the company provides "user data to governments only in accordance withthe law." Despite the outrage directed at the NSA and the Obama administration,PRISM -- as currently described -- is in all likelihood withinthe bounds of the law. In the aftermath of the 2005 disclosure that theBush administration had carried out a warrantless wiretapping program, Congresspassed the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 and the Protect America Act of 2007. Butthose laws did not outlaw the kinds of actions carried out by PRISM.

As for Google's claim to have never heard of PRISM, would theintelligence officials who reportedly collaborated with Google have used the program's actual codename?

The tech companies alleged to have participated in PRISMaren't the only ones who appear to be spinning PRISM to their advantage.

On Friday, U.S. government sources toldReuters that PRISM was used to foil a 2009 plot to bomb the New YorkCity subway. In all likelihood, such counter-leaks will continue in the days aheadas intelligence officials try to portray the program as essential to nationalsecurity.

Welcome to the PRISM spin war.

NA Tech Talk

Ted Kaczynski - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 16:55

Theodore John "Ted" Kaczynski, PhD (/kÉËzɪnski/ka-ZIN-skee, or ka-CHIN-skee; Polish: KaczyÅski, pronounced [kaËtÍʂɨȷ̃skʲi]; born May 22, 1942), also known as the "Unabomber", is an American terrorist, mathematician, social critic, and Neo-Luddite.[2] Between 1978 and 1995, Kaczynski engaged in a nationwide bombing campaign against modern technology, planting or mailing numerous home-made bombs, killing three people and injuring 23 others.

Kaczynski was born and raised in Chicago, Illinois. While growing up in Chicago he was a child prodigy, excelling academically from an early age. Kaczynski was accepted into Harvard University at the age of 16, where he earned an undergraduate degree. He subsequently earned a PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan. He became an assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley in 1967 at age 25, but resigned two years later.

In 1971, he moved to a remote cabin without electricity or running water, in Lincoln, Montana, where he lived as a recluse while learning survival skills in an attempt to become self-sufficient.[3] He decided to start a bombing campaign after watching the wilderness around his home being destroyed by development, according to Kaczynski.[3] From 1978 to 1995, Kaczynski sent 16 bombs to targets including universities and airlines, killing three people and injuring 23. Kaczynski sent a letter to The New York Times on April 24, 1995 and promised "to desist from terrorism" if the Times or the Washington Post published his manifesto, Industrial Society and Its Future (also called the "Unabomber Manifesto"), in which he argued that his bombings were extreme but necessary to attract attention to the erosion of human freedom necessitated by modern technologies requiring large-scale organization.

The Unabomber was the target of one of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's costliest investigations. Before Kaczynski's identity was known, the FBI used the title "UNABOM" (UNiversity & Airline BOMber) to refer to his case, which resulted in the media calling him the Unabomber. The FBI (as well as Attorney General Janet Reno) pushed for the publication of Kaczynski's "Manifesto," which led to his sister-in-law, and then his brother, recognizing Kaczynski's style of writing and beliefs from the manifesto, and tipping off the FBI.[4] Kaczynski tried unsuccessfully to dismiss his court appointed lawyers because they wanted to plead insanity in order to avoid the death penalty, as Kaczynski did not believe he was insane.[5] When it became clear that his pending trial would entail national television exposure for Kaczynski, the court entered a plea agreement, under which he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to life in prison with no possibility of parole. He has been designated a "domestic terrorist" by the FBI.[6] Some anarcho-primitivist authors, such as John Zerzan and John Moore, have come to his defense, while holding some reservations about his actions and ideas.[7][8][9]

Early life[edit]Kaczynski was born on May 22, 1942, in Evergreen Park, Illinois, to second-generation Polish Americans Wanda (n(C)e Dombek) and Theodore Richard Kaczynski.[10] At six months of age, Ted's body was covered in hives. He was placed in isolation in a hospital where visitors were not allowed, as doctors were unsure of the cause of the hives. He was treated several times at the hospital over an eight-month period. His mother wrote in March 1943, "Baby home from hospital and is healthy but quite unresponsive after his experience."[11]

From grades one through four, Kaczynski attended Sherman Elementary School in Chicago. He attended grades five through eight at Evergreen Park District 124 Schools.[12] As a result of testing conducted in the fifth grade, which determined he had an IQ of 167, he was allowed to skip the sixth grade and enroll in the seventh grade. Kaczynski described this as a pivotal event in his life. He recalled not fitting in with the older children and being subjected to their bullying. As a child, Kaczynski had a fear of people and buildings, and played beside other children rather than interacting with them. His mother was so worried by his poor social development that she considered entering him in a study for autistic children led by Bruno Bettelheim.[12]

He attended high school at Evergreen Park Community High School. Kaczynski excelled academically, but found the mathematics too simple during his sophomore year. Sometimes he would cut classes and write in his journal in his room. During this period of his life, Kaczynski became obsessed with mathematics, spending prolonged hours locked in his room practicing differential equations. Throughout secondary schooling, Kaczynski had far surpassed his classmates, able to solve advanced Laplace transforms before his senior year. He was subsequently placed in a more advanced mathematics class, yet still felt intellectually restricted. Kaczynski soon mastered the material and skipped the eleventh grade. With the help of a summer school course for English, he completed his high school education when he was 15 years old. He was encouraged to apply to Harvard University, and was subsequently accepted as a student beginning in 1958 at the age of 16. While at Harvard, Kaczynski was taught by famed logician Willard Van Orman Quine, scoring at the top of Quine's class with a 98.9% final grade.

He also participated in a CIA run behavioral engineering study, known as MKUltra, conducted by Dr. Henry Murray, an expert on stress interviews.[12] Students in Murray's study were told they would be debating personal philosophy with a fellow student.[13] Instead, they were subjected to a "purposely brutalizing psychological experiment"[13] stress test, which was an extremely stressful, personal, and prolonged psychological attack. During the test, students were taken into a room and connected to electrodes that monitored their physiological reactions, while facing bright lights and a one-way mirror. Each student had previously written an essay detailing their personal beliefs and aspirations: the essays were turned over to an anonymous attorney, who would enter the room and individually belittle each student based in part on the disclosures they had made. This was filmed, and students' expressions of impotent rage were played back to them several times later in the study. According to author Alston Chase, Kaczynski's records from that period suggest he was emotionally stable when the study began. Kaczynski's lawyers attributed some of his emotional instability and dislike of mind control to his participation in this study.[13][14] Indeed, some have suggested that this experience may have been instrumental in Kaczynski's future actions.[15]

Kaczynski graduated from Harvard University in 1962, at age 20, and subsequently enrolled at the University of Michigan, where he earned a PhD in mathematics.[12] Kaczynski's specialty was a branch of complex analysis known as geometric function theory. His professors at Michigan were impressed with his intellect and drive. "He was an unusual person. He was not like the other graduate students", said Peter Duren, one of Kaczynski's math professors at Michigan. "He was much more focused about his work. He had a drive to discover mathematical truth." "It is not enough to say he was smart", said George Piranian, another of his Michigan math professors. Kaczynski earned his PhD with his thesis entitled "Boundary Functions" by solving a problem[16] so difficult that Piranian could not figure it out.[17] Maxwell Reade, a retired math professor who served on Kaczynski's dissertation committee, also commented on his thesis by noting, "I would guess that maybe 10 or 12 men in the country understood or appreciated it."[18] In 1967, Kaczynski won the University of Michigan's $100 Sumner B. Myers Prize, which recognized his dissertation as the school's best in mathematics that year.[18] While a graduate student at Michigan, he held a National Science Foundation fellowship and taught undergraduates for three years. He also published two articles related to his dissertation in mathematical journals, and four more after leaving Michigan.[19]

In late 1967, Kaczynski became an assistant professor of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, where he taught undergraduate courses in geometry and calculus. He was also noted as the youngest professor ever hired by the university, but this position proved short-lived. Kaczynski received numerous complaints and low ratings from the undergraduates he taught. Many students noted that he seemed quite uncomfortable in a teaching environment, often stuttering and mumbling during lectures, becoming excessively nervous in front of a class, and ignoring students during designated office hours. Without explanation, he resigned from his position in 1969, at age 26. The chairman of the mathematics department, J. W. Addison, called this a "sudden and unexpected" resignation,[20] while vice chairman Calvin Moore said that given Kaczynski's "impressive" thesis and record of publications, "He could have advanced up the ranks and been a senior member of the faculty today."[21]

Montana[edit]In mid-1969, Kaczynski moved into his parents' small residence in Lombard, Illinois. Two years later, he moved into a remote cabin he built himself just outside Lincoln, Montana where he lived a simple life on very little money, without electricity or running water.[22] Kaczynski worked odd jobs and received financial support from his family, which he used to purchase his land and, without their knowledge, would later use to fund his bombing campaign. In 1978, he worked briefly with his father and brother at a foam-rubber factory,[18] where he was fired by his brother, David, for harassing a female supervisor he had previously dated.

Kaczynski's original goal was to move out to a secluded place and become self-sufficient so that he could live autonomously. He began to teach himself survival skills such as tracking, edible plant identification, and how to construct primitive technologies such as bow drills.[3] However, he quickly realized that it was not possible for him to live that way, as a result of watching the wild land around him get destroyed by development and industry.[3] He performed isolated acts of sabotage and initially targeted the developments near his cabin. The ultimate catalyst which drove him to begin his campaign of bombings was when he went out for a walk to one of his favorite wild spots, only to find that it had been destroyed and replaced with a road. About this, he said:

The best place, to me, was the largest remnant of this plateau that dates from the tertiary age. It's kind of rolling country, not flat, and when you get to the edge of it you find these ravines that cut very steeply in to cliff-like drop-offs and there was even a waterfall there. It was about a two days hike from my cabin. That was the best spot until the summer of 1983. That summer there were too many people around my cabin so I decided I needed some peace. I went back to the plateau and when I got there I found they had put a road right through the middle of it... You just can't imagine how upset I was. It was from that point on I decided that, rather than trying to acquire further wilderness skills, I would work on getting back at the system. Revenge.[3]He began dedicating himself to reading about sociology and books on political philosophy, such as the works of Jacques Ellul, and also stepped up his campaign of sabotage. He soon came to the conclusion that more violent methods would be the only solution to what he saw as the problem of industrial civilization. He says that he lost faith in the idea of reform, and saw violent collapse as the only way to bring down the techno-industrial system.[3] Regarding his switch from being a reformer of the system to developing a means of taking it down, he said:

I don't think it can be done. In part because of the human tendency, for most people, there are exceptions, to take the path of least resistance. They'll take the easy way out, and giving up your car, your television set, your electricity, is not the path of least resistance for most people. As I see it, I don't think there is any controlled or planned way in which we can dismantle the industrial system. I think that the only way we will get rid of it is if it breaks down and collapses ... The big problem is that people don't believe a revolution is possible, and it is not possible precisely because they do not believe it is possible. To a large extent I think the eco-anarchist movement is accomplishing a great deal, but I think they could do it better... The real revolutionaries should separate themselves from the reformers'... And I think that it would be good if a conscious effort was being made to get as many people as possible introduced to the wilderness. In a general way, I think what has to be done is not to try and convince or persuade the majority of people that we are right, as much as try to increase tensions in society to the point where things start to break down. To create a situation where people get uncomfortable enough that they're going to rebel. So the question is how do you increase those tensions?[3]Bombings[edit]Initial bombings[edit]Kaczynski's activities came to the attention of the FBI in 1978 with the explosion of his first, primitive homemade bomb. Over the next 17 years, he mailed or hand-delivered a series of increasingly sophisticated explosive devices that killed three people and injured 23 more.

The first mail bomb was sent in late May 1978 to materials engineering professor Buckley Crist at Northwestern University. The package was found in a parking lot at the University of Illinois at Chicago, with Crist's return address. The package was "returned" to Crist, but when Crist received the package, he noticed that it was not addressed in his own handwriting. Suspicious of a package he had not sent, he contacted campus policeman Terry Marker, who opened the package, which exploded immediately. Marker required medical assistance at Evanston Hospital for injuries to his left hand.[23]

The bomb was made of metal that could have come from a home workshop. The primary component was a piece of metal pipe, about 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter and 9 inches (230 mm) long. The bomb contained smokeless explosive powders, and the box and the plugs that sealed the pipe ends were handcrafted from wood. In comparison, most pipe bombs usually use threaded metal ends sold in many hardware stores. Wooden ends lack the strength to allow significant pressure to build within the pipe, explaining why the bomb did not cause severe damage. The primitive trigger device that the bomb employed was a nail, tensioned by rubber bands designed to slam into six common match heads when the box was opened. The match heads would burst into flame and ignite the explosive powders. When the trigger hit the match heads, only three ignited. A more efficient technique, later employed by Kaczynski, was to use batteries and heat filament wire to ignite the explosives faster and more effectively.[24]

The initial 1978 bombing was followed by bombs sent to airline officials, and in 1979 a bomb was placed in the cargo hold of American Airlines Flight 444, a Boeing 727 flying from Chicago to Washington, D.C. The bomb began smoking, forcing the pilot to make an emergency landing. Some passengers were treated for smoke inhalation. Only a faulty timing mechanism prevented the bomb from exploding. Authorities said it had enough power to "obliterate the plane."[23]

As bombing an airliner is a federal crime in the United States, the FBI became involved after this incident and derived the code name UNABOM (UNiversity and Airline BOMber). U.S. Postal Inspectors, who initially had the case, called the suspect the Junkyard Bomber because of the material used to make the mail bombs. In 1979, an FBI-led task force that included the ATF and U.S. Postal Inspection Service was formed to investigate the case. The task force grew to more than 150 full-time investigators, analysts, and others. This team made every possible forensic examination of recovered components of the explosives and studied the lives of victims in minute detail. These efforts proved of little use in identifying the suspect, who built his bombs essentially from "scrap" materials available almost anywhere. The victims, investigators later learned, were chosen irregularly from library research.

In 1980, chief agent John Douglas, working with agents in the FBI's Behavioral Sciences Unit, issued a psychological profile of the unidentified bomber which described the offender as a man with above-average intelligence with connections to academia. This profile was later refined to characterize the offender as a neo-Luddite holding an academic degree in the hard sciences, but this psychologically based profile was discarded in 1983 in favor of an alternative theory developed by FBI analysts concentrating on the physical evidence in recovered bomb fragments. In this rival profile, the bomber suspect was characterized as a blue-collar airplane mechanic.[25] A 1-800 hotline was set up by the UNABOM Task Force to take any calls related to the Unabomber investigation, with a $1 million reward for anyone who could provide information leading to the Unabomber's capture.[26]

Casualties[edit]The first serious injury occurred in 1985, when John Hauser, a graduate student and Captain in the United States Air Force, lost four fingers and vision in one eye.[27] The bomb, like others of Kaczynski's, was handcrafted and made with wooden parts.[28]

Hugh Scrutton, a 38-year-old California computer store owner, was killed in 1985 by a nail-and-splinter-loaded bomb placed in the parking lot of his store. A similar attack against a computer store occurred in Salt Lake City, Utah on February 20, 1987. The bomb, which was disguised as a piece of lumber, injured Gary Wright when he attempted to remove it from the store's parking lot. The explosion severed nerves in Wright's left arm and propelled more than 200 pieces of shrapnel into his body. Kaczynski's brother, David'--who would play a vital role in Ted's looming capture by alerting federal authorities to the prospect of his brother's being involved in the Unabomber cases'-- sought out and became friends with Wright after Ted was detained in 1996. David Kaczynski and Wright have remained friends and occasionally speak together publicly about their relationship.[29]

After a three-year break, Kaczynski struck again in 1993, mailing a bomb to David Gelernter, a computer science professor at Yale University. Though critically injured, Gelernter eventually recovered. Another bomb mailed in the same weekend was sent to the home of Charles Epstein from the University of California, San Francisco, who lost multiple fingers upon opening it. Kaczynski then called Gelernter's brother, Joel Gelernter, a behavioral geneticist, and told him, "You are next."[30] Geneticist Phillip Sharp at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology also received a threatening letter two years later.[31] Kaczynski wrote a letter to The New York Times claiming that his "group", called FC, was responsible for the attacks.

In 1994, Burson-Marsteller executive Thomas J. Mosser was killed by a mail bomb sent to his North Caldwell, New Jersey home. In another letter to The New York Times Kaczynski claimed that FC "blew up Thomas Mosser because [...] Burston-Marsteller [sic] helped Exxon clean up its public image after the Exxon Valdez incident" and, more importantly, because "its business is the development of techniques for manipulating people's attitudes."[32] This was followed by the 1995 murder of Gilbert Murray, president of the timber industry lobbying group California Forestry Association, by a mail bomb addressed to previous president William Dennison, who had retired.[31]

In all, 16 bombs'--which injured 23 people and killed three'--were attributed to Kaczynski. While the devices varied widely through the years, all but the first few contained the initials "FC". Inside his bombs, certain parts carried the inscription "FC", which Kaczynski later asserted stood for "Freedom Club". Latent fingerprints on some of the devices did not match the fingerprints found on letters attributed to Kaczynski. As stated in the FBI affidavit:

203. Latent fingerprints attributable to devices mailed and/or placed by the UNABOM subject were compared to those found on the letters attributed to Theodore Kaczynski. According to the FBI Laboratory no forensic correlation exists between those samples.[33]One of Kaczynski's tactics was leaving false clues in every bomb. He would make them hard to find deliberately to mislead investigators into thinking they had a clue. The first clue was a metal plate stamped with the initials "FC" hidden somewhere (usually in the pipe end cap) in every bomb.[33] One false clue he left was a note in a bomb that did not detonate which reads "Wu'--It works! I told you it would'--RV".[34] A more obvious clue was the Eugene O'Neill $1 stamps used to send his boxes.[35] One of his bombs was sent embedded in a copy of Sloan Wilson's novel Ice Brothers.[23]

The FBI theorized that Kaczynski had a theme of nature, trees and wood in his crimes. He often included bits of tree branch and bark in his bombs. Targets selected included Percy Wood, Professor Leroy Wood Bearson and Thomas Mosser. Crime writer Robert Graysmith noted "In the Unabomber's case a large factor was his obsession with wood."[36]

List of bombings[edit]DateLocationVictim(s)InjuriesMay 25, 1978Northwestern University, Evanston, IllinoisTerry Marker, University Police OfficerMinor cuts and burnsMay 9, 1979Northwestern University, Evanston, IllinoisJohn Harris, graduate studentMinor cuts and burnsNovember 15, 1979American Airlines Flight 444 from Chicago to Washington, DC (explosion occurred in midflight)Twelve passengers treated for smoke inhalationSmoke inhalationJune 10, 1980Lake Forest, IllinoisPercy Wood, President of United AirlinesCuts and burns over most of bodyOctober 8, 1981University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UtahNone, bomb successfully defusedNoneMay 5, 1982Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TennesseeJanet Smith, University secretarySevere burns to hands and shrapnel wounds to bodyJuly 2, 1982University of California, BerkeleyDiogenes Angelakos, Engineering professorSevere burns and shrapnel wounds to right hand and faceMay 15, 1985University of California, BerkeleyJohn Hauser, graduate studentLoss of four fingers on right hand and severed artery in right arm, partial loss of vision in left eyeJune 13, 1985Auburn, WashingtonNone, bomb successfully defusedNoneNovember 15, 1985University of Michigan Ann ArborJames V. McConnell, psychology professor, and Nicklaus Suino, research assistantMcConnell: temporary hearing loss; Suino: burns and shrapnel woundsDecember 11, 1985Sacramento, CaliforniaHugh Scrutton, computer store ownerDeath (first fatality)February 20, 1987Salt Lake City, UtahGary Wright, computer store ownerSevere nerve damage to left armJune 22, 1993Tiburon, CaliforniaCharles Epstein, University of California geneticistSevere damage both eardrums resulting in total hearing loss, lost parts of three fingersJune 24, 1993Yale University, New Haven, ConnecticutDavid Gelernter, computer science professorSevere burns and shrapnel wounds, permanent damage to right hand and right eyeDecember 10, 1994North Caldwell, New JerseyThomas J. Mosser, advertising executiveDeath (second fatality)April 24, 1995Sacramento, CaliforniaGilbert P. Murray, timber industry lobbyistDeath (third fatality)References:[37][38]Industrial Society and Its Future[edit]In 1995, Kaczynski mailed several letters, including some to his victims and others to major media outlets, outlining his goals and demanding that his 50-plus page, 35,000-word essay Industrial Society and Its Future, abbreviated to "Unabomber Manifesto" by the FBI,[39] be printed verbatim by a major newspaper or journal. He stated that if this demand were met, he would then end his bombing campaign.[40] The document was a densely written manifesto that called for a worldwide revolution against the effects of modern society's "industrial-technological system".[41][42] There was a great deal of controversy as to whether the document should be published. A further letter threatening to kill more people was sent,[43] and the United States Department of Justice, along with FBI Director Louis Freeh and Attorney General Janet Reno, recommended publication out of concern for public safety and in hopes that a reader could identify the author. Bob Guccione of Penthouse volunteered to publish it, but Kaczynski replied that, since Penthouse was less "respectable" than the other publications, he would in that case "reserve the right to plant one (and only one) bomb intended to kill, after our manuscript has been published."[44] The pamphlet was finally published by The New York Times and The Washington Post on September 19, 1995.[45][46]Penthouse never published it.[47]

Throughout the manuscript, produced on a typewriter without the capacity for italics, Kaczynski capitalizes entire words in order to show emphasis. He always refers to himself as either "we" or "FC" (Freedom Club), though there is no evidence that he worked with others. Donald Foster, who analyzed the writing at the request of Kaczynski's defense, notes that the manuscript contains instances of irregular spelling and hyphenation, as well as other consistent linguistic idiosyncrasies (which led him to conclude that it was indeed Kaczynski who wrote it).[48]

Industrial Society and Its Future begins with Kaczynski's assertion that "the Industrial Revolution and its consequences have been a disaster for the human race."[49] The first sections of the text are devoted to discussion of the psychology of various groups'--primarily leftists (a group he defines, in part as "hat[ing] science and rationality [paragraph 18 of his manuscript]")'--and of the psychological consequences for individual life within the "industrial-technological system",[49] which has robbed contemporary humans of their autonomy, diminished their rapport with nature, and forced them "to behave in ways that are increasingly remote from the natural pattern of human behavior." The later sections speculate about the future evolution of this system, arguing that it will inevitably lead to the end of human freedom, call for a "revolution against technology", and attempt to indicate how that might be accomplished.[50]

Political and social views[edit]In his opening and closing sections, Kaczynski addresses Leftism as a movement and analyzes the psychology of leftists, arguing that they are "True Believers in Eric Hoffer's sense" who participate in a powerful social movement to compensate for their lack of personal power. He further claims that leftism as a movement is led by a particular minority of leftists whom he calls "oversocialized":

The moral code of our society is so demanding that no one can think, feel and act in a completely moral way. [...] Some people are so highly socialized that the attempt to think, feel and act morally imposes a severe burden on them. In order to avoid feelings of guilt, they continually have to deceive themselves about their own motives and find moral explanations for feelings and actions that in reality have a non-moral origin. We use the term "oversocialized" to describe such people.[51]He goes on to explain how the nature of leftism is determined by the psychological consequences of "oversocialization". Kaczynski "attribute[s] the social and psychological problems of modern society to the fact that society requires people to live under conditions radically different from those under which the human race evolved and to behave in ways that conflict with the patterns of behavior that the human race developed while living under the earlier conditions." He further specifies the primary cause of a long list of social and psychological problems in modern society as the disruption of the "power process", which he defines as having four elements:

The three most clear-cut of these we call goal, effort and attainment of goal. (Everyone needs to have goals whose attainment requires effort, and needs to succeed in attaining at least some of his goals.) The fourth element is more difficult to define and may not be necessary for everyone. We call it autonomy and will discuss it later.[52] [...] We divide human drives into three groups: (1) those drives that can be satisfied with minimal effort; (2) those that can be satisfied but only at the cost of serious effort; (3) those that cannot be adequately satisfied no matter how much effort one makes. The power process is the process of satisfying the drives of the second group.[53]Kaczynski goes on to claim that "[i]n modern industrial society natural human drives tend to be pushed into the first and third groups, and the second group tends to consist increasingly of artificially created drives." Among these drives are "surrogate activities", activities "directed toward an artificial goal that people set up for themselves merely in order to have some goal to work toward, or let us say, merely for the sake of the 'fulfillment' that they get from pursuing the goal". He argues that these surrogate activities are not as satisfactory as the attainment of "real goals" for "many, if not most people".[54]

He claims that scientific research is a surrogate activity for scientists, and that for this reason "science marches on blindly, without regard to the real welfare of the human race or to any other standard, obedient only to the psychological needs of the scientists and of the government officials and corporation executives who provide the funds for research."[55]

Kaczynski developed his philosophical ideas early in life, and up to the moment of the bombings, carried on an extensive on-going debate with his brother David. Ted identified strongly with positivism, meaning that he strongly believed in an objective reality and that through sensory experience and analysis of this, one can obtain authentic knowledge. He was also an atheist.[56] David, on the other hand, embraced more emotional and subjective philosophies, showing an interest in mystical, religious and emotional ideas. The two brothers did however share two beliefs: a fondness for the outdoors; David also lived in the wilderness for some time, and developed animosity toward "the system" (or state).[57] Kaczynski, throughout most of his earlier years (the 1960's, deconstructivism, a distrust of "the system", a desire for revolution) remained "the intellectual outsider" and considered himself more important than others.[58]

Perceived control methods[edit]As mentioned above, the result of the "disruption of the power process" is the primary cause of various maladies in society (e.g. crime, depression, etc.). Kaczynski maintains that rather than recognizing that humans currently live in "conditions that make them terribly unhappy," "the system" (i.e. industrial society) develops ways of controlling human responses to the overly stressful environment in which they find themselves.

The following are current examples (according to Kaczynski) of this trend:

Imagine a society that subjects people to conditions that make them terribly unhappy, then gives them the drugs to take away their unhappiness. Science fiction? It is already happening to some extent in our own society. It is well known that the rate of clinical depression had been greatly increasing in recent decades. We believe that this is due to disruption of the power process...[59]

The entertainment industry serves as an important psychological tool of the system, possibly even when it is dishing out large amounts of sex and violence. Entertainment provides modern man with an essential means of escape. While absorbed in television, videos, etc., he can forget stress, anxiety, frustration, dissatisfaction.[60]

Sylvan Learning Centers, for example, have had great success in motivating children to study, and psychological techniques are also used with more or less success in many conventional schools. "Parenting" techniques that are taught to parents are designed to make children accept fundamental values of the system and behave in ways that the system finds desirable.[61]

Historical views and predictions[edit]In the last sections of the manifesto, Kaczynski carefully defines what he means by freedom[62] and provides an argument that it would "be hopelessly difficult [...] to reform the industrial system in such a way as to prevent it from progressively narrowing our sphere of freedom".[63] He says that "in spite of all its technical advances relating to human behavior the system to date has not been impressively successful in controlling human beings" and predicts that "[i]f the system succeeds in acquiring sufficient control over human behavior quickly enough, it will probably survive. Otherwise it will break down" and that "the issue will most likely be resolved within the next several decades, say 40 to 100 years." He gives various dystopian possibilities for the type of society which would evolve in the former case.[64] He claims that revolution, unlike reform, is possible, and calls on sympathetic readers to initiate such revolution using two strategies: to "heighten the social stresses within the system so as to increase the likelihood that it will break down" and to "develop and propagate an ideology that opposes technology".[65] He gives various tactical recommendations, including avoiding the assumption of political power, avoiding all collaboration with leftists, and supporting free trade agreements in order to bind the world economy into a more fragile, unified whole.[50]

He concludes by noting that his manifesto has "portrayed leftism in its modern form as a phenomenon peculiar to our time and as a symptom of the disruption of the power process" but that he is "not in a position to assert confidently that no such movements have existed prior to modern leftism" and says that "[t]his is a significant question to which historians ought to give their attention."[66]

Related works and influences[edit]As a critique of technological society, the manifesto echoed contemporary critics of technology and industrialization, such as John Zerzan, Herbert Marcuse, Fredy Perlman, Jacques Ellul (whose book The Technological Society was referenced in an unnamed Kaczynski essay, written in 1971),[67]Lewis Mumford, and Neil Postman.[68] Its idea of the "disruption of the power process" similarly echoed social critics emphasizing the lack of meaningful work as a primary cause of social problems, including Lewis Mumford, Paul Goodman, and Eric Hoffer (whom Kaczynski explicitly references).[68][69] The general theme was also addressed by Aldous Huxley in his dystopian novel Brave New World, which Kaczynski references.[70] The ideas of "oversocialization" and "surrogate activities" recall Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents and his theories of rationalization and sublimation (the latter term being used three times in the manifesto, twice in quotes, to describe surrogate activities).[71]

In a Wired article on the dangers of technology, titled "Why The Future Doesn't Need Us", Bill Joy, cofounder of Sun Microsystems, quoted Ray Kurzweil's The Age of Spiritual Machines, which quoted a passage by Kaczynski on types of society that might develop if human labor were entirely replaced by artificial intelligence. Joy wrote that, although Kaczynski's actions were "murderous, and, in my view, criminally insane", that, "as difficult as it is for me to acknowledge, I saw some merit in the reasoning in this single passage. I felt compelled to confront it."[72]

Anders Behring Breivik, the Norwegian self-admitted perpetrator of the July 22, 2011 bombing and massacre in Norway,[73][74] published a manifesto in which large chunks of text were copied and pasted from the manifesto of Kaczynski, with certain terms substituted (e.g. replacing "leftists" with "cultural Marxists" and "multiculturalists").[75][76]

Before the publication of the manifesto, Theodore Kaczynski's brother, David Kaczynski, was encouraged by his wife Linda to follow up on suspicions that Ted was the Unabomber.[77][dead link] David Kaczynski was at first dismissive, but progressively began to take the likelihood more seriously after reading the manifesto a week after it was published in September 1995. David Kaczynski browsed through old family papers and found letters dating back to the 1970s written by Ted and sent to newspapers protesting the abuses of technology and which contained phrasing similar to what was found in the Unabomber Manifesto.[78]

Prior to the publishing of the manifesto, the FBI held numerous press conferences requesting the help of the public in identifying the Unabomber. They were convinced that the bomber was from the Chicago area (where he began his bombings), had worked or had some connection in Salt Lake City, and by the 1990s was associated with the San Francisco Bay Area. This geographical information, as well as the wording in excerpts from the manifesto that were released prior to the entire manifesto being published, was what had persuaded David Kaczynski's wife, Linda, to urge her husband to read the manifesto.[79]

After the manifesto was published, the FBI received over a thousand calls a day for months in response to the offer of a $1 million reward for information leading to the identity of the Unabomber. There were also large numbers of letters mailed to the UNABOM Task Force that purported to be from the Unabomber, and thousands of suspect leads were sifted through. While the FBI was occupied with new leads, David Kaczynski first hired private investigator Susan Swanson in Chicago to investigate Ted's activities discreetly. The Kaczynski brothers had become estranged in 1990, and David had not seen Ted for ten years. David later hired Washington, D.C. attorney Tony Bisceglie to organize evidence acquired by Swanson and make contact with the FBI, given the likely difficulty in attracting the FBI's attention. He wanted to protect his brother from the danger of an FBI raid, like Ruby Ridge or the Waco Siege, since he assumed Ted would not take kindly to being contacted by the FBI and would likely react irrationally or violently.[80]

In early 1996, former FBI hostage negotiator and criminal profiler Clinton R. Van Zandt was contacted by an investigator working with Tony Bisceglie. Bisceglie asked Van Zandt to compare the manifesto to typewritten copies of handwritten letters David had received from his brother. Van Zandt's initial analysis determined that there was better than a 60 percent chance that the same person had written the letters as well as the manifesto, which had been in public circulation for half a year. Van Zandt's second analytical team determined an even higher likelihood that the letters and the manifesto were the product of the same author. He recommended that Bisceglie's client immediately contact the FBI.[80]

In February 1996, Bisceglie provided a copy of the 1971 essay written by Ted Kaczynski to the FBI. At the UNABOM Task Force headquarters in San Francisco, Supervisory Special Agent Joel Moss immediately recognized similarities in the writings. Linguistic analysis determined that the author of the essay papers and the manifesto were almost certainly the same. When combined with facts gleaned from the bombings and Kaczynski's life, that analysis provided the basis for a search warrant.

David Kaczynski had attempted to remain anonymous at the outset but he was swiftly identified, and within a few days, an FBI agent team was dispatched to interview David and his wife with their attorney in Washington, D.C. At this and subsequent meetings with the team, David provided letters written by his brother in their original envelopes, so the use of postmark dates enabled the enhancement of the timeline of Ted Kaczynski's activities being developed by the Task Force. David developed a respectful relationship with the primary Task Force behavioral analyst, Special Agent Kathleen M. Puckett, with whom he met many times in Washington, D.C., Texas, Chicago, and Schenectady, New York, over the nearly two months before the federal search warrant was served on Theodore Kaczynski's cabin.[81]

David Kaczynski had once admired and emulated his older brother, but had later decided to leave the survivalist lifestyle behind.[82] He had received assurances from the FBI that he would remain anonymous and that his brother would not learn who had turned him in, but his identity was leaked to CBS News in early April 1996. CBS anchorman Dan Rather called FBI director Louis Freeh, who requested 24 hours before CBS broke the story on the evening news. The FBI scrambled to finish the search warrant and have it issued by a federal judge in Montana; afterwards, an internal leak investigation was conducted by the FBI, but the source of the leak was never identified.[82]

Paragraphs 204 and 205 of the FBI search and arrest warrant for Ted Kaczynski stated that "experts"'--many of them academics consulted by the FBI'--believed the manifesto had been written by "another individual, not Theodore Kaczynski".[33] As stated in the affidavit, only a handful of people believed Theodore Kaczynski was the Unabomber before the search warrant revealed the cornucopia of evidence in Kaczynski's isolated cabin. The search warrant affidavit written by FBI Inspector Terry D. Turchie reflects this conflict, and is striking evidence of the opposition to Turchie and his small cadre of FBI agents that included Moss and Puckett'--who were convinced Theodore Kaczynski was the Unabomber'--from the rest of the UNABOM Task Force and the FBI in general:

204. Your affiant is aware that other individuals have conducted analyses of the UNABOM Manuscript __ determined that the Manuscript was written by another individual, not Kaczynski, who had also been a suspect in the investigation. 205. Numerous other opinions from experts have been provided as to the identity of the unabomb subject. None of those opinions named Theodore Kaczynski as a possible author.[33]FBI officers arrested Theodore Kaczynski on April 3, 1996, at his remote cabin outside Lincoln, Montana, where he was found in an unkempt state. Combing his cabin, the investigators found a wealth of bomb components, 40,000 handwritten journal pages that included bomb-making experiments and descriptions of the Unabomber crimes; and one live bomb, ready for mailing. They also found what appeared to be the original typed manuscript of the manifesto.[83] By this point, the Unabomber had been the target of one of the most expensive investigations in the FBI's history.[84]

After his capture, Kaczynski was among the several individuals who had been suspected of being the unidentified Zodiac Killer. Among the links that raised suspicion were the fact that Kaczynski lived in the San Francisco Bay Area from 1967 to 1969 (the same period that most of the Zodiac's confirmed killings occurred in California), both individuals were highly intelligent with an interest in bombs and codes, and both writing letters to newspapers demanding the publication of their words with the threat of continued violence toward others if the demand was not met. However, his whereabouts could not be verified for all of the killings, and the gun and knife murders committed by the Zodiac Killer differ from Kaczynski's bombings, so he was not further pursued as a suspect.[85][86]Robert Graysmith of San Francisco, author of the 1986 book Zodiac, said the similarities are "fascinating" but undoubtedly purely coincidental.[87]

In 1996, a docudrama was produced titled "Unabomber: The True Story", featuring actors Dean Stockwell as Ben Jeffries, Robert Hays as David Kaczynski and Tobin Bell as Theodore Kaczynski. In this film a determined postal inspector was followed as he tracked down the suspect and also centered on Kaczynski's brother, who played a key role in the investigation.

Court proceedings[edit]Kaczynski's lawyers, headed by Montana federal defender Michael Donahoe, attempted to enter an insanity defense to save Kaczynski's life, but Kaczynski rejected this plea. A court-appointed psychiatrist diagnosed Kaczynski as suffering from paranoid schizophrenia,[88] but declared him competent to stand trial. Kaczynski's family said Ted would psychologically "shut down" when pressured.[89] In the book, Technological Slavery, Kaczynski recalls two prison psychologists, Dr. James Watterson and Dr. Michael Morrison, who visited him almost every day for a period of four years, who told him that they saw no indication that he suffered from any such serious mental illness, and that the diagnosis of his being paranoid schizophrenic was "ridiculous" and a "political diagnosis." Dr. Morrison made remarks to him about psychologists and psychiatrists providing any desired diagnosis if they are well paid for doing so.[90]

A federal grand jury indicted Kaczynski in April 1996 on 10 counts of illegally transporting, mailing, and using bombs. He was also charged with killing Scrutton, Mosser, and Murray.[91] Initially, the government prosecution team indicated that it would seek the death penalty for Kaczynski after it was authorized by United States Attorney General Janet Reno. David Kaczynski's attorney asked the former FBI agent who made the match between the Unabomber's manifesto and Kaczynski to ask for leniency'--he was horrified to think that turning his brother in might result in his brother's death. Eventually, Kaczynski was able to avoid the death penalty by pleading guilty to all the government's charges, on January 22, 1998. Later, Kaczynski attempted to withdraw his guilty plea, arguing it was involuntary. Judge Garland Ellis Burrell Jr. denied his request. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld that decision.[92]

The early hunt for the Unabomber in the United States portrayed a perpetrator far different from the eventual suspect. The Unabomber Manifesto consistently uses "we" and "our" throughout, and at one point in 1993 investigators sought an individual whose first name was "Nathan", due to a fragment of a note found in one of the bombs.[34] However, when the case was finally presented to the public, authorities denied that there was ever anyone other than Kaczynski involved in the crimes. Explanations were later presented as to why Kaczynski targeted some of the victims he selected.[77][dead link]

On August 10, 2006, Judge Garland Burrell Jr. ordered that personal items seized in 1996 from Kaczynski's Montana cabin should be sold at a "reasonably advertised Internet auction." Items the government considers to be bomb-making materials, such as writings that contain diagrams and "recipes" for bombs, were excluded from the sale. The auctioneer paid the cost and kept up to 10% of the sale price, and the rest of the proceeds must be applied to the $15 million in restitution that Burrell ordered Kaczynski to pay his victims.[93]

Included among Kaczynski's holdings which were auctioned are his original writings, journals, correspondences, and other documents allegedly found in his cabin (for example, a copy of Strunk & White's The Elements of Style[94][95][96]). The judge ordered that all references in those documents that allude to any of his victims must be removed before they were sold. Kaczynski challenged those ordered redactions in court on First Amendment grounds, arguing that any alteration of his writings is an unconstitutional violation of his freedom of speech.[97]

The auction concluded in June, 2011, and raised over $232,000.[98]

Kaczynski is serving a life sentence without the possibility of parole as Federal Bureau of Prisons register number 04475-046 at ADX Florence, the federal Administrative Maximum Facility supermax in Florence, Colorado.[97][99] When asked if he was afraid of losing his mind in prison, Kaczynski replied:

No, what worries me is that I might in a sense adapt to this environment and come to be comfortable here and not resent it anymore. And I am afraid that as the years go by that I may forget, I may begin to lose my memories of the mountains and the woods and that's what really worries me, that I might lose those memories, and lose that sense of contact with wild nature in general. But I am not afraid they are going to break my spirit.[3]Kaczynski has been an active writer in prison. The Labadie Collection, part of the University of Michigan's Special Collections Library, houses Kaczynski's correspondence from over 400 people since his arrest in April 1996, including carbon copy replies, legal documents, publications, and clippings. The names of most correspondents will be kept sealed until 2049.[100] Kaczynski has also been battling in federal court in Northern California over the auction of his journals and other correspondence.[101] On January 10, 2009, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in San Francisco rejected Kaczynski's arguments that the government's sale of his writings violates his freedom of expression. His writings, books, and other possessions were sold online, and the money raised was sent to several of his victims.[102]

Kaczynski's cabin was removed and stored in a warehouse in an undisclosed location. It was to be destroyed, but was eventually given to Scharlette Holdman, an investigator on Kaczynski's defense team.[103] It is on display at the Newseum in Washington, D.C. as of July 2008.[104] In a three-page handwritten letter to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Kaczynski objected to the public exhibition of the cabin, claiming it was being exhibited despite victims' objections to being publicly connected with the UNABOM case.[105]

In a letter dated October 7, 2005, Kaczynski offered to donate two rare books to the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies at Northwestern University's campus in Evanston, Illinois, the location of the first two attacks. The recipient, David Easterbrook, turned the letter over to the university's archives. Northwestern rejected the offer, noting that the library already owned the volumes in English and did not desire duplicates.[106]

David Kaczynski, Theodore's brother, who turned him in to the FBI, has never received a response to the monthly letters he sends to Theodore in prison, as of 2007.[77][dead link]

In 2010, a collection of his essays and a corrected version of the Manifesto were published by Feral House, under the title Technological Slavery.

On May 24, 2012, Kaczynski submitted his current information to the Harvard University alumni association. He listed his eight life sentences as achievements, his current occupation as prisoner, and his current address as No. 04475-046, US Penitentiary'--Max, P.O. Box 8500, Florence, CO 81226-8500.[107]

See also[edit]Anarcho-primitivism, an anarchist movement encompassing many of Kaczynski's viewsCLODO, a 1980s group of neo-Luddite saboteurs from FranceDas Netz, a film about KaczynskiGreen Anarchy, an anarchist magazine that published some of Kaczynski's writings, including the Ship of Fools short storyItalian Unabomber, a suspected terrorist responsible for a similar outbreak of bomb distribution in ItalyPropaganda by the deed, anarchist concept that sees action as being a form of propagandaUnabomber for President, a political campaign which aimed to elect the Unabomber in the 1996 United States presidential electionJohn Zerzan, an anarcho-primitivist philosopher who defended Kaczynski's writings and was a confidant to him during his trial^http://www.bop.gov/iloc2/InmateFinderServlet?Transaction=NameSearch&needingMoreList=false&FirstName=Theodore&Middle=&LastName=Kaczynski&Race=U&Sex=M&Age=&x=114&y=11^Kaczynski identified himself as an anarchist, although few anarchists accept this claim. On his own views see '... claimed to be from 'the anarchist group calling ourselves FC. ... Kaczynski was a disenchanted mathematics professor turned anarchist. Sue Mahan, Pamala L. Griset (2007). Terrorism in Perspective. Sage Publications. ^ abcdefgh"Interview with Ted Kaczynski, Administrative Maximum Facility Prison, Florence, Colorado, USA". Earth First Journal!. June 1999. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2009. ^Claiborne, William (August 21, 1998). "FBI Gives Reward to Unabomber's Brother". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 2, 2011. ^Glaberson, William. Kaczynski Can't Drop Lawyers Or Block a Mental Illness Defense. New York Times, 1998-02-09.^Solomon (Special Agent in Charge, Miami Division), Jonathan (February 6, 2008). "Major Executive Speeches". Federal Bureau of Investigation. ^Moore, John. "Beyond the Fragments '' A reaction to Industrial Society and Its Future". Green Anarchist#51 (Spring 1998). ^[1][dead link]^"crimethinc.com". crimethinc.com. Retrieved April 10, 2010. ^"Ancestry of Ted Kaczynski". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"Ted Kaczynski: Evil man, or tortured soul?". cnn.com. November 28, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2010. ^ abcd"Pysychological Evaluation of Theodore Kaczynski". Court TV. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^ abcChase, Alston (June 2000). "Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Cockburn, Alexander (October 18, 1999). "CIA Shrinks & LSD". CounterPunch. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^RadioLab (June 28, 2010). "Oops". ^"Boundary Functions". ^Ostrom, Carol M. (April 6, 1996). "Unabomber Suspect Is Charged '' Montana Townsfolk Showed Tolerance For `The Hermit'". The Seattle Times. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^ abcMcFadden, Robert D. (May 26, 1996). "Prisoner of Rage '' A special report.; From a Child of Promise to the Unabom Suspect". The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Howe, Peter J. and Dembner, Alice (April 5, 1996). "Meteoric Talent that Burned Out". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 9, 2009. ^Perez-Pena, Richard (April 5, 1996). "On the Suspect's Trail: the Suspect; Memories of His Brilliance, And Shyness, but Little Else". The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Morris, Willy (April 6, 1996). "Kaczynski Ended Career in Math with no Explanation". Buffalo News. ^Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Ted Kaczynski". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011. ^ abc"The Unabomber: A Chronology (1978''1982)". Court TV. Retrieved July 5, 2008. ^Johnston, David (April 16, 1996). "Cabin's Inventory Provides Insight". The New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2008. ^Franks, Lucinda (July 22, 1996). "Don't Shoot". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Labaton, Stephen (October 7, 1993). "Clue and $1 million Reward In Case of the Serial Bomber". The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"The Unabomber: A Chronology (1985''1987)". Court TV. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Claiborne, William (April 11, 1996). "Kaczynski Beard May Confuse Witness". The Washington Post. p. §A, p. A11. ^Lavandera, Ed (June 6, 2008). "Unabomber's brother, victim forge unique friendship". CNN. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Shogren, Elizabeth (June 25, 1993). "Mail Bomb Attack Leaves Yale Computer Scientist in Critical Condition". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 20, 2009. ^ ab"The Unabomber: A Chronology (1988''1995)". Court TV. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"U.S. v. Kaczynski Trial Transcripts". Court TV. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^ abcd"Affidavit of Assistant Special Agent in Charge". Court TV. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^ ab"Death in the Mail '' ; Kleinfield, N. R.". The New York Times. December 18, 1994. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"The end of anon: literary sleuthing from Shakespeare to Unabomber". The Guardian (London). August 16, 2001. Retrieved July 5, 2008. ^Graysmith, Robert Unabomber: A Desire to Kill (1997) Berkely Publishing ISBN 0-425-16725-9^"The Unabomber's Targets: An Interactive Map". CNN. 1997. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Lardner, George; Adams, Lorraine (April 14, 1996). "To Unabomb Victims, a Deeper Mystery". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Chase, Alston. A Mind for Murder: The Education of the Unabomber and the Origins of Modern Terrorism. W. W. Norton & Company, Incorporated. P. 84. ISBN 0-393-02002-9. Google Book Search. Retrieved on May 19, 2011.^"Unabomber Sends New Warnings"^"Paper Assails Industrial-Technological System". The Washington Post. June 30, 1995. Retrieved October 18, 2010. ^"Excerpts From Letter by 'Terrorist Group,' FC, Which Says It Sent Bombs". The New York Times. April 26, 1995. Retrieved January 21, 2009. ^"Manifesto Poses Ethical Dilemma for Two Newspapers"^Elson, John (July 10, 1995). "Murderer's Manifesto". Time. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"Unabomber Manuscript is Published Public Safety Reasons Cited in Joint Decision by Post, N.Y. Times"^"Statement by Papers' Publishers"^Chase, Alston. A Mind for Murder: The Education of the Unabomber and the Origins of Modern Terrorism. W. W. Norton & Company, Incorporated. P. 85. ISBN 0-393-02002-9. Google Book Search. Retrieved on May 19, 2011.^Crain, Craig (1998). "The Bard's fingerprints". Lingua Franca: 29''39. ^ abF.C. 1995, §Introduction^ abF.C. 1995, §Strategy^F.C. 1995, §Oversocialization^F.C. 1995, §The Power Process^F.C. 1995, §Disruption of the Power Process in Modern Society^F.C. 1995, §Surrogate Activities^F.C. 1995, §The Motives of Scientists^""I believe in nothing," Kaczynski wrote in the journals released last week by federal prosecutors. "I don't even believe in the cult of nature-worshipers or wilderness-worshipers."" William Booth, Kaczynski Sentenced to Four Life Terms, WashingtonPost.com, May 5, 1998^Alston Chase, A Mind for Murder - The Education of The Unabomber and the Origins of Modern Terrorism. ISBN 0-393-32556-3, p.108^Alston Chase, A Mind for Murder - The Education of The Unabomber and the Origins of Modern Terrorism. ISBN 0-393-32556-3, p.108 ""I tended to feel that I was a particularly important person and superior to most of the rest of the human race (an undated entry in his journal records.) It just comes to me as naturally as breathing to feel that I was someone special""^The Unabomber Manisfesto: Industrial Society and Its Future 1995, §Control of Human Behavior (paragraph 145)^The Unabomber Manisfesto: Industrial Society and Its Future 1995, §Control of Human Behavior (paragraph 147)^The Unabomber Manisfesto: Industrial Society and Its Future 1995, §Control of Human Behavior (paragraph 148)^F.C. 1995, §The Nature of Freedom^F.C. 1995, §Industrial-Technological Society Cannot be Reformed^F.C. 1995, §The Future^F.C. 1995, §Human Race At A Crossroads^F.C. 1995, §Final Note^Kaczynski, Theodore (1971). Unnamed Essay. ^ abSale, Kirkpatrick (September 25, 1995). "Unabomber's Secret Treatise". Nation. Retrieved April 23, 2009. ^F.C. 1995, §The danger of leftism^F.C. 1995, §Human suffering^Wright, Robert (August 28, 1995). "The Evolution of Despair". Time. Retrieved July 6, 2008. ^"Why the future doesn't need us". Wired. April 2000. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^John Stevens (July 25, 2011). "Anders Behring Breivik posted YouTube video six hours before Norway terror attacks | Mail Online". London: Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-24. ^"Norway suspect admits responsibility". Sky News. Retrieved 2011-07-24. ^vg.no^Hough, Andrew (24 July 2011). "Norway shooting: Anders Behring Breivik plagiarised 'Unabomber'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 24 July 2011. ^ abcKaczynski, David (September 9, 2007). "Programme 9: September 9, 2007". RT‰ Radio 1. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Johnston, David (April 5, 1996). "On the Suspect's Trail: the Investigation; Long and Twisting Trail Led To Unabom Suspect's Arrest". The New York Times. Retrieved July 4, 2008. ^Perez-Pena, Richard (April 7, 1996). "Tapestry of Links in the Unabom Inquiry". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2008. ^ abBelluck, Pam (April 10, 1996). "In Unabom Case, Pain for Suspect's Family". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2008. ^Johnston, David (May 5, 1998). "17-Year Search, an Emotional Discovery and Terror Ends". The New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2008. ^ abDubner, Stephen J. (October 18, 1999). "I Don't Want To Live Long. I Would Rather Get The Death Penalty Than Spend The Rest Of My Life In Prison". Time. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"Unabomber suspect is caught, ending eight-year man-hunt". CNN. 1996. Retrieved January 25, 2009. ^"The Unabomb Trial". CNN. 1997. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"TruTV.com". TruTV.com. Retrieved April 10, 2010. ^"TruTV.com". TruTV.com. Retrieved April 10, 2010. ^Fagan, Kevin (May 14, 1996). "Kaczynski, Zodiac Killer '' the Same Guy?". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 5, 2009. ^Corey, Scott (January 21, 1998). "Revolutionary suicide". Salon. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Ferguson, Paul (1997). "A loner from youth". CNN. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Kaczynski, Theodore (2010). Technological Slavery. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-80-5. ^"Unabomber". MSN Encarta. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^"The Unabomber: A Chronology (The Trial)". Court TV. Retrieved July 5, 2008. ^Taylor, Michael (August 12, 2006). "Unabomber's journal, other items to be put up for auction online". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 5, 2008. ^Catherine Prendergast: "The Fighting Style: Reading the Unabomber's Strunk and White", College English, Volume 72, Number 1, September 2009.^Jane Perrone: "Crime Pays", The Guardian News Blog, 27 July 2005.^Rong-Gong Lin II and Wendy Lee: "Unabomber 'Murderabilia' for Sale", Los Angeles Times, July 26, 2005.^ abKovaleski, Serge F. (January 22, 2007). "Unabomber Wages Legal Battle to Halt the Sale of Papers". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2008. ^Kravets, David (June 2, 2011). "Photo Gallery: Weird Government 'Unabomber' Auction Winds Down". Wired. ^"Theodore John Kaczynski." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on January 5, 2010.^"Labadie Manuscripts". University of Michigan Library. Retrieved February 4, 2009. [dead link]^Trescott, Jacqueline (August 13, 2008). "Unabomber Objects to Newseum's Exhibit". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 7, 2008. ^Egelko, Bob (January 9, 2009). "Unabomber's items can be auctioned". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 11, 2009. ^Walsh, Denny (May 5, 2003). "Unabomber's". Oakland Tribune. Retrieved February 4, 2009. [dead link]^Zongker, Brett (June 19, 2008). "Newseum Exhibit Features 'Unabomber' Cabin". ABC News. Retrieved February 4, 2009. [dead link]^"Unabomber Objects to Newseum's Exhibit"^Pond, Lauren (October 31, 2005). "NU rejects Unabomber's offer of rare African books". The Daily Northwestern. Retrieved February 4, 2009. ^Zennie, Michael (May 24, 2012). "Harvard apologizes for publishing 50-year reunion update from Unabomber Ted Kaczynski that bragged about his 'eight life sentences'". Daily Mail. References[edit]External links[edit]PersondataNameKaczynski, Theodore JohnAlternative namesthe UnabomberShort descriptionAmerican terroristDate of birthMay 22, 1942Place of birthChicago, Illinois, United StatesDate of deathPlace of death

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Gerald Ford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Gerald Ford38thPresident of the United StatesIn officeAugust 9, 1974 '' January 20, 1977Vice PresidentNone(1974)Nelson Rockefeller(1974-1977)Preceded byRichard NixonSucceeded byJimmy Carter40thVice President of the United StatesIn officeDecember 6, 1973 '' August 9, 1974PresidentRichard NixonPreceded bySpiro AgnewSucceeded byNelson RockefellerHouse Minority LeaderIn officeJanuary 3, 1965 '' December 6, 1973DeputyLeslie ArendsPreceded byCharles HalleckSucceeded byJohn RhodesMember of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom Michigan's 5th districtIn officeJanuary 3, 1949 '' December 6, 1973Preceded byBartel JonkmanSucceeded byRichard Vander VeenPersonal detailsBornLeslie Lynch King, Jr.(1913-07-14)July 14, 1913Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.DiedDecember 26, 2006(2006-12-26) (aged 93)Rancho Mirage, California, U.S.[1]Resting placeGerald R. Ford MuseumGrand Rapids, MichiganPolitical partyRepublicanSpouse(s)Betty Bloomer(1948''2006)ChildrenMichaelJohnStevenSusanAlma materUniversity of MichiganYale Law SchoolProfessionLawyerReligionEpiscopalSignatureMilitary serviceService/branchUnited States NavyYears of service1942''1946RankLieutenant CommanderBattles/warsWorld War IIAwardsAsiatic-Pacific Campaign MedalAmerican Campaign MedalWorld War II Victory MedalGerald Rudolph "Jerry" Ford, Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King, Jr.; July 14, 1913 '' December 26, 2006) was the 38thPresident of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and prior to this, was the 40thVice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974. He was the first person appointed to the Vice Presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment, after Spiro Agnew had resigned. When he became president upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he became the first and to date only person to have served as both Vice President and President of the United States without being elected by the Electoral College. Before ascending to the Vice Presidency, Ford served nearly 25 years as the Representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district, eight of them as the RepublicanMinority Leader.

As President, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, marking a move toward d(C)tente in the Cold War. With the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam nine months into his presidency, U.S. involvement in Vietnam essentially ended. Domestically, Ford presided over the worst economy in the four decades since the Great Depression, with growing inflation and a recession during his tenure.[2] One of his more controversial acts was to grant a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. During Ford's incumbency, foreign policy was characterized in procedural terms by the increased role Congress began to play, and by the corresponding curb on the powers of the President.[3] In 1976, Ford narrowly defeated Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination, but lost the presidential election to DemocratJimmy Carter.

Following his years as president, Ford remained active in the Republican Party. After experiencing health problems, Ford died in his home on December 26, 2006. Ford lived longer than any other U.S. president, living 93 years and 165 days, while his 895-day presidency remains the shortest of all presidents who did not die in office.

Early life[edit]Ford was born Leslie Lynch King, Jr., on July 14, 1913, at 3202 Woolworth Avenue in Omaha, Nebraska, where his parents lived with his paternal grandparents. His mother was Dorothy Ayer Gardner, and his father was Leslie Lynch King, Sr., a wool trader and son of prominent banker Charles Henry King and Martha Alicia King (n(C)e Porter). Dorothy separated from King just sixteen days after her son's birth. She took her son with her to the Oak Park, Illinois home of her sister Tannisse and brother-in-law, Clarence Haskins James. From there, she moved to the home of her parents, Levi Addison Gardner and Adele Augusta Ayer in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Dorothy and King divorced in December 1913; she gained full custody of her son. Ford's paternal grandfather Charles Henry King paid child support until shortly before his death in 1930.[4]

Ford later said his biological father had a history of hitting his mother.[5] James M. Cannon, a member of the Ford administration, wrote in a Ford biography that the Kings' separation and divorce were sparked when, a few days after Ford's birth, Leslie King threatened Dorothy with a butcher knife and threatened to kill her, Ford, and Ford's nursemaid. Ford later told confidantes that his father had first hit his mother on their honeymoon for smiling at another man.[6]

After two and a half years with her parents, on February 1, 1916, Dorothy married Gerald Rudolff Ford, a salesman in a family-owned paint and varnish company. They then called her son Gerald Rudolff Ford, Jr. The future president was never formally adopted, however, and he did not legally change his name until December 3, 1935; he also used a more conventional spelling of his middle name.[7] He was raised in Grand Rapids with his three half brothers from his mother's second marriage: Thomas Gardner Ford (1918''1995), Richard Addison Ford (born 1924), and James Francis Ford (1927''2001).

Ford also had three half-siblings from his father's second marriage: Marjorie King (1921''1993), Leslie Henry King (1923''1976), and Patricia Jane King (born 1925). They never saw one another as children and he did not know them at all. Ford was not aware of his biological father until he was 17, when his parents told him about the circumstances of his birth. That year his father Leslie King, whom Ford described as a "carefree, well-to-do man who didn't really give a damn about the hopes and dreams of his firstborn son", approached Ford while he was waiting tables in a Grand Rapids restaurant. The two "maintained a sporadic contact" until Leslie King, Sr.'s death.[5][8]

Ford maintained his distance emotionally, saying, "My stepfather was a magnificent person and my mother equally wonderful. So I couldn't have written a better prescription for a superb family upbringing."[9]

Scouting and athletics[edit]Ford was involved in The Boy Scouts of America, and earned that program's highest rank, Eagle Scout.[10] In later years, Ford received the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in May 1970 and Silver Buffalo Award from the Boy Scouts of America. He is the only U.S. president who is an Eagle Scout.[10]Scouting was so important to Ford that his family asked that Scouts participate in his funeral. About 400 Eagle Scouts were part of the funeral procession, where they formed an honor guard as the casket went by in front of the museum. A few selected scouts served as ushers inside the National Cathedral.[11]

Ford attended Grand Rapids South High School and was a star athlete and captain of his football team.[12] In 1930, he was selected to the All-City team of the Grand Rapids City League. He also attracted the attention of college recruiters.[9]

Attending the University of Michigan as an undergraduate, Ford played center and linebacker for the school's football team[13] and helped the Wolverines to undefeated seasons and national titles in 1932 and 1933. The team suffered a steep decline in his 1934 senior year, however, winning only one game. Ford was the team's star nonetheless, and after a game during which Michigan held heavily favored Minnesota (the eventual national champion) to a scoreless tie in the first half, assistant coach Bennie Oosterbaan later said, "When I walked into the dressing room at half time, I had tears in my eyes I was so proud of them. Ford and [Cedric] Sweet played their hearts out. They were everywhere on defense." Ford later recalled, "During 25 years in the rough-and-tumble world of politics, I often thought of the experiences before, during, and after that game in 1934. Remembering them has helped me many times to face a tough situation, take action, and make every effort possible despite adverse odds." His teammates later voted Ford their most valuable player, with one assistant coach noting, "They felt Jerry was one guy who would stay and fight in a losing cause."[14]

During Ford's senior year a controversy developed when the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets refused to play a scheduled game if a black player named Willis Ward took the field. Even after protests from students, players and alumni, university officials opted to keep Ward out of the game. Ford was Ward's best friend on the team and they roomed together while on road trips. Ford reportedly threatened to quit the team in response to the university's decision, but eventually agreed to play against Georgia Tech when Ward personally asked him to play.[15]

During the same season, in a game against the University of Chicago, Ford "became the only future U.S. president to tackle a future Heisman Trophy winner when he brought down running back Jay Berwanger, who would win the first Heisman the following year".[16] In 1934, Ford was selected for the Eastern Team on the Shriner's East West Crippled Children game at San Francisco (a benefit for crippled children), played on January 1, 1935. As part of the 1935 Collegiate All-Star football team, Ford played against the Chicago Bears in an exhibition game at Soldier Field.[17] In honor of his athletic accomplishments and his later political career, the University of Michigan retired Ford's No. 48 jersey in 1994. With the blessing of the Ford family, it was placed back into circulation in 2012 as part of the Michigan Football Legends program and issued to sophomore linebacker Desmond Morgan before a home game against Illinois on October 13.[18]

Ford remained interested in football and his school throughout life, occasionally attending games. Ford also visited with players and coaches during practices, at one point asking to join the players in the huddle.[19] Ford often had the Naval band play the University of Michigan fight song, The Victors, before state events instead of Hail to the Chief.[20] He also selected the song to be played during his funeral procession at the U.S. Capitol.[21] On his death in December 2006, the University of Michigan Marching Band played the fight song for him one final time, for his last ride from the Gerald R. Ford Airport in Grand Rapids, Michigan.[22]

Ford was also an avid golfer. In 1977, he shot a hole in one during a Pro-am held in conjunction with the Danny Thomas Memphis Classic at Colonial Country Club in Memphis, Tennessee. He received the 1985 Old Tom Morris Award from the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, GCSAA's highest honor.[23]

Education[edit]At Michigan, Ford became a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity (Omicron chapter) and washed dishes at his fraternity house to earn money for college expenses. Following his graduation in 1935 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics, he turned down contract offers from the Detroit Lions and Green Bay Packers of the National Football League to take a coaching position at Yale and apply to its law school.[24] Ford continued to contribute to football and boxing, accepting an assistant coaching job for both at Yale in September 1935.[25]

Ford hoped to attend Yale's law school beginning in 1935 while serving as boxing coach and assistant varsity football coach. Yale officials at first denied his admission to the law school, because of his full-time coaching responsibilities. He spent the summer of 1937 as a student at the University of Michigan Law School[26] and was eventually admitted in spring 1938 to Yale Law School.[27] Ford earned his LL.B. degree in 1941 (later amended to Juris Doctor), graduating in the top 25 percent of his class. His introduction to politics came in the summer of 1940 when he worked in Wendell Willkie's presidential campaign. While attending Yale Law School, he joined a group of students led by R. Douglas Stuart, Jr., and signed a petition to enforce the 1939 Neutrality Act. The petition was circulated nationally and was the inspiration for the America First Committee, a group determined to keep the U.S. out of World War II.[28]

Ford graduated from law school in 1941, and was admitted to the Michigan bar shortly thereafter. In May 1941, he opened a Grand Rapids law practice with a friend, Philip W. Buchen,[25] who would later serve as Ford's White House counsel. But overseas developments caused a change in plans, and Ford responded to the attack on Pearl Harbor by enlisting in the Navy.[29]

Naval service in World War II[edit]Ford received a commission as ensign in the U.S. Naval Reserve on April 13, 1942. On April 20, he reported for active duty to the V-5 instructor school at Annapolis, Maryland. After one month of training, he went to Navy Preflight School in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where he was one of 83 instructors and taught elementary navigation skills, ordnance, gunnery, first aid and military drill. In addition, he coached in all nine sports that were offered, but mostly in swimming, boxing and football. During the one year he was at the Preflight School, he was promoted to Lieutenant Junior Grade on June 2, 1942, and to Lieutenant in March 1943.

Applying for sea duty, Ford was sent in May 1943 to the pre-commissioning detachment for the new aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26), at New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey. From the ship's commissioning on June 17, 1943, until the end of December 1944, Ford served as the assistant navigator, Athletic Officer, and antiaircraft battery officer on board the Monterey. While he was on board, the carrier participated in many actions in the Pacific Theater with the Third and Fifth Fleets in late 1943 and 1944. In 1943, the carrier helped secure Makin Island in the Gilberts, and participated in carrier strikes against Kavieng, New Ireland in 1943. During the spring of 1944, the Monterey supported landings at Kwajalein and Eniwetok and participated in carrier strikes in the Marianas, Western Carolines, and northern New Guinea, as well as in the Battle of the Philippine Sea.[30] After overhaul, from September to November 1944, aircraft from the Monterey launched strikes against Wake Island, participated in strikes in the Philippines and Ryukyus, and supported the landings at Leyte and Mindoro.[30]

Although the ship was not damaged by Japanese forces, the Monterey was one of several ships damaged by the typhoon that hit AdmiralWilliam Halsey's Third Fleet on December 18''19, 1944. The Third Fleet lost three destroyers and over 800 men during the typhoon. The Monterey was damaged by a fire, which was started by several of the ship's aircraft tearing loose from their cables and colliding on the hangar deck. During the storm, Ford narrowly avoided becoming a casualty himself. As he was going to his battle station on the bridge of the ship in the early morning of December 18, the ship rolled twenty-five degrees, which caused Ford to lose his footing and slide toward the edge of the deck. The two-inch steel ridge around the edge of the carrier slowed him enough so he could roll, and he twisted into the catwalk below the deck. As he later stated, "I was lucky; I could have easily gone overboard."

Ford, serving as General Quarters Officer of the Deck, was ordered to go below to assess the raging fire. He did so safely, and reported his findings back to the ship's commanding officer, Captain Stuart Ingersoll. The ship's crew was able to contain the fire, and the ship got underway again.[31]

After the fire the Monterey was declared unfit for service, and the crippled carrier reached Ulithi on December 21 before continuing across the Pacific to Bremerton, Washington where it underwent repairs. On December 24, 1944, at Ulithi, Ford was detached from the ship and sent to the Navy Pre-Flight School at Saint Mary's College of California, where he was assigned to the Athletic Department until April 1945. One of his duties was to coach football. From the end of April 1945 to January 1946, he was on the staff of the Naval Reserve Training Command, Naval Air Station, Glenview, Illinois as the Staff Physical and Military Training Officer. On October 3, 1945, he was promoted to Lieutenant Commander. In January 1946, he was sent to the Separation Center, Great Lakes to be processed out. He was released from active duty under honorable conditions on February 23, 1946. On June 28, 1946, the Secretary of the Navy accepted Ford's resignation from the Naval Reserve.

For his naval service, Gerald Ford earned the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with nine engagement stars for operations in the Gilbert Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, Marshall Islands, Asiatic and Pacific carrier raids, Hollandia, Marianas, Western Carolines, Western New Guinea, and the Leyte Operation. He also received the Philippine Liberation Medal with two bronze stars for Leyte and Mindoro, as well as the American Campaign and World War II Victory Medals.[29]

Ford was a member of several civic organizations, including the Junior Chamber of Commerce (Jaycees), American Legion, AMVETS, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Sons of the Revolution,[32] and Veterans of Foreign Wars.

In 1992 the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Ford its Lone Sailor Award for his naval service and his subsequent government service.

Gerald R. Ford was initiated into Freemasonry on September 30, 1949.[33] He later said in 1975, "When I took my obligation as a master mason'--incidentally, with my three younger brothers'--I recalled the value my own father attached to that order. But I had no idea that I would ever be added to the company of the Father of our Country and 12 other members of the order who also served as Presidents of the United States."[34]

Marriage and children[edit]On October 15, 1948, at Grace Episcopal Church in Grand Rapids, Ford married Elizabeth Bloomer Warren (1918''2011), a department store fashion consultant. Warren had been a John Robert Powers fashion model and a dancer in the auxiliary troupe of the Martha Graham Dance Company. She had previously been married to and divorced from William G. Warren.

At the time of his engagement, Ford was campaigning for what would be his first of thirteen terms as a member of the United States House of Representatives. The wedding was delayed until shortly before the elections because, as The New York Times reported in a 1974 profile of Betty Ford, "Jerry was running for Congress and wasn't sure how voters might feel about his marrying a divorced ex-dancer."[35]

The couple had four children:

House of Representatives[edit]After returning to Grand Rapids, Ford became active in local Republican politics, and supporters urged him to take on Bartel J. Jonkman, the incumbent Republican congressman. Military service had changed his view of the world. "I came back a converted internationalist", Ford wrote, "and of course our congressman at that time was an avowed, dedicated isolationist. And I thought he ought to be replaced. Nobody thought I could win. I ended up winning two to one."[9] During his first campaign in 1948, Ford visited voters at their doorsteps and as they left the factories where they worked.[36] Ford also visited local farms where in one instance, a wager resulted in Ford spending two weeks milking cows following his election victory.[37] Ford was known to his colleagues in the House as a "Congressman's Congressman".[38]

Ford was a member of the House of Representatives for 25 years, holding the Grand Rapids congressional district seat from 1949 to 1973. It was a tenure largely notable for its modesty. As an editorial in The New York Times described him, Ford "saw himself as a negotiator and a reconciler, and the record shows it: he did not write a single piece of major legislation in his entire career."[39] Appointed to the House Appropriations Committee two years after being elected, he was a prominent member of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee. Ford described his philosophy as "a moderate in domestic affairs, an internationalist in foreign affairs, and a conservative in fiscal policy."[40]

In the early 1950s, Ford declined offers to run for both the Senate and the Michigan governorship. Rather, his ambition was to become Speaker of the House.[41]

Warren Commission[edit]In November 1963, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Ford to the Warren Commission, a special task force set up to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Ford was assigned to prepare a biography of Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin.[42] The Commission's work continues to be debated in the public arena.

In the preface to his book, A Presidential Legacy and The Warren Commission, Ford said the CIA destroyed or kept from investigators critical secrets connected to the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He said the commission's probe put "certain classified and potentially damaging operations in danger of being exposed". The CIA's reaction, he added, "was to hide or destroy some information, which can easily be misinterpreted as collusion in JFK's assassination".[43]

According to a 1963 FBI memo released in 2008, Ford secretly provided the FBI with information about two of his fellow commission members, both of whom were unsure about the FBI's conclusions about the assassination.[44] The FBI position was that President Kennedy was shot by a single gunman firing from the Texas Book Depository. Another 1963 memo released in 1978 stated that Representative Ford volunteered to advise the FBI regarding the content of the commission's deliberations if his involvement with the bureau was kept confidential, a condition which the bureau approved.[45] Ford was an outspoken proponent of the single-assassin theory.[46] According to the same reports, Ford had strong ties to the FBI and J. Edgar Hoover.[46]

House Minority Leader[edit]In 1964, Democratic President Lyndon Johnson led a landslide victory for his party, securing another term as president and taking 36 seats from Republicans in the House of Representatives. Following the election, members of the Republican caucus looked to select a new Minority Leader. Three members approached Ford to see if he would be willing to serve; after consulting with his family, he agreed. After a closely contested election, Ford was chosen to replace Charles Halleck of Indiana as Minority Leader.[47]

The Republicans had 140 seats in the House compared with the 295 seats held by the Democrats. Consequently, the Johnson Administration proposed and passed a series of programs that was called by Johnson the "Great Society." During the first session of the Eighty-ninth Congress alone, the Johnson Administration submitted 87 bills to Congress, and Johnson signed 84, or 96%, arguably the most successful legislative agenda in Congressional history.[48]

Criticism over the Johnson Administration's handling of the Vietnam War began to grow in 1966, with Ford and Congressional Republicans expressing concern that the United States was not doing what was necessary to win the war. Public sentiment also began to move against Johnson, and the 1966 midterm elections saw a 47-seat swing in favor of the Republicans. This was not enough to give Republicans a majority in the House, but the victory gave Ford the opportunity to prevent the passage of further Great Society programs.[47]

Ford's private criticism of the Vietnam War became public following a speech from the floor of the House, in which he questioned whether the White House had a clear plan to bring the war to a successful conclusion.[47] The speech angered President Johnson, who accused Ford of playing "too much football without a helmet".[47][49]

As Minority Leader in the House, Ford appeared in a popular series of televised press conferences with famed Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen, in which they proposed Republican alternatives to Johnson's policies. Many in the press jokingly called this "The Ev and Jerry Show."[50] Johnson said at the time, "Jerry Ford is so dumb he can't fart and chew gum at the same time."[51] The press, used to sanitizing LBJ's salty language, reported this as "Gerald Ford can't walk and chew gum at the same time."[52]

Ford's role shifted under President Nixon to being an advocate for the White House agenda. Congress passed several of Nixon's proposals, including the National Environmental Policy Act and the Tax Reform Act of 1969. Another high-profile victory for the Republican minority was the State and Local Fiscal Assistance act. Passed in 1972, the act established a Revenue Sharing program for state and local governments.[53] Ford's leadership was instrumental in shepherding revenue sharing through Congress, and resulted in a bipartisan coalition that supported the bill with 223 votes in favor (compared with 185 against).[47][54]

During the 8 years (1965''1973) he served as Minority Leader, Ford won many friends in the House because of his fair leadership and inoffensive personality.[47] An office building in the U.S. Capitol Complex, House Annex 2, was renamed for Gerald Ford as the Ford House Office Building.

Vice Presidency, 1973''74[edit]On October 10, 1973, Vice President Agnew resigned and then pleaded no contest to criminal charges of tax evasion and money laundering, part of a negotiated resolution to a scheme in which he accepted $29,500 in bribes while governor of Maryland. According to The New York Times, "Nixon sought advice from senior Congressional leaders about a replacement. The advice was unanimous. 'We gave Nixon no choice but Ford,' House SpeakerCarl Albert recalled later".[39]

Ford was nominated to take Agnew's position on October 12, the first time the vice-presidential vacancy provision of the 25th Amendment had been implemented. The United States Senate voted 92 to 3 to confirm Ford on November 27. Only three Senators, all Democrats, voted against Ford's confirmation: Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin, Thomas Eagleton of Missouri and William Hathaway of Maine. On December 6, the House confirmed Ford by a vote of 387 to 35. One hour after the confirmation vote in the House, Ford took the oath of office as Vice President of the United States. Ford's brief tenure as Vice-President was little noted by the media as reporters were preoccupied by the continuing revelations about the Watergate scandal'--a political scandal resulting from the discovery of a series of crimes committed during the 1972 presidential election and allegations of cover-ups by the White House.

Following Ford's appointment, the Watergate investigation continued until Chief of StaffAlexander Haig contacted Ford on August 1, 1974, and told him that "smoking gun" evidence had been found. The evidence left little doubt that President Nixon had been a part of the Watergate cover-up. At the time, Ford and his wife, Betty, were living in suburban Virginia, waiting for their expected move into the newly-designated vice president's residence in Washington, D.C. However, "Al Haig [asked] to come over and see me," Ford later related, "to tell me that there would be a new tape released on a Monday, and he said the evidence in there was devastating and there would probably be either an impeachment or a resignation. And he said, 'I'm just warning you that you've got to be prepared, that things might change dramatically and you could become President.' And I said, 'Betty, I don't think we're ever going to live in the vice president's house.'"[9]

Presidency, 1974''77[edit]Swearing-in[edit]When Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, Ford assumed the presidency, making him the only person to assume the presidency without having been previously voted into either the presidential or vice presidential office. Immediately after taking the oath of office in the East Room of the White House, he spoke to the assembled audience in a speech broadcast live to the nation.[55] Ford noted the peculiarity of his position: "I am acutely aware that you have not elected me as your president by your ballots, and so I ask you to confirm me as your president with your prayers."[56] He went on to state:

I have not sought this enormous responsibility, but I will not shirk it. Those who nominated and confirmed me as Vice President were my friends and are my friends. They were of both parties, elected by all the people and acting under the Constitution in their name. It is only fitting then that I should pledge to them and to you that I will be the President of all the people.[57]He also stated:

My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over. Our Constitution works; our great Republic is a government of laws and not of men. Here, the people rule. But there is a higher Power, by whatever name we honor Him, who ordains not only righteousness but love, not only justice, but mercy. ... let us restore the golden rule to our political process, and let brotherly love purge our hearts of suspicion and hate.[58]A portion of the speech would later be memorialized with a plaque at the entrance to his presidential museum.

On August 20, Ford nominated former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to fill the vice presidency he had vacated.[59] Rockefeller's top competitor had been George H. W. Bush. Rockefeller underwent extended hearings before Congress, which caused embarrassment when it was revealed he made large gifts to senior aides, such as Henry Kissinger. Although conservative Republicans were not pleased that Rockefeller was picked, most of them voted for his confirmation, and his nomination passed both the House and Senate. Some, including Barry Goldwater, voted against him.[60]

Pardon of Nixon[edit]On September 8, 1974, Ford issued Proclamation 4311, which gave Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he might have committed against the United States while President.[61][62][63] In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford explained that he felt the pardon was in the best interests of the country, and that the Nixon family's situation "is a tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must."[64] When he announced the Nixon pardon, Ford also introduced a conditional amnesty program for Vietnam War draft dodgers who had fled to countries such as Canada.[65] Full pardon for the draft dodgers, however, did not come about until the Carter Administration.[66]

The Nixon pardon was highly controversial. Critics derided the move and claimed a "corrupt bargain" had been struck between the men.[9] They claimed Ford's pardon was granted in exchange for Nixon's resignation that elevated Ford to the Presidency. Ford's first press secretary and close friend Jerald Franklin terHorst resigned his post in protest after President Nixon's full pardon. According to Bob Woodward, Nixon Chief of Staff Alexander Haig proposed a pardon deal to Ford. He later decided to pardon Nixon for other reasons, primarily the friendship he and Nixon shared.[67] Regardless, historians believe the controversy was one of the major reasons Ford lost the election in 1976, an observation with which Ford agreed.[67] In an editorial at the time, The New York Times stated that the Nixon pardon was "a profoundly unwise, divisive and unjust act" that in a stroke had destroyed the new president's "credibility as a man of judgment, candor and competence".[39] On October 17, 1974, Ford testified before Congress on the pardon. He was the first sitting President to testify before Congress since Abraham Lincoln.[68]

After Ford left the White House in 1977, the former President privately justified his pardon of Nixon by carrying in his wallet a portion of the text of Burdick v. United States, a 1915 U.S. Supreme Court decision which stated that a pardon indicated a presumption of guilt, and that acceptance of a pardon was tantamount to a confession of that guilt.[69] In 2001, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation awarded the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award to Ford for his pardon of Nixon.[70] In presenting the award to Ford, Senator Ted Kennedy said that he had initially been opposed to the pardon of Nixon, but later stated that history had proved Ford to have made the correct decision.[71]

Presidential Proclamation 4313[edit]On September 16, 1974, President Ford announced a program for the Return of Vietnam Era Draft Evaders and Military Deserters.[72] This proved to be controversial, as it provided a means for those who were against the Vietnam War to erase any remaining criminal charges and for those who were given punitive discharges as a result of being against the war to have them converted to Clemency Discharges. The Proclamation established a Clemency Board to review the records and make recommendations for receiving a Presidential Pardon and a change in Military discharge status.

Administration and cabinet[edit]Upon assuming office, Ford inherited Nixon's cabinet. During Ford's brief administration, only Secretary of State Kissinger and Secretary of the TreasuryWilliam E. Simon remained. Ford appointed William Coleman as Secretary of Transportation, the second black man to serve in a presidential cabinet (after Robert Clifton Weaver) and the first appointed in a Republican administration.[73]

Other cabinet-level posts:

Other important posts:

Ford selected George H.W. Bush as Chief of the US Liaison Office to the People's Republic of China in 1974, and then Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in late 1975.[74]

Ford's transition chairman and first Chief of Staff was former congressman and ambassador Donald Rumsfeld. In 1975, Rumsfeld was named by Ford as the youngest-ever Secretary of Defense. Ford chose a young Wyoming politician, Richard Cheney, to replace Rumsfeld as his new Chief of Staff and later campaign manager for Ford's 1976 presidential campaign.[75] Ford's dramatic reorganization of his Cabinet in the fall of 1975 has been referred to by political commentators as the "Halloween Massacre".

Midterm elections[edit]The 1974 Congressional midterm elections took place fewer than three months after Ford assumed office and in the wake of the Watergate scandal. The Democratic Party turned voter dissatisfaction into large gains in the House elections, taking 49 seats from the Republican Party, and increasing their majority to 291 of the 435 seats. This was one more than the number needed (290) for a two-thirds majority, necessary to override a Presidential veto (or to propose a constitutional amendment). Perhaps due in part to this fact, the 94th Congress overrode the highest percentage of vetoes since Andrew Johnson was President of the United States (1865''1869).[76] Even Ford's old, reliably Republican seat was taken by Democrat Richard Vander Veen, defeating Republican Robert VanderLaan. In the Senate elections, the Democratic majority became 61 in the 100-seat body.[77]

Domestic policy[edit]The economy was a great concern during the Ford administration. One of the first acts the new president took to deal with the economy was to create the Economic Policy Board by Executive Order on September 30, 1974.[78] In response to rising inflation, Ford went before the American public in October 1974 and asked them to "Whip Inflation Now". As part of this program, he urged people to wear "WIN" buttons.[79] At the time, inflation was believed to be the primary threat to the economy, more so than growing unemployment. They felt as though controlling inflation would work to fix unemployment.[78] To rein in inflation, it was necessary to control the public's spending. To try to mesh service and sacrifice, "WIN" called for Americans to reduce their spending and consumption.[80] On October 4, 1974, Ford gave a speech in front of a joint session of Congress and as a part of this speech kicked off the "WIN" campaign. Over the next nine days 101,240 Americans mailed in "WIN" pledges.[78] In hindsight, this was viewed as simply a public relations gimmick without offering any means of solving the underlying problems.[81] The main point of that speech was to introduce to Congress a one-year, five-percent income tax increase on corporations and wealthy individuals. This plan would also take $4.4 billion out of the budget bringing federal spending below $300 billion.[82] At the time, inflation was over twelve percent.[83]

Ford was confronted with a potential swine flupandemic. In the early 1970s, an influenza strain H1N1 shifted from a form of flu that affected primarily pigs and crossed over to humans. On February 5, 1976, an army recruit at Fort Dix mysteriously died and four fellow soldiers were hospitalized; health officials announced that "swine flu" was the cause. Soon after, public health officials in the Ford administration urged that every person in the United States be vaccinated.[84] Although the vaccination program was plagued by delays and public relations problems, some 25% of the population was vaccinated by the time the program was canceled in December of that year. The vaccine was blamed for twenty-five deaths; more people died from the shots than from the swine flu.[85]

Ford was an outspoken supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment, issuing Presidential Proclamation no. 4383 in 1975:

In this Land of the Free, it is right, and by nature it ought to be, that all men and all women are equal before the law. Now, therefore, I, Gerald R. Ford, President of the United States of America, to remind all Americans that it is fitting and just to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment adopted by the Congress of the United States of America, in order to secure legal equality for all women and men, do hereby designate and proclaim August 26, 1975, as Women's Equality Day.[86]As president, Ford's position on abortion was that he supported "a federal constitutional amendment that would permit each one of the 50 States to make the choice".[87] This had also been his position as House Minority Leader in response to the 1973 Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade, which he opposed.[88] Ford came under criticism for a 60 Minutes interview his wife Betty gave in 1975, in which she stated that Roe v. Wade was a "great, great decision".[89] During his later life, Ford would identify as pro-choice.[90]

Budget[edit]The federal budget ran a deficit every year Ford was President.[91] Despite his reservations about how the program ultimately would be funded in an era of tight public budgeting, Ford signed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, which established special education throughout the United States. Ford expressed "strong support for full educational opportunities for our handicapped children" according to the official White House press release for the bill signing.[92]

The economic focus began to change as the country sank into the worst recession since the Great Depression four decades earlier.[93] The focus of the Ford administration turned to stopping the rise in unemployment, which reached nine percent in May 1975.[94] In January 1975, Ford proposed a 1-year tax reduction of $16 billion to stimulate economic growth, along with spending cuts to avoid inflation.[82] Ford was criticized greatly for quickly switching from advocating a tax increase to a tax reduction. In Congress, the proposed amount of the tax reduction increased to $22.8 billion in tax cuts and lacked spending cuts.[78] In March 1975, Congress passed, and Ford signed into law, these income tax rebates as part of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975. This resulted in a federal deficit of around $53 billion for the 1975 fiscal year and $73.7 billion for 1976.[95]

When New York City faced bankruptcy in 1975, MayorAbraham Beame was unsuccessful in obtaining Ford's support for a federal bailout. The incident prompted the New York Daily News' famous headline "Ford to City: Drop Dead", referring to a speech in which "Ford declared flatly ... that he would veto any bill calling for 'a federal bail-out of New York City'".[96][97] The following month, November 1975, Ford changed his stance and asked Congress to approve federal loans to New York City.[98]

Foreign policy[edit]Ford continued the d(C)tente policy with both the Soviet Union and China, easing the tensions of the Cold War. Still in place from the Nixon Administration was the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT).[99] The thawing relationship brought about by Nixon's visit to China was reinforced by Ford's December 1975 visit to the communist country.[100] In 1975, the Administration entered into the Helsinki Accords[101] with the Soviet Union, creating the framework of the Helsinki Watch, an independent non-governmental organization created to monitor compliance that later evolved into Human Rights Watch.[102]

Ford attended the inaugural meeting of the Group of Seven (G7) industrialized nations (initially the G5) in 1975 and secured membership for Canada. Ford supported international solutions to issues. "We live in an interdependent world and, therefore, must work together to resolve common economic problems," he said in a 1974 speech.[103]

Middle East[edit]In the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean, two ongoing international disputes developed into crises. The Cyprus dispute turned into a crisis with the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, causing extreme strain within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance. In mid-August, the government withdrew Greece from the NATO military structure; in mid-September 1974, the Senate and House of Representatives overwhelmingly voted to halt military aid to Turkey. Ford, concerned with both the effect of this on Turkish-American relations and the deterioration of security on NATO's eastern front, vetoed the bill. A second bill was passed by the house, and vetoed, although a compromise was accepted to continue aid until the end of the year.[3] As Ford expected, Turkish relations were considerably disrupted until 1978.

In the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict, although the initial cease fire had been implemented to end active conflict in the Yom Kippur War, Kissinger's continuing shuttle diplomacy was showing little progress. Ford considered it "stalling" and wrote, "Their [Israeli] tactics frustrated the Egyptians and made me mad as hell."[104] During Kissinger's shuttle to Israel in early March 1975, a last minute reversal to consider further withdrawal, prompted a cable from Ford to Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, which included:

I wish to express my profound disappointment over Israel's attitude in the course of the negotiations ... Failure of the negotiation will have a far reaching impact on the region and on our relations. I have given instructions for a reassessment of United States policy in the region, including our relations with Israel, with the aim of ensuring that overall American interests ... are protected. You will be notified of our decision.[105]On March 24, Ford received congressional leaders of both parties and informed them of the reassessment of the administration policies in the Middle East. "Reassessment", in practical terms, meant to cancel or suspend further aid to Israel. For six months between March and September 1975, the United States refused to conclude any new arms agreements with Israel. Rabin notes it was "an innocent-sounding term that heralded one of the worst periods in American-Israeli relations".[106] As could be expected, the announced reassessments upset the American Jewish community and Israel's well-wishers in Congress. On May 21, Ford "experienced a real shock", seventy-six senators wrote him a letter urging him to be "responsive" to Israel's request for $2.59 billion in military and economic aid. Ford felt truly annoyed and thought the chance for peace was jeopardized. It was, since the September 1974 ban on arms to Turkey, the second major congressional intrusion upon the President's [foreign policy] prerogatives.[107] The following summer months were described by Ford as an American-Israeli "war of nerves" or "test of wills",[108] and after much bargaining, the Sinai Interim Agreement (Sinai II), was formally signed on September 1 and aid resumed.

Vietnam[edit]One of Ford's greatest challenges was dealing with the continued Vietnam War. American offensive operations against North Vietnam had ended with the Paris Peace Accords, signed on January 27, 1973. The accords declared a cease fire across both North and South Vietnam, and required the release of American prisoners of war. The agreement guaranteed the territorial integrity of Vietnam and, like the Geneva Conference of 1954, called for national elections in the North and South. The Paris Peace Accords stipulated a sixty-day period for the total withdrawal of U.S. forces.[109]

The accords had been negotiated by United States National Security Advisor Kissinger and North Vietnamese politburo member Le Duc Tho. South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu was not involved in the final negotiations, and publicly criticized the proposed agreement. However, anti-war pressures within the United States forced Nixon and Kissinger to pressure Thieu to sign the agreement and enable the withdrawal of American forces. In multiple letters to the South Vietnamese president, Nixon had promised that the United States would defend his government, should the North Vietnamese violate the accords.[110]

In December 1974, months after Ford took office, North Vietnamese forces invaded the province of Phuoc Long. General Trần Văn Tr sought to gauge any South Vietnamese or American response to the invasion, as well as to solve logistical issues before proceeding with the invasion.[111]

As North Vietnamese forces advanced, Ford requested aid for South Vietnam in a $522 million aid package. The funds had been promised by the Nixon administration, but Congress voted against the proposal by a wide margin.[99] Senator Jacob Javits offered "...large sums for evacuation, but not one nickel for military aid".[99] President Thieu resigned on April 21, 1975, publicly blaming the lack of support from the United States for the fall of his country.[112] Two days later, on April 23, Ford gave a speech at Tulane University. In that speech, he announced that the Vietnam War was over "...as far as America is concerned".[110] The announcement was met with thunderous applause.[110]

1,373 U.S. citizens and 5,595 Vietnamese and third country nationals were evacuated from the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon during Operation Frequent Wind. Military and Air America helicopters took evacuees to U.S. Navy ships off-shore during an approximately 24-hour period on April 29 to 30, 1975, immediately preceding the fall of Saigon. During the operation, so many South Vietnamese helicopters landed on the vessels taking the evacuees that some were pushed overboard to make room for more people. Other helicopters, having nowhere to land, were deliberately crash landed into the sea, close to the ships, their pilots bailing out at the last moment to be picked up by rescue boats.[113]

Many of the Vietnamese evacuees were allowed to enter the United States under the Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act. The 1975 Act appropriated $455 million toward the costs of assisting the settlement of Indochinese refugees.[114] In all, 130,000 Vietnamese refugees came to the United States in 1975. Thousands more escaped in the years that followed.[115]

Mayaguez and Panmunjom[edit]North Vietnam's victory over the South led to a considerable shift in the political winds in Asia, and Ford administration officials worried about a consequent loss of U.S. influence there. The administration proved it was willing to respond forcefully to challenges to its interests in the region on two occasions, once when Khmer Rouge forces seized an American ship in international waters and again when American military officers were killed in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) between North and South Korea.[116]

The first crisis was the Mayaguez Incident. In May 1975, shortly after the fall of Saigon and the Khmer Rouge conquest of Cambodia, Cambodians seized the American merchant ship Mayaguez in international waters.[117] Ford dispatched Marines to rescue the crew, but the Marines landed on the wrong island and met unexpectedly stiff resistance just as, unknown to the U.S., the Mayaguez sailors were being released. In the operation, two military transport helicopters carrying the Marines for the assault operation were shot down, and 41 U.S. servicemen were killed and 50 wounded while approximately 60 Khmer Rouge soldiers were killed.[118] Despite the American losses, the operation was seen as a success in the United States and Ford enjoyed an 11-point boost in his approval ratings in the aftermath.[119] The Americans killed during the operation became the last to have their names inscribed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall in Washington, D.C.

Some historians have argued that the Ford administration felt the need to respond forcefully to the incident because it was construed as a Soviet plot.[120] But recent work by Andrew Gawthorpe, based on an analysis of the administration's internal discussions, shows that Ford's national security team understood that the seizure of the vessel was a local, and perhaps even accidental, provocation by an immature Khmer government. Nevertheless, they felt the need to respond forcefully to discourage further provocations by other Communist countries in Asia.[121]

The second crisis, known as the axe murder incident, occurred at Panmunjom, a village which stands in the DMZ between the two Koreas. At the time, this was the only part of the DMZ where forces from the North and the South came into contact with each other. Encouraged by U.S. difficulties in Vietnam, North Korea had been waging a campaign of diplomatic pressure and minor military harassment to try and convince the U.S. to withdraw from South Korea.[122] Then, in August 1976, North Korean forces killed two U.S. officers and injured South Korean guards who were engaged in trimming a tree in Panmunjom's Joint Security Area. The attack coincided with a meeting of the Conference of Non-Aligned Nations in Colombo, Sri Lanka, at which Kim Jong-il, the son of North Korean leader Kim Il-sung, presented the incident as an example of American aggression, helping secure the passage of a motion calling for a U.S. withdrawal from the South.[123]

At administration meetings, Kissinger voiced the concern that the North would see the U.S. as "the paper tigers of Saigon" if they did not respond, and Ford agreed with that assessment. After mulling various options the Ford administration decided that it was necessary to respond with a major show of force. A large number of ground forces went to cut down the tree, while at the same time the air force was deployed, which included B-52 bomber flights over Panmunjom. The North Korean government backed down and allowed the tree-cutting to go ahead, and later issued an unprecedented official apology.[124]

Assassination attempts[edit]Ford faced two assassination attempts during his presidency, occurring within three weeks of each other and in the same state; while in Sacramento, California, on September 5, 1975, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, pointed a Colt .45-caliber handgun at Ford.[125] As Fromme pulled the trigger, Larry Buendorf,[126] a Secret Service agent, grabbed the gun and managed to insert the webbing of his thumb under the hammer, preventing the gun from firing. It was later found that, although the semi-automatic pistol had four cartridges in the magazine, the weapon had not been chambered, making it impossible for the gun to fire. Fromme was taken into custody; she was later convicted of attempted assassination of the President and was sentenced to life in prison; she was paroled on August 14, 2009.[127]

In reaction to this attempt, the Secret Service began keeping Ford at a more secure distance from anonymous crowds, a strategy that may have saved his life seventeen days later; as he left the St. Francis Hotel in downtown San Francisco, Sara Jane Moore, standing in a crowd of onlookers across the street, pointed her .38-caliber revolver at him.[128] Moore fired a single round but missed because the sights were off. Just before she fired a second round, retired Marine Oliver Sipple grabbed at the gun and deflected her shot; the bullet struck a wall about six inches above and to the right of Ford's head, then ricocheted and hit a taxi driver, who was slightly wounded. Moore was later sentenced to life in prison. She was paroled on December 31, 2007, having served 32 years.[129]

Judicial appointments[edit]Supreme Court[edit]In 1975, Ford appointed John Paul Stevens as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to replace retiring Justice William O. Douglas. Stevens had been a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, appointed by President Nixon.[130] During his tenure as House Republican leader, Ford had led efforts to have Douglas impeached.[131] After being confirmed, Stevens eventually disappointed some conservatives by siding with the Court's liberal wing regarding the outcome of many key issues.[132] Nevertheless, President Ford paid tribute to Stevens. "He has served his nation well," Ford said of Stevens, "with dignity, intellect and without partisan political concerns."[133]

Other judicial appointments[edit]In addition to the Stevens appointment, Ford appointed 11 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 50 judges to the United States district courts.[134]

1976 presidential election[edit]Ford reluctantly agreed to run for office in 1976, but first he had to counter a challenge for the Republican party nomination. Former Governor of California Ronald Reagan and the party's conservative wing faulted Ford for failing to do more in South Vietnam, for signing the Helsinki Accords and for negotiating to cede the Panama Canal (negotiations for the canal continued under President Carter, who eventually signed the Torrijos-Carter Treaties). Reagan launched his campaign in autumn of 1975 and won several primaries before withdrawing from the race at the Republican Convention in Kansas City, Missouri. The conservative insurgency convinced Ford to drop the more liberal Vice President Nelson Rockefeller in favor of Kansas Senator Bob Dole.[135]

In addition to the pardon dispute and lingering anti-Republican sentiment, Ford had to counter a plethora of negative media imagery. Chevy Chase often did pratfalls on Saturday Night Live, imitating Ford, who had been seen stumbling on two occasions during his term. As Chase commented, "He even mentioned in his own autobiography it had an effect over a period of time that affected the election to some degree."[136]

President Ford's 1976 election campaign had the advantage that he was an incumbent president during several anniversary events held during the period leading up to the United States Bicentennial. The Washington, D.C. fireworks display on the Fourth of July was presided over by the President and televised nationally.[137] On July 7, 1976, the President and First Lady served as hosts at a White House state dinner for Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip of the United Kingdom, which was televised on the Public Broadcasting Service network. The 200th anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts gave Ford the opportunity to deliver a speech to 110,000 in Concord acknowledging the need for a strong national defense tempered with a plea for "reconciliation, not recrimination" and "reconstruction, not rancor" between the United States and those who would pose "threats to peace".[138] Speaking in New Hampshire on the previous day, Ford condemned the growing trend toward big government bureaucracy and argued for a return to "basic American virtues".[139]

Democratic nominee and former Georgiagovernor Jimmy Carter campaigned as an outsider and reformer, gaining support from voters dismayed by the Watergate scandal and Nixon pardon. After the Democratic National Convention, he held a huge 33-point lead over Ford in the polls. However, as the campaign continued, the race tightened, and, by election day, the polls showed the race as too close to call. There were three main events in the fall campaign. Most importantly, Carter repeated a promise of a "blanket pardon" for Christian and other religious refugees, and also all Vietnam War draft dodgers (Ford had only issued a conditional amnesty) in response to a question on the subject posed by a reporter during the presidential debates, an act which froze Ford's poll numbers in Ohio, Wisconsin, Hawaii, and Mississippi. (Ford had needed only to shift 11,000 votes in two of those four states in order to win.) Americans viewed the pardon as an essential moral act and as the true end to a bitterly hated war. It was the first act signed by Carter, on January 20, 1977. Earlier, Playboy magazine had published a controversial interview with Carter; in the interview Carter admitted to having "lusted in my heart" for women other than his wife, which cut into his support among women and evangelical Christians. Also, on September 24, Ford performed well in what was the first televised presidential debate since 1960. Polls taken after the debate showed that most viewers felt that Ford was the winner. Carter was also hurt by Ford's charges that he lacked the necessary experience to be an effective national leader, and that Carter was vague on many issues.

Televised presidential debates were reintroduced for the first time since the 1960 election. As such, Ford became the first incumbent president to participate in one. Carter later attributed his victory in the election to the debates, saying they "gave the viewers reason to think that Jimmy Carter had something to offer". The turning point came in the second debate when Ford blundered by stating, "There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and there never will be under a Ford Administration." Ford also said that he did not "believe that the Poles consider themselves dominated by the Soviet Union".[140] In an interview years later, Ford said he had intended to imply that the Soviets would never crush the spirits of eastern Europeans seeking independence. However, the phrasing was so awkward that questioner Max Frankel was visibly incredulous at the response.[141] As a result of this blunder, and Carter's promise of a full presidential pardon for political refugees from the Vietnam era during the presidential debates, Ford's surge stalled and Carter was able to maintain a slight lead in the polls.

In the end, Carter won the election, receiving 50.1% of the popular vote and 297 electoral votes compared with 48.0% and 240 electoral votes for Ford. The election was close enough that had fewer than 25,000 votes shifted in Ohio and Wisconsin '' both of which neighbored his home state '' Ford would have won the electoral vote with 276 votes to 261 for Carter.[142] Though he lost, in the three months between the Republican National Convention and the election Ford managed to close what was once a 34-point Carter lead to a 2-point margin. Despite his defeat, Ford carried 27 states versus 23 carried by Carter.

Had Ford won the election, the provisions of the 22nd Amendment would have disqualified him from running in 1980, because he had served more than two years of Nixon's remaining term.

Post-presidential years, 1977''2006[edit]Activity[edit]The Nixon pardon controversy eventually subsided. Ford's successor, Jimmy Carter, opened his 1977 inaugural address by praising the outgoing President, saying, "For myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land."[143]

Ford remained relatively active in the years after his presidency and continued to make appearances at events of historical and ceremonial significance to the nation, such as presidential inaugurals and memorial services. In January 1977, he became the president of Eisenhower Fellowships in Philadelphia then served as its chairman of the board of trustees from 1980 to 1986.[144] Later in the year, he reluctantly agreed to be interviewed by James M. Naughton, a New York Times journalist who was given the assignment to write the former President's advance obituary, an article that would be updated prior to its eventual publication.[145] In 1979, Ford published his autobiography, A Time to Heal (Harper/Reader's Digest, 454 pages). A review in Foreign Affairs described it as, "Serene, unruffled, unpretentious, like the author. This is the shortest and most honest of recent presidential memoirs, but there are no surprises, no deep probings of motives or events. No more here than meets the eye."[146] In addition to his autobiography, in 1987 Ford wrote Humor and the Presidency, a book of humorous political anecdotes.

During the term of office of his successor, Jimmy Carter, Ford received monthly briefs by President Carter's senior staff on international and domestic issues, and was always invited to lunch at the White House whenever he was in Washington, D.C. Their close friendship developed after Carter had left office, with the catalyst being their trip together to the funeral of Anwar el-Sadat in 1981.[147] Until Ford's death, Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, visited the Fords' home frequently.[148] Ford and Carter served as honorary co-chairs of the National Commission on Federal Election Reform in 2001 and of the Continuity of Government Commission in 2002.

Like Presidents Carter, George H.W. Bush, and Clinton, Ford was an honorary co-chair of the Council for Excellence in Government, a group dedicated to excellence in government performance, which provides leadership training to top federal employees.

Ford considered a run for the Republican nomination in 1980, foregoing numerous opportunities to serve on corporate boards to keep his options open for a grudge match with Carter. Ford attacked Carter's conduct of the SALT II negotiations and foreign policy in the Middle East and Africa. Many have argued that Ford also wanted to exorcise his image as an "Accidental President" and to win a term in his own right. Ford also believed the more conservative Ronald Reagan would be unable to defeat Carter and would hand the incumbent a second term. Ford was encouraged by his former Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger as well as Jim Rhodes of Ohio and Bill Clements of Texas to make the race. On March 15, 1980, Ford announced that he would forgo a run for the Republican nomination, vowing to support the eventual nominee.

After securing the Republican nomination in 1980, Ronald Reagan considered his former rival Ford as a potential vice-presidential running mate, but negotiations between the Reagan and Ford camps at the Republican National Convention were unsuccessful. Ford conditioned his acceptance on Reagan's agreement to an unprecedented "co-presidency",[149] giving Ford the power to control key executive branch appointments (such as Kissinger as Secretary of State and Alan Greenspan as Treasury Secretary). After rejecting these terms, Reagan offered the vice-presidential nomination instead to George H.W. Bush.[150] Ford did appear in a campaign commercial for the Reagan-Bush ticket, in which he declared that the country would be "better served by a Reagan presidency rather than a continuation of the weak and politically expedient policies of Jimmy Carter".[151]

After his presidency, Ford joined the American Enterprise Institute as a distinguished fellow. He founded the annual AEI World Forum in 1982. Ford was awarded an honorary doctorate at Central Connecticut State University[152] on March 23, 1988.

After leaving the White House, Ford and his wife moved to Denver, Colorado. Ford successfully invested in oil with Marvin Davis, which later provided an income for Ford's children.[153]

By 1988, Ford was a member of several corporate boards including Commercial Credit, Nova Pharmaceutical, The Pullman Company, Tesoro Petroleum, and Tiger International, Inc.[154] Ford also became an honorary director of Citigroup, a position he held till his death.[155]

In 1977, he established the Gerald R. Ford Institute of Public Policy at Albion College in Albion, Michigan, to give undergraduates training in public policy. In April 1981, he opened the Gerald R. Ford Library in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on the north campus of his alma mater, the University of Michigan,[156] followed in September by the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids.[157][158] In 1999, Ford was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Bill Clinton.[159] In 2001, he was presented with the John F. Kennedy Profiles in Courage Award for his decision to pardon Richard Nixon to stop the agony America was experiencing over Watergate.[160] In retirement Ford also devoted much time to his love of golf, often playing both privately and in public events with comedian Bob Hope, a longtime friend.

A Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars was dedicated to Ford in 1993.[161]

In October 2001, Ford broke with conservative members of the Republican party by stating that gay and lesbian couples "ought to be treated equally. Period." He became the highest ranking Republican to embrace full equality for gays and lesbians, stating his belief that there should be a federal amendment outlawing anti-gay job discrimination and expressing his hope that the Republican Party would reach out to gay and lesbian voters.[162] He also was a member of the Republican Unity Coalition, which The New York Times described as "a group of prominent Republicans, including former President Gerald R. Ford, dedicated to making sexual orientation a non-issue in the Republican Party".[163]

On November 22, 2004, New York Republican Governor George Pataki named Ford and the other living former Presidents (Carter, George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton) as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center.

In a pre-recorded embargoed interview with Bob Woodward of The Washington Post in July 2004, Ford stated that he disagreed "very strongly" with the Bush administration's choice of Iraq's alleged weapons of mass destruction as justification for its decision to invade Iraq, calling it a "big mistake" unrelated to the national security of the United States and indicating that he would not have gone to war had he been President. The details of the interview were not released until after Ford's death, as he requested.[164][165]

Health problems[edit]As Ford approached his 90th year, he began to experience health problems associated with old age. He suffered two minor strokes at the 2000 Republican National Convention, but made a quick recovery after being admitted to Hahnemann University Hospital.[166][167] In January 2006, he spent 11 days at the Eisenhower Medical Center near his residence at Rancho Mirage, California, for treatment of pneumonia.[168] On April 23, President George W. Bush visited Ford at his home in Rancho Mirage for a little over an hour. This was Ford's last public appearance and produced the last known public photos, video footage and voice recording. While vacationing in Vail, Colorado, he was hospitalized for two days in July 2006 for shortness of breath.[169] On August 15 Ford was admitted to St. Mary's Hospital of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, for testing and evaluation. On August 21, it was reported that he had been fitted with a pacemaker. On August 25, he underwent an angioplasty procedure at the Mayo Clinic, according to a statement from an assistant to Ford. On August 28, Ford was released from the hospital and returned with his wife Betty to their California home. On October 13, he was scheduled to attend the dedication of a building of his namesake, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan, but due to poor health and on the advice of his doctors he did not attend. The previous day, Ford entered the Eisenhower Medical Center for undisclosed tests; he was released on October 16.[170] By November 2006, he was confined to a bed in his study.[171] In reality, President Ford had end-stage coronary artery disease and severe aortic stenosis and insufficiency, caused by calcific alteration of one of his heart valves.[172]

Death and legacy[edit]Ford died on December 26, 2006, at his home in Rancho Mirage, California, of arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease and diffuse arteriosclerosis. His age at the time of his death was 93 years and 165 days, making Ford the longest-lived U.S. President.[173] On December 30, 2006, Ford became the 11th U.S. President to lie in state. The burial was preceded by a state funeral and memorial services held at the National Cathedral in Washington, D.C., on January 2, 2007. After the service, Ford was interred at his Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan.[174]

Ford died on the 34th anniversary of President Harry Truman's death, thus becoming the second U.S. President to die on Boxing Day. He was the last surviving member of the Warren Commission.[175] His wife, Betty Ford, died on July 8, 2011.[176] Like her husband, Betty also died at age 93. They are the longest lived Presidential couple.

The State of Michigan commissioned and submitted a statue of Ford to the National Statuary Hall Collection, replacing Zachariah Chandler. It was unveiled on May 3, 2011 in the Capitol Rotunda. On the proper right side is inscribed a quotation from a tribute by Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill, Speaker of the House during Ford's presidency: "God has been good to America, especially during difficult times. At the time of the Civil War, he gave us Abraham Lincoln. And at the time of Watergate, he gave us Gerald Ford'--the right man at the right time who was able to put our nation back together again." On the proper left side are words from Ford's swearing-in address: "Our constitution works. Our great republic is a government of laws and not of men. Here the people rule."

Longevity[edit]Ford was the longest-lived U.S. President, his lifespan being 45 days longer than Ronald Reagan's. He was the third-longest-lived Vice President, falling short only of John Nance Garner, 98, and Levi P. Morton, 96. Ford had the third-longest post-presidency (29 years and 11 months) after Jimmy Carter (32 years, 4 months and counting) and Herbert Hoover (31 years and 7 months)

On November 12, 2006, upon surpassing Ronald Reagan's lifespan, Ford released his last public statement:

The length of one's days matters less than the love of one's family and friends. I thank God for the gift of every sunrise and, even more, for all the years He has blessed me with Betty and the children; with our extended family and the friends of a lifetime. That includes countless Americans who, in recent months, have remembered me in their prayers. Your kindness touches me deeply. May God bless you all and may God bless America.[177]Public image[edit]Ford was the only person to hold the presidential office without being elected as president nor vice-president. The choice of Ford to fulfill Agnew's vacated role as vice president was based on his reputation for openness and honesty.[178] "In all the years I sat in the House, I never knew Mr Ford to make a dishonest statement nor a statement part-true and part-false. He never attempted to shade a statement, and I never heard him utter an unkind word," said Martha Griffiths.[179]

The trust the American people had in him was severely and rapidly tarnished by his pardon of Nixon.[179] Nonetheless, many grant in hindsight that he had respectably discharged with considerable dignity a great responsibility that he had not sought.[179] His subsequent loss to Carter in 1976 has come to be seen as an honorable sacrifice he made for the nation.[178]

In spite of his athletic record and remarkable career accomplishments, Ford acquired a reputation as a clumsy, likable and simple-minded Everyman. An incident in 1975 when he tripped while exiting the presidential jet in Austria, was famously and repetitively parodied by Chevy Chase, cementing Ford's image as a klutz.[179][180][181] Pieces of Ford's common Everyman image have also been attributed to Ford's inevitable comparison to Nixon, as well as his perceived Midwestern stodginess and self-deprecation.[178] Ridicule often extended to supposed intellectual limitations, with Lyndon Johnson once joking, "He's a nice fellow but he spent too much time playing football without a helmet."[179]

Ford was honored with a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars in 1999.[161] And the following facilities were named after him:

Gerald R. Ford Freeway (Nebraska)Gerald R. Ford Freeway (Michigan)Gerald Ford Memorial Highway, I-70 in Eagle County, ColoradoGerald R. Ford International Airport in Grand Rapids, MichiganGerald R. Ford Library in Ann Arbor, MichiganGerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, MichiganGerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of MichiganGerald R. Ford Amphitheater in Vail, Colorado, in Ford Park, also named after himGerald R. Ford Institute of Public Policy, Albion CollegeUSS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78)Gerald R. Ford Elementary School, Indian Wells, CaliforniaGerald Ford Boys and Girls Club, La Quinta, CaliforniaGerald R. Ford Middle School, Grand Rapids, Michigan[182]Gerald Ford Drive, Coachella Valley, California (Cathedral City, Rancho Mirage, Palm Desert)Gerald R. Ford Council, Boy Scouts of America The council where he was awarded the rank of Eagle Scout. (Includes the following Michigan counties: Allegan, Barry, Ionia, Kent, Lake, Mason, Mecosta, Montcalm, Muskegon, Newaygo, Oceana and Ottawa). Council Headquarters is located in Walker, Michigan.[183]See also[edit]References[edit]^James M. Naughton, Adam Clymer (December 27, 2006). "Gerald Ford, 38th President, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2009. ^Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. pp. xxiii, 301. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. ^ abGeorge Lenczowski (1990). American Presidents, and the Middle East. Duke University Press. pp. 142''143. ISBN 0-8223-0972-6. ^Young, Jeff C. (1997). The Fathers of American Presidents. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-0182-6. ^ abFunk, Josh (December 27, 2006). "Nebraska-born Ford Left State as Infant". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved September 2, 2009. ^Cannon, James. "Gerald R. Ford". Character Above All. Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved December 28, 2006. ^"Gerald R. Ford Genealogical Information". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. University of Texas. Retrieved December 28, 2006. ^"A Common Man on an Uncommon Climb" (PDF). The New York Times. August 19, 1976. p. 28. Retrieved April 26, 2009. ^ abcdeKunhardt, Jr., Phillip (1999). Gerald R. Ford "Healing the Nation". New York: Riverhead Books. pp. 79''85. Retrieved December 28, 2006. ^ abTownley, Alvin (2007) [December 26, 2006]. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 12''13 and 87. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved December 29, 2006. ^Ray, Mark (2007). "Eagle Scout Welcome Gerald Ford Home". Scouting Magazine. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved March 5, 2007. ^Investigatory Records on Gerald Ford, Applicant for a Commission. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. December 30, 1941. Retrieved November 18, 2010. ^Wertheimer, Linda (December 27, 2006). "Special Report: Former President Gerald Ford Dies; Sought to Heal Nation Disillusioned by Watergate Scandal". National Public Radio. Retrieved April 26, 2009. ^Perry, Will (1974). "No Cheers From the Alumni" (PDF). The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Huntsville, Alabama: The Strode Publishers. pp. 150''152. ISBN 0-87397-055-1. Retrieved December 28, 2006. ^Kruger, Brian; Moorehouse, Buddy (August 9, 2012). "Willis Ward, Gerald Ford and Michigan Football's darkest day". The Detroit News. Retrieved October 22, 2012. ^"Ford one of most athletic Presidents". MSNBC. Associated Press. December 27, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006. ^Greene, J.R. (1995). The Presidency of Gerald R. Ford (American Presidency Series). University Press of Kansas. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7006-0638-2. ^"Ford Named Michigan Football Legend; Morgan to Wear No. 48 Jersey". ^"Clumsy image aside, Ford was Accomplished Athlete". Los Angeles Times. December 28, 2006. Retrieved September 2, 2009. ^Rozell, Mark J. (October 15, 1992). The Press and the Ford Presidency. University of Michigan Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-472-10350-4. ^Anne E. Kornblut, "Ford Arranged His Funeral to Reflect Himself and Drew in a Former Adversary", The New York Times, December 29, 2006.^"Funeral: Marching Band Plays in His Honor". Eugene Register-Guard. January 3, 2007. Retrieved September 2, 2009. ^"Old Tom Morris Award Recipients". Golf Course Superintendents Association of America. Retrieved September 28, 2011. ^Wendy Wolff (1997). Vice Presidents of the United States 1789''1993. United States Government Printing Office. ^ ab"Timeline of President Ford's Life and Career". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved December 28, 2006. ^"The U-M Remembers Gerald R. Ford". The University of Michigan. Retrieved January 2, 2007. ^"Gerald R. Ford Biography". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved January 2, 2007. ^Doenecke, Justus D. (1990). 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Retrieved January 17, 2007. ^Howard, Jane (December 8, 1974). "The 38th First Lady: Not a Robot At All". The New York Times. ^Winget, Mary Mueller (2007). Gerald R. Ford. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 978-0-8225-1509-8. Retrieved September 3, 2009. ^Kruse, Melissa (January 3, 2003). "The Patterson Barn, Grand Rapids, Michigan'--Barn razing erases vintage landmark". The Grand Rapids Press. p. D1. Retrieved September 3, 2009. ^Celebrating the life of President Gerald R. Ford on what would have been his 96th birthday, H.R. 409, 111st Congress, 1st Session (2009).^ abc"Gerald R. Ford". The New York Times. December 28, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2006. ^"Gerald R. Ford". The White House. Retrieved October 25, 2009. ^"Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum". Ford.utexas.edu. Retrieved August 9, 2009. ^In 1997, the Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) released a document that revealed that Ford had altered the first draft of the report to read, "A bullet had entered the base of the back of [Kennedy's] neck slightly to the right of the spine." Some believed that Ford had elevated the location of the wound from its true location in the back to the neck to support the single bullet theory.[citation needed] The original first draft of the Warren Commission Report stated that a bullet had entered Kennedy's "back at a point slightly above the shoulder and to the right of the spine". Ford replied in an introduction to a new edition of the Warren Commission Report in 2004:I have been accused of changing some wording on the Warren Commission Report to favor the lone-assassin conclusion. That is absurd. Here is what the draft said: "A bullet had entered his back at a point slightly above the shoulder and to the right of the spine." To any reasonable person, "above the shoulder and to the right" sounds very high and way off the side'--and that's what it sounded like to me. That would have given the totally wrong impression. Technically, from a medical perspective, the bullet entered just to the right at the base of the neck, so my recommendation to the other members was to change it to say, "A bullet had entered the back of his neck, slightly to the right of the spine." After further investigation, we then unanimously agreed that it should read, "A bullet had entered the base of his neck slightly to the right of the spine." As with any report, there were many clarifications and language changes suggested by several of us.

Ford's description matched a drawing prepared for the Commission under the direction of Dr. James J. Humes, supervisor of Kennedy's autopsy, who in his testimony to the Commission said three times that the entrance wound was in the "low neck". The Commission was not shown the autopsy photographs.

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December 27, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006. ^Gerald Ford, A Time to Heal, 1979, p.240^Rabin, Yitzak (1996), The Rabin Memoirs, University of California Press, p. 256, ISBN 978-0-520-20766-0^Yitzak Rabin, The Rabin Memoirs, ISBN 0-520-20766-1 , p261^George Lenczowski, American Presidents, and the Middle East, 1990, p.150^Gerald Ford, A Time to Heal, 1979, p.298^Peter Church, ed. (2006). A Short History of South-East Asia. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 193''194. ^ abcBrinkley, Douglas (2007). Gerald R. Ford. New York, NY: Times Books. pp. 89''98. ISBN 0-8050-6909-7. ^Karnow, Stanley (1991). Vietnam: A History. Viking. ^"Vietnam's President Thieu resigns". BBC News. April 21, 1975. Retrieved September 24, 2009. ^Bowman, John S. (1985). The Vietnam War: An Almanac. Pharos Books. p. 434. ISBN 0-911818-85-5. ^Plummer Alston Jones (2004). "Still struggling for equality: American public library services with minorities". Libraries Unlimited. p.84. ISBN 1-59158-243-1^Robinson, William Courtland (1998). Terms of refuge: the Indochinese exodus & the international response. Zed Books. p. 127. ISBN 1-85649-610-4. ^Gawthorpe, A. J. (2009), "The Ford Administration and Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific after the Fall of Saigon", The Historical Journal, 52(3):697''716.^Debrief of the Mayaguez Captain and Crew. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. May 19, 1975. Retrieved November 18, 2010. ^"Capture and Release of SS Mayaguez by Khmer Rouge forces in May 1975". United States Merchant Marine. 2000. Retrieved December 31, 2006. ^Gerald R. Ford, A Time to Heal, p. 284^C(C)cile Men(C)tray-Monchau (August 2005), "The Mayaguez Incident as an Epilogue to the Vietnam War and its Reflection on the Post-Vietnam Political Equilibrium in Southeast Asia", Cold War History, p. 346.^Gawthorpe, "The Ford Administration and Security Policy", pp. 707''709.^Oberdorfer, Don (2001), The two Koreas: a contemporary history (New York, NY: Basic Books), pp. 47''83.^Gawthorpe, "The Ford Administration and Security Policy", p. 711.^Gawthorpe, "The Ford Administration and Security Policy", pp. 710''714.^"1975 Year in Review: Ford Assassinations Attempts". Upi.com. Retrieved May 30, 2011. ^"Election Is Crunch Time for U.S. Secret Service". National Geographic News. Retrieved March 2, 2008.^"Charles Manson follower Lynette 'Squeaky' Fromme released from prison after more than 30 years". Daily News (New York). Associated Press. August 14, 2009. Retrieved September 7, 2011. ^United States Secret Service. "Public Report of the White House Security Review". United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved January 3, 2007. ^Lee, Vic (January 2, 2007). "Interview: Woman Who Tried To Assassinate Ford". San Francisco: KGO-TV. Retrieved January 3, 2007. ^"John Paul Stevens". Oyez. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006. ^News Release, Congressman Gerald R. Ford. The Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. April 15, 1970. Retrieved November 18, 2010. ^Levenick, Christopher (September 25, 2005). "The Conservative Persuasion". The Daily Standard. Retrieved December 31, 2006. ^Letter from Gerald Ford to Michael Treanor. Fordham University, September 21, 2005. Retrieved March 2, 2008.^Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public-domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.^Another Loss For the Gipper. Time, March 29, 1976. Retrieved December 31, 2006.^VH1 News Presents: Politics: A Pop Culture History Premiering Wednesday, October 20 at 10:00 pm (ET/PT). PRNewswire October 19, 2004. Retrieved December 31, 2006.^Election of 1976: A Political Outsider Prevails. C-SPAN. Retrieved December 31, 2006.^Shabecoff, Philip. "160,000 Mark Two 1775 Battles; Concord Protesters Jeer Ford '' Reconciliation Plea", The New York Times, April 20, 1975, p. 1.^Shabecoff, Philip. "Ford, on Bicentennial Trip, Bids U.S. Heed Old Values", The New York Times, April 19, 1975, p. 1.^"1976 Presidential Debates". CNN. Retrieved September 28, 2011. ^Lehrer, Jim (2000). "1976:No Audio and No Soviet Domination". Debating Our Destiny. PBS. Retrieved March 31, 2007. ^"Presidential Election 1976 States Carried". multied.com. Retrieved December 31, 2006.^"Jimmy Carter". U.S. Inaugural Addresses. Bartleby.com. January 20, 1977. Retrieved August 14, 2009. ^Perrone, Marguerite. "Eisenhower Fellowship: A History 1953''2003". 2003.^Naughton, James M (December 27, 2006). "The Real Jerry Ford". PoynterOnline. Retrieved March 31, 2007. ^Smith, Gaddis (1979). "A Time to Heal". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved April 26, 2009. ^Kornblut, Anne (December 29, 2006). "Ford Arranged His Funeral to Reflect Himself and Drew in a Former Adversary". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^Updegrove, Mark K. (August/September 2006). "Flying Coach to Cairo". American Heritage57 (4). Retrieved September 28, 2011. ""Certainly few observers in January 1977 would have predicted that Jimmy and I would become the closest of friends," Ford said in 2000." ^Thomas, Evan (2007). "The 38th President: More Than Met the Eye". Newsweek. Retrieved January 4, 2009. ^Allen, Richard V. "How the Bush Dynasty Almost Wasn't", Hoover Institution, reprinted from the New York Times Magazine, July 30, 2000. Retrieved December 31, 2006.^"Reagan campaign ad". Livingroomcandidate.org. November 4, 1979. Retrieved January 22, 2011. ^Whipple, Scott (October 18, 2005). "A $3m gift". The New Britain Herald. Retrieved September 9, 2009. ^"The Man Who Ate Hollywood". Vanity Fair. November 2005. Retrieved February 19, 2012. ^New York Media, LLC (January 25, 1988). New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. pp. 19''. ISSN 00287369. Retrieved February 19, 2012. ^"Ford's Citigroup Connection". The Wall Street Journal. December 27, 2006. Retrieved February 19, 2012. ^Lessenberry, Jack (April 20, 1981). "Ford to Formally Unveil His Presidential Library". Toledo Blade. Retrieved September 3, 2009. ^Ford, Gerald R. (September 18, 1981). "Remarks at the Dedication of the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. Retrieved November 18, 2010. ^Tucker, Brian (September 18, 1981). "Reagan Praises Ford at Opening of Museum". Boston Globe. Retrieved September 3, 2009. ^"Politicians Who Received the Medal of Freedom". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved December 31, 2006. ^"Gerald Ford". John F. Kennedy Library Foundation. 2001. Retrieved December 31, 2006. ^ abPalm Springs Walk of Stars: By Date Dedicated^Price, Deb. "Gerald Ford: Treat gay couples equally". The Detroit News, October 29, 2001. Retrieved December 28, 2006^Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. "Vocal Gay Republicans Upsetting Conservatives", The New York Times, June 1, 2003, p. N26.^Woodward, Bob. "Ford Disagreed With Bush About Invading Iraq". The Washington Post, December 28, 2006. Retrieved December 28, 2006^"Embargoed Interview Reveals Ford Opposed Iraq War". Democracy Now Headlines for December 28, 2006. Retrieved December 28, 2006^"Gerald Ford recovering after strokes". BBC, August 2, 2000. Retrieved December 31, 2006.^Hospitalized After Suffering a Stroke, Former President Ford Is Expected to Fully RecoverThe New York Times, August 3, 2000. Retrieved July 5, 2008.^Former "President Ford, 92, hospitalized with pneumonia". USA Today, Associated Press, January 17, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2007.^"Gerald Ford released from hospital". MSNBC, Associated Press, July 26, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006.^"Former President Gerald Ford Released from Hospital". Fox News. October 16, 2006. Retrieved September 3, 2009. ^"Gerald Ford Dies At Age 93". CNN Transcript December 26, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2008.^DeFrank T: Write It When I'm Gone, G. Putnam & Sons, New York, NY, 2007.^"US ex-President Gerald Ford dies". BBC News. December 27, 2006. Retrieved October 16, 2009. ^Davey, Monica (January 4, 2007). "Ford Is Buried After Thousands in Hometown Pay Respects". The New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2009. ^Stout, David (January 2, 2007). "Bush and ex-presidents eulogize Gerald R. Ford". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2009. ^"Former first lady Betty Ford dies at 93". MSNBC. July 9, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2011. ^"Ford eclipses Reagan as oldest ex-president". USA Today. November 12, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2008. ^ abc"Gerald Ford, Betty's Husband". The Phoenix Media/Communications Group. Retrieved December 4, 2009. ^ abcde"Gerald R Ford". The Independent (London). January 21, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009. ^Jake, Coyle (September 12, 2008). "'SNL' returns with spotlight on prez impersonators". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved September 16, 2008. ^"Chevy Chase recalls Ford as 'a terrific guy': 'SNL' comedian became famous in the 1970s portraying president as klutz". MSNBC. December 27, 2006. Retrieved September 16, 2008. ^"Gerald R. Ford Middle School, Grand Rapids Public Schools". grpublicschools.org. Retrieved February 25, 2012. ^"Gerald R. Ford Council, Boy Scouts of America". Bsagrfc.org. Retrieved September 11, 2010. Bibliography[edit]Primary sources[edit]Ford, Gerald R. (1994). Presidential Perspectives from the National Archives. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration. ISBN 1-880875-04-7. Ford, Gerald R. (1987). Humor and the Presidency. New York: Arbor House. ISBN 0-87795-918-8. Ford, Gerald R. (1979). A Time to Heal: The Autobiography of Gerald R. Ford. New York, NY: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-011297-2. Ford, Gerald R. (1973). Selected Speeches. Arlington, Va.: R. W. Beatty. ISBN 0-87948-029-7. Ford, Gerald R. (1965). Portrait of the assassin (Lee Harvey Oswald). ASIN B0006BMZM4. Ford, Betty (1978). The Times of My Life. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-011298-0. Casserly, John J. (1977). The Ford White House: Diary of a Speechwriter. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press. ISBN 0-87081-106-1. Coyne, John R. (1979). Fall in and Cheer. Garden City/N.Y.: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-11119-3. DeFrank, Thomas. (2007). Write It When I'm Gone: Remarkable Off-the-Record Conversations with Gerald R. Ford. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0-399-15450-7. Gergen, David. (2000). Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-82663-1. , by speechwriterHartmann, Robert T. (1980). Palace Politics: An Insider's Account of the Ford Years. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-026951-3. , by chief of staffHersey, John (1980). Aspects of the Presidency: Truman and Ford in Office (The President: A Minute-by-Minute Account of a Week in the Life of Gerald Ford). New Haven: Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0-89919-012-X. Kissinger, Henry A. (1999). Years of Renewal. New York: Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-85572-0. by Secretary of StateThompson, Kenneth (ed.) (1980). The Ford Presidency: Twenty-Two Intimate Perspectives of Gerald Ford. Lanham: University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-6960-9. Secondary sources[edit]Brinkley, Douglas (2007). Gerald R. Ford. New York, NY: Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-6909-7. full-scale biographyCannon, James (1993). Time and Chance: Gerald R. Ford's Appointment with History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08482-8. full-scale biographyConley, Richard S. "Presidential Influence and Minority Party Liaison on Veto Overrides: New Evidence from the Ford Presidency". American Politics Research 2002 30(1): 34''65. ISSN 1532-673x Fulltext: in SwetswiseFirestone, Bernard J. and Alexej Ugrinsky (eds) (1992). Gerald R. Ford and the Politics of Post-Watergate America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-28009-6. Greene, John Robert (1992). The Limits of Power: The Nixon and Ford Administrations. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32637-0. Greene, John Robert (1995). The Presidency of Gerald R. Ford. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0639-4. , the major scholarly studyHersey, John Richard. The President: A Minute-By-Minute Account of a Week in the Life of Gerald Ford. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1975.Hult, Karen M. and Walcott, Charles E. Empowering the White House: Governance under Nixon, Ford, and Carter. University Press of Kansas, 2004.Jespersen, T. Christopher. "Kissinger, Ford, and Congress: the Very Bitter End in Vietnam". Pacific Historical Review 2002 71(3): 439''473. ISSN 0030-8684 Fulltext: in University of California; Swetswise; Jstor and EbscoJespersen, T. Christopher. "The Bitter End and the Lost Chance in Vietnam: Congress, the Ford Administration, and the Battle over Vietnam, 1975''76". Diplomatic History 2000 24(2): 265''293. ISSN 0145-2096 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta, EbscoMaynard, Christopher A. "Manufacturing Voter Confidence: a Video Analysis of the American 1976 Presidential and Vice-presidential Debates". Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 1997 17(4): 523''562. ISSN 0143-9685 Fulltext: in IngentaExternal links[edit]Published works[edit]Libraries and museums[edit]Biographies[edit]Multimedia and other[edit] Offices and distinctions

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Source: VENITISM

Sun, 09 Jun 2013 00:01

Pakistan exports its criminals to Europe. Pakistan cannot feed its prisoners, and so it exiles them. Most of them head for EU, ending up in Greece, unable to reach UK and Germany. Now, Pakistani criminals burglarize myriad Greek homes and raise hell to Greek society. Since Greek police is not effective, Golden Dawn storm-troopers have taken to roaming the streets on foot or on motorcycles, attacking criminal Pakistani. That's why the Golden Dawn party is becoming very popular.Pakistan is a terrorist nation. From the very beginning, the partnership between the US and Pakistan has been a marriage of convenience. Pervez Musharraf asserts it was a forced marriage. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage warned Pakistan shortly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, to be prepared to be bombed, to be prepared to go back to the Stone Age! In the fall of 2001, Americans toppled the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Pakistan had previously helped to install the Taliban in power because it viewed it as an ally against its archenemy, India. So the end of the Taliban also meant the collapse of Pakistan's defensive strategy. Since then, Islamabad has worried that the US could hand over Pakistani intelligence to India.Correspondents of http://venitism.blogspot.com report Pakistan's strategy is supporting terrorists that attack India. Pakistan's nebulous position toward the Taliban led to circumstances in which the world's most wanted terrorist could reside safely under the nose of the military for six years. Al-Qaeda has links to the Taliban and to terrorists that target India. Thus Pakistan's soft stance toward these groups ends up facilitating al-Qaeda and its agenda. Indeed, bin Laden struck a deal with Pakistan's military leadership to ensure his safety in the country. This speaks volumes about the Pakistan's dual policies on terrorism.Shakil Afridi, a Pakistani citizen, was picked up by the Pakistani authorities a few weeks after the May 2, 2011, raid that killed Osama bin Laden. The doctor, at the behest of the U.S., led a phony vaccination campaign in Abbottabad, Pakistan, in an attempt to secure DNA evidence from the residents living inside the bin Laden compound. Afridi turned down an offer from the U.S. government to leave the country immediately after the bin Laden raid. Afridi says he never imagined he would be punished for helping to locate the architect of 9/11. In May 2012, after he had been held for a year, a Pakistani court sentenced Afridi to 33 years in jail.The Pakistan-based Haqqani, a veritable arm of Pakistan's intelligence agency, attacks U.S. embassies. While Haqqani have conducted attacks against U.S. and NATO soldiers in the past, embassy attacks now represent an escalation against U.S. Pakistan's support of insurgent groups and terrorists is the most significant obstacle to achieving stability in the area.Pakistan is a society based on tribal groups. Each clan maintains a complicated network of relations, like a mafia. Under these conditions, it hardly seems imaginable that Osama bin Laden could have spent years living unnoticed just a stone's throw away from Pakistan's most elite military academy, an institution as assiduously guarded as the US's West Point or Great Britain's Sandhurst. Pakistani Intelligence officers knew about bin Laden's home, but they got kickbacks to keep it secret!

Shut Up Slave!

Attacker in Afghanistan Hid Bomb in His Body. (Rectum Hell....It Killed Him)

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Source: DaDenMan news feed

Sun, 09 Jun 2013 00:01

KABUL, Afghanistan '-- Afghanistan's spy chief, Asadullah Khalid, was taking no chances.

A man had crossed into Afghanistan from Pakistan with important information he said he would only deliver personally to Mr. Khalid, who had just taken over as the head of the National Directorate of Security.

Mr. Khalid's aides took the visitor to an armored room in the basement of a safe house in Taimani, an upscale neighborhood in the capital city, for a security screening. They were no doubt mindful of what happened in September 2011 when a Taliban peace emissary was allowed to meet with a prominent Afghan peace envoy and then killed him with a bomb hidden in his turban.

Watching the man over closed-circuit television, they ordered him to strip naked, which he did. Satisfied, they let him get dressed and took him to see their boss upstairs.

Then he blew up. The suicide bomber killed only himself, but Mr. Khalid sustained severe abdominal wounds as well as injuries to his hands and arms.

Now, months after that attack, on Dec. 6, a spokesman for the National Directorate of Security, Shafiqullah Tahiri, confirmed that the attacker had hidden the bomb inside his rectum.

Two other Afghan security officials, speaking on the condition of anonymity, confirmed that the bomb had been hidden internally. Officials had earlier been quoted as saying the bomb had been hidden in the attacker's underwear.

The last time such a bomb was known to be used was in an attempt to kill a Saudi prince with a device thought to be the work of Ibrahim Hassan al-Asiri, one of the most skilled bomb makers of Al Qaeda's Yemen affiliate.

In August 2009, Mr. Asiri's brother, Abdullah, detonated himself during a meeting with Prince Muhammad bin Nayef, the deputy interior minister at the time, in Jidda. The prince was only lightly wounded; the bomber's lower torso was shredded.

Afterward, the counterterrorism unit of Europol, Europe's police agency, warned that airlines might have to tighten their screening procedures because a rectal bomb could escape detection by normal X-ray scanning machines.

''The sensitivity and power of these machines would need to be increased or reviewed, in order to overcome shielding of the device by the human body,'' Europol's report said.

Mr. Asiri, who was linked to the Saudi attack by postings on jihadist Web sites, is also believed to be the creator of the underwear bomb, used in an abortive attempt to bring down an American airliner in 2009.

Despite the concerns about what such bombs could accomplish on an airplane, and that they might make it easier to evade detection by normal X-ray scanners, Robert Bunker, a researcher who has extensively studied the possibilities of body-cavity suicide bombs, noted that there were inherent limitations to the design.

''There are some really practical limitations to what you can do with the basic physics,'' he said. ''You can only get so much in the body, and there is no shrapnel effect.'' Because they are so small, the blast is greatly blunted by the bomber's body itself.

''It's good news that these things have very limited lethality,'' Mr. Bunker said.

The origin and exact design of the bomb used against Mr. Khalid remained unclear. Within days of the attack, Mr. Khalid was taken to Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, a leading treatment site for blast injuries. Though he returned to Kabul on April 2, within weeks he was back at Walter Reed for treatment of complications, and he apparently remains there.

The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack on Mr. Khalid, but when asked whether it had been done with a body-cavity bomb, a Taliban spokesman, Zabiullah Mujahid, demurred. ''There is a commission in the Islamic Emirate that is organizing and masterminding these sophisticated and complicated operations,'' he said. ''We can't reveal the secret because we may use these tactics again in the future.''

Morse Code Forever!

Cell Phones Are Now the Little Snitch in Your Pocket

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Source: EconomicPolicyJournal.com

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 09:30

Security expert Steven Ramdam says:I can tell you that if you go into any police station right now, the first thing they do is tell you, "Oh I'm sorry you're not allowed to bring a cell phone in there. We'll hold it for you." Not a joke. And by the way it's a legitimate investigatory technique. But cell phones are now the little snitch in your pocket. Cell phones tell me where you are, what you do, who you talk to, everbody you associate with. Cell phone tells me [sic] intimate details of your life and character, including: Were you at a demonstration? Did you attend a mosque? Did you demonstrate in front of an abortion clinic? Did you get an abortion?

Radio Equipment for FBI's Wireless Laboratory - Federal Business Opportunities: Opportunities

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Sat, 08 Jun 2013 09:25

Opportunity HistorySolicitation Number:

RFQ1138136740

Notice Type:

Combined Synopsis/Solicitation

Contracting Office Address:

935 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.Washington, District of Columbia 20535United States

Place of Performance:

Cheverly, Maryland 20781United States

Primary Point of Contact.:

General InformationNotice Type:

Combined Synopsis/Solicitation

Posted Date:

June 5, 2013

Response Date:

Jun 12, 2013 10:00 am Eastern

Archiving Policy:

Manual Archive

Set Aside:

Total Small Business

Classification Code:

58 -- Communication, detection, & coherent radiation equipment

NAICS Code:

334 -- Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing/334220 -- Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wireless Communications Equipment Manufacturing

Sellabretties

The American Spectator : George Clooney's Perfect Storm

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Fri, 07 Jun 2013 22:28

Said Clooney of Obama: ''It's amazing to sit down with a world leader who knows all of the intricacies of what's going on in Sudan,'' he said.

So why has the cat suddenly appeared to have gotten the actor's tongue? Was one of those ''intricacies of what's going on in Sudan'' the involvement of the President's own brother with the ''war criminal'' leadership Clooney so strongly opposed? Not a word from Clooney. Why?

The problem comes when the IRS scandal erupts '-- and, as discussed here, we find that Lois Lerner zipped through the tax exempt status '-- even backdating it '-- of the Barack H. Obama Foundation run by the President's Kenyan half-brother Malik Obama. The very same Malik Obama who is the Executive Secretary of the Islamic Da'wa Organization (IDO) '-- which held its 2010 conference in'...Khartoum. The Sudan. A conference held in Sudan's capital because, of course, the IDO is a creature of its behind-the-scenes power '-- George Clooney's favorite war criminal, Sudan's President Omar Bashir.

So where is George Clooney now? Where are all those people who made a point of loudly getting arrested with George and his Dad at the Sudanese Embassy?

Where are, as that ABC story identified them, the ''President of United to End Genocide and former Congressman Tom Andrews; Congressmen Jim McGovern, D-MA, Al Green, D-TX, Jim Moran, D-VA., and John Olver D-MA; Martin Luther King III, NAACP President Ben Jealous; and Enough Project Co-Founder John Prendergast''?

Are they getting themselves arrested outside of the IRS? Are they demanding the IRS revoke the tax exemption of the Barack H. Obama Foundation because of the connection of Malik Obama to Omar Bashir, the man these liberals correctly call a war criminal?

What does one do when one has to choose between embarrassing President Obama, whom you've hosted at your home for a $15 million fundraiser with the Hollywood elite '-- or shutting of an IRS tax exemption run by an ally of President Bashir, the man you call a ''war criminal''?

Well what do you think?

Mr. Clooney has been silent. So too has that silence suddenly overtaken the long list of supposedly anti-Bashir liberals that features four sitting members of Congress, the namesake son of Martin Luther King Jr., the President of the NAACP, plus two anti-Bashir activists.

Why is this?

Apparently, they are more concerned with not embarrassing the American President than doing something to rein in the ally of the war criminal Sudanese President.

Gee, why embarrass a war criminal if it also embarrasses your favorite dinner guest?

Let's take a look at the man Malik Obama is associating with. And as usual on this subject we will turn to Walid Shoebat and Ben Barrack from the Shoebat Foundation. Mr. Shoebat, recall, is the one-time radicalized member of the Muslim Brotherhood turned peace activist. He is the son of an American mother and a Palestinian Arab and, having grown up in the Middle East, is well familiar with the Arab media.

And again, let's stay focused in discussing this not on the foreign policy aspects involved with the President's brother and Sudan '-- but on the IRS. Stay focused on the fact that one group after another were yanked around for years by Lerner and her agency while a speedy 28 days was all that was needed to give a thumbs up to Barack Obama's brother '-- with no attention whatsoever paid to Malik Obama's relationships to the man George Clooney has spent so much time trying to unhorse.

Let's quote directly from Shoebat and Ben Barrack:

Book CLub

James Prohashka - Andrew Jackson and the Vampires

TV/Movie PR

Drone Nation

US drone kills at least 7 in North Waziristan

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Source: DEBKAFile

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 00:45

US drone kills at least 7 in North WaziristanDEBKAfileJune 8, 2013, 5:02 AM (GMT+02:00)

Three missiles were fired by a US drone Friday at a house in the Shawal area of the Pakistani region killing at least seven people - shortly after Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif swore in his new cabinet. Sharif has kept the portfolios of defense and foreign affairs for himself.

Patent PR

THE WRIGHT BROTHERS: THE OTHER SIDE OF THE COIN: Walter J. Boyne's "World Aviation History": Wings Over Kansas

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 08:51

By Walter J. Boyne.Reprinted on Wings Over Kansas with permission by Roger Post of Flight Journal Magazine.

It is impossible not to admire the early engineering and scientific achievements of the Wright Brothers. In four short years they wrested the secret of flight from the centuries of mistakes and misapprehensions that obscured it. In two more years they had created a practical airplane, their 1905 Wright Flyer. At a time when Alberto Santos-Dumont's first limited hops were more than a year away, the Wrights were flying for as long as thirty-eight minutes, executing figure eights with ease and precision, and dazzling those few who came to watch them at their field on Huffman Prairie.

Yet at the same time, it is only fair to note that in the next seven years, the Wrights did almost as much to set aviation back as they had done to bring it forward. Two elements were involved in this retrograde process. The first was their litigious nature, which caused them to sue anyone they suspected was infringing on their patent-and since virtually everyone in the business of flying was doing so, this meant a lot of legal action. The second factor was in their careful protection of their patent, they were not inclined to introduce changes into their basic aircraft design. They feared that doing so would imply that improvements could be made to their Flyer, and thus open avenues for others to evade their patent. They also possessed a considerable degree of self-satisfaction, sincerely believing that their Flyer was the best approach to flight. (This would be manifest later, when a long series of fatal accidents marred the Wright aircraft reputation, with the Wrights insisting that the problem lay in [what else?] "pilot error." )

Orville and Wilbur genuinely and properly believed that they had solved the problem of flight; and if they had possessed a Latin turn of mind, they might have called their airplane flyer the QED for quod erat demonstrandum instead of the "Flyer."

They were determined to be as secretive as possible about their Flyer, making sure that they released only generic information that did not reveal the two critical elements of their success: knowing that control about the three axes of flight was required, and knowing that one had to learn to fly to use that control effectively.

The Wrights did not see themselves as manufacturers, ala Henry Ford, mass-producing airplanes. They wanted others to use their patent to build and sell airplanes, paying them a reasonable royalty on every one sold. (When they later charged a twenty-percent royalty on sales, their licensees did not consider it "reasonable.") Essentially, they felt that through their hard work, vision, dangerous practice flying and a heaping measure of good luck, they had achieved something that no one else had done-or could do. They knew that they were not intuitive geniuses who solved the problem of flight intellectually. Doing so would in their minds have been a lesser achievement. But they also believed that no one else, singly or in combination with others, could duplicate their process for ten years or perhaps more. They felt that it was only fair if other practitioners of flight would pay them a license fee to build aircraft using the principles they had patented.

Orville put it plainly when he said "It is our view that morally the world owes its almost universal use of our system of lateral control entirely to us. It is also our opinion that legally it owes us." The statement makes it clear that it was the Wrights against the world. And it was a true statement, for it has been observed that before the Wrights, all methods to control flying machines were different; after the Wrights, they were pretty much the same.

They had hoped that their patent would be respected from the start. When that did not occur, they placed their hopes in defending their patent in court. With the patent defended, they assumed that when other manufacturers at last began turning out aircraft in reasonable quantity, paying a royalty on each one, they could devote themselves to other research, not necessarily in aviation.

Unfortunately, the very qualities that enabled them to succeed as scientist-engineers and create the first airplane damaged the Wrights as they tried to become men of business. As businessmen, their decisions, motivated by a sense of outraged fairness and perhaps a soupcon of greed, adversely affected aviation's progress.

The Wrights were deeply influenced by their conservative upbringing, and by the controlling and repressive hand of their father, Bishop Milton Wright. Bishop Wright had been embroiled in a long and emotionally devastating political fight within the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and consequently had a somewhat jaded eye about the motivation and character of others. It is not surprising that Bishop Wright's attitudes contributed to Wilbur and Orville's naive view of the world of commerce.

Then, again with good old-fashioned Dayton Ohio naivet(C), they assumed that an honorable customer would take their word, as honorable men, that their aircraft would fly. They refused to demonstrate their aircraft, or even show it, to potential buyers until a sales contract was signed. They did not expect any money to change hands until later, when they had demonstrated the aircraft, but until the contract was signed, all information was classified.

This had the effect of preventing any sales for three years. One can just see some poor procurement officer going to his boss and saying "I've got this great deal on this flying machine, but we can't see it until we agree to buy it."

The Wrights were oblivious to the adverse reactions to their attitude, regarding those who did not understand it as difficult and unreasonable. They believed that once one nation purchased a Flyer, all nations would be forced to buy them. Neither Orville nor Wilbur realized, until almost too late, that their success was spurring competition at home and abroad, and that their patent would be contested or ignored.

The most dangerous competition came in the United States. The Aerial Experiment Association, founded by Alexander Graham and Mabel Bell and including, Glenn H. Curtiss, Thomas Selfridge, Frederick "Casey" Baldwin and John McCurdy, had used the basic Wright formula as a departure point for a series of four aircraft. All involved in the AEA knew that their aircraft infringed on the Wright's patent, but they hoped that they could find away around it. At Bell's suggestion, they incorporated ailerons into their designs in a wistful attempt to avoid infringing.

Although both the Wrights and Curtiss had experience in the bicycle business, Curtiss had taken his business to another level, building light-weight engines and motorcycles that were very well received. Well before his involvement with the AEA, Curtiss had worked with Captain Thomas Baldwin (no relation to "Casey") in adapting the lightweight motorcycle engines for use in Baldwin's airships.

With his brief experience in flying the AEA aircraft, Curtiss took an approach opposite to the Wrights. Where they were secretive, he was open. Where they refused to fly in exhibits or compete for prizes, he was quick to do so, knowing that he would not only gain prominence, he would gain some leverage in the patent suits that were certain to come. Curtiss' methods did much to offset the adverse effect of the Wrights methods, but were regarded as contemptible in the extreme by the two brothers.

The Wrights patent had been granted in the United States, France, Belgium and Germany by the fall of 1906. When Curtiss flew the June Bug for 5,360 feet in one minute and forty-six seconds to win the Scientific American Prize on July 4, 1908, Orville Wright responded with a letter stating all the points where Curtiss had infringed. His letter was quite specific, noting that the combination of controls that Curtiss was using was covered by Claim 14 of their Patent No. 821,393.

Curtiss' success, and the growing prowess of European competitors spurred the Wrights on, but they still declined to compete either for the London Daily Mail's $5,000 prize for a flight across the English Channel, or in the Grande Semaine De L'Avaition De La Champagne, the world's first aviation fair at Reims in 1909. Louis Bl(C)riot flew his wing-warping Model XI across the Channel, and Curtiss won the James Gordon Bennett Cup at Reims, a triumph that made him the fastest man in the air at 47.0 mph. He was already the fastest man on land, having ridden his motorcycle to a top speed of 137 mph in 1907. He was certainly the best publicist for aviation, and the best salesman for his products.

The Wrights answer was to file suit in New York on August 18, 1909. An injunction against Curtiss was issued on January 3, 1910, restricting the Herring-Curtiss Company from the manufacture, sale or exhibition of aircraft. Curtiss appealed the verdict, and continued in business, accepting the risk that if the injunction were upheld, he would lose enormous sums of money.

Curtiss, upset by the Wright patent, had been gulled into forming a company with Augustus Herring, who told him that he possessed patents predating that of the Wrights. Curtiss signed an agreement in which the Herring-Curtiss company was formed. Curtiss supplied all his knowledge and all of his considerable assets while Herring promised to put up his patents. Unfortunately for Curtiss, Herring had no patents-it was a scam. When this was discovered, the Herring-Curtiss Company filed for bankruptcy.

Encouraged, the Wrights began systematically to sue anyone suspected of infringing their patents, which really meant everyone attempting to make a living from building or flying airplanes.

Operating under the appeal, Curtiss bounced back, accepting the fact that a final ruling against him would ruin him. Unfortunately for everyone but the Wrights, their patent was upheld in successive judgements.

Law suits, then as now, dragged on for years. In the interval the Wrights made a considerable fortune, almost at the last possible opportunity, selling the manufacturing rights of their aircraft abroad, and forming their own company (Wright & Company) in the United States.

The effect of the Wright patent suits was far more damaging in the United States than in Europe. In the U.S., manufacturers had to undertake all the risks of entering aviation and either pay the Wrights their royalties, or face suits. In Europe, the situation was slight different; the cases were expected to linger longer in court, hopefully until the Wrights' patents expired. In addition, flying had caught on among the wealthy and aristocratic in Europe, where competing in the various types of air races became as fashionable as the races at Ascot. In addition, many of those who flew were also officers in various branches of the service, and, because of rising international tensions in Europe, were able to induce their governments to purchase aircraft for military use. One result of this was the steady eclipse of U.S. aviation by foreign nations, particularly France.

The Wrights further restricted aviation progress in the United States by sticking doggedly to their basic design, despite the obvious advances being made in Europe. Improvements were made to the 1910 Model B, which had the elevator in the rear, wheels in place of skids, and did not require the tower-catapult for takeoff. The later Model C proved to be a man-killer; seven were purchased by the Army and five crashed, killing five men.

Wilbur Wright died of typhoid fever in 1912. Orville attributed his death at least in part to his having been debilitated by the physical and mental stress of the lawsuits, particularly those with Curtiss. Orville entertained strong feelings of resentment about Curtiss until his death in 1948.

Oddly enough, in 1915, Orville showed considerable a previously concealed business acumen, buying up all the stock in his company, borrowing for the first time in his life to do so, and then selling it for $1.5 million to a syndicate that included Glenn L. Martin. Orville remained nominally as a consultant, but in fact walked away from the cares of the company without regret.

The company he left behind did not prosper, and was merged with other firms to become the Wright-Martin Company in 1916. Martin left in 1917, and it became Wright Aeronautical Corporation in 1919. Ironically, on August 8, 1929, Wright Aeronautical merged with the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor company to become the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. The placement of the names further embittered Orville, seeing it as one more unfair triumph for Glenn Curtiss, even though Curtiss was no longer active in the firm.

The world owes the Wrights a great deal for aviation; it might have owed even more if they had been a shade more imaginative and a shade less possessive in their business dealings.

Back to the Walter J. Boyne's "World Aviation History" page.

Were The Wright Brothers The First To Fly? - YouTube

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 08:43

Words Matter

S2402-2013 - NY Senate Open Legislation - Establishes the crime of aggravated harassment of a police officer or peace officer - New York State Senate

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 08:23

Establishes the crime of aggravated harassment of a police officer or peace officer; provides for such an offense to be a class E felony.S2402-2013 ActionsJun 5, 2013: referred to codesJun 5, 2013: DELIVERED TO ASSEMBLYJun 5, 2013: PASSED SENATEJun 3, 2013: ADVANCED TO THIRD READINGMay 30, 2013: 2ND REPORT CAL.May 29, 2013: 1ST REPORT CAL.778Jan 17, 2013: REFERRED TO CODESS2402-2013 MeetingsCodes: May 20, 2013, Codes: May 29, 2013S2402-2013 CalendarsActive List: Jun 5, 2013 , Floor Calendar: May 30, 2013 , Floor Calendar: Jun 3, 2013 , Floor Calendar: Jun 4, 2013 , Floor Calendar: Jun 5, 2013S2402-2013 VotesVOTE: COMMITTEE VOTE: - Codes - May 29, 2013Ayes (11):Nozzolio, Boyle, DeFrancisco, Flanagan, Fuschillo, Gallivan, Golden, Lanza, O'Mara, Espaillat, O'BrienNays (4):Squadron, Perkins, Hoylman, Krueger

VOTE: FLOOR VOTE: - Jun 5, 2013Ayes (50):Adams, Addabbo, Avella, Ball, Bonacic, Boyle, Breslin, Carlucci, DeFrancisco, Diaz, Espaillat, Farley, Felder, Flanagan, Fuschillo, Gallivan, Gipson, Golden, Griffo, Grisanti, Hannon, Kennedy, Klein, Lanza, Larkin, Latimer, LaValle, Libous, Little, Marcellino, Marchione, Martins, Maziarz, Nozzolio, O'Brien, O'Mara, Peralta, Ranzenhofer, Ritchie, Robach, Sampson, Sanders, Savino, Seward, Skelos, Smith, Tkaczyk, Valesky, Young, ZeldinNays (13):Dilan, Gianaris, Hassell-Thomps, Hoylman, Krueger, Montgomery, Parker, Perkins, Rivera, Serrano, Squadron, Stavisky, Stewart-Cousin

S2402-2013 MemoBILL NUMBER:S2402TITLE OF BILL: An act to amend the penal law, in relation toaggravated harassment of peace officers or police officersPURPOSE: To establish the crime of aggravated harassment of a policeofficer or peace officer and make such crime a class E felony.SUMMARY OF PROVISIONS:Section one amends the penal law by adding a new section 240.33establishing the crime of aggravated harassment of a police officer orpeace officer.Section two is the effective date.JUSTIFICATION: Police officers all across this state put their liveson the line every day to protect the people of New York. New YorkState must establish laws and toughen existing laws that protect thepolice from becoming victims of criminals. Far too many lawenforcement officers are being harassed, injured, even killed whilehonoring their commitment to protect and serve this state. TheLegislature has a responsibility to do everything we can to protectour brave heroes, our police officers, from violent criminals. Thislegislation contributes to that premiseLEGISLATIVE HISTORY: 2011-12 S. 2322 Passed Senate/A. 8099 CodesCommittee.FISCAL IMPLICATIONS: None.EFFECTIVE DATE: This act shall take effect on the first of Novembernext succeeding the date on which it shall have become a law.S2402-2013 Text S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K ________________________________________________________________________ 2402 2013-2014 Regular Sessions I N SENATE January 17, 2013 ___________ Introduced by Sens. GRIFFO, DeFRANCISCO, GALLIVAN, LARKIN, LIBOUS, MAZIARZ, RANZENHOFER, SEWARD, YOUNG -- read twice and ordered printed, and when printed to be committed to the Committee on Codes AN ACT to amend the penal law, in relation to aggravated harassment of peace officers or police officers THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, REPRESENTED IN SENATE AND ASSEM- BLY, DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:Section 1. The penal law is amended by adding a new section 240.33 to read as follows:S 240.33 AGGRAVATED HARASSMENT OF A POLICE OFFICER OR PEACE OFFICER. A PERSON IS GUILTY OF AGGRAVATED HARASSMENT OF A POLICE OFFICER OR PEACE OFFICER WHEN, WITH THE INTENT TO HARASS, ANNOY, THREATEN OR ALARM A PERSON WHOM HE OR SHE KNOWS OR REASONABLY SHOULD KNOW TO BE A POLICE OFFICER OR PEACE OFFICER ENGAGED IN THE COURSE OF PERFORMING HIS OR HER OFFICIAL DUTIES, HE OR SHE STRIKES, SHOVES, KICKS OR OTHERWISE SUBJECTS SUCH PERSON TO PHYSICAL CONTACT. AGGRAVATED HARASSMENT OF A POLICE OFFICER OR PEACE OFFICER IS A CLASS E FELONY. S 2. This act shall take effect on the first of November next succeed- ing the date on which it shall have become a law. EXPLANATION--Matter in ITALICS (underscored) is new; matter in brackets [ ] is old law to be omitted. LBD06443-01-3

Annoy | Define Annoy at Dictionary.com

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 08:22

Example sentences

The notebook also comes with a gloss screen, which may annoy some users in a brightly lit room because of the reflections.Keep the music in your vehicle at a level that doesn't annoy others.

Local police chiefs who annoy them are simply killed.

Presidential motorcades annoy some people, mostly because they back up traffic and sometimes because of environmental concerns.Granted, he is likely playing to not annoy his base.

What the app really needs, and what would really annoy store-owners, is a bar code reader for instant price comparison shopping.

Where his uppity energy once inspired the country's voters, today it seems merely to annoy.

Radio announcers have habits that annoy you, habits that charm you.

Freeloaders annoy honey badgers, but don't cause them to go hungry.

Fix the writing, and change the language on the things you disagree with in a way that won't annoy your advisor.

annoy - definition of annoy by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.

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Sun, 09 Jun 2013 08:20

an·noy (-noi)tr.v.an·noyed, an·noy·ing, an·noys1. To cause slight irritation to (another) by troublesome, often repeated acts.

2.Archaic To harass or disturb by repeated attacks.

Synonyms:annoy, irritate, bother, irk, vex, provoke, aggravate, peeve, rileThese verbs mean to disturb or trouble a person, evoking moderate anger. Annoy refers to mild disturbance caused by an act that tries one's patience: The sound of the printer annoyed me.Irritate is somewhat stronger: I was irritated by their constant interruptions.Bother implies imposition: In the end, his complaining just bothered the supervisor.Irk connotes a wearisome quality: The city council's inactivity irked the community.Vex applies to an act capable of arousing anger or perplexity: Hecklers in the crowd vexed the speaker.Provoke implies strong and often deliberate incitement to anger: His behavior provoked me to reprimand the whole team.Aggravate is a less formal equivalent: "Threats only served to aggravate people in such cases" (William Makepeace Thackeray).Peeve, also somewhat informal, suggests a querulous, resentful response to a mild disturbance: Your flippant answers peeved me.To rile is to upset and to stir up: It riled me to have to listen to such lies.

annoy[ÉËnÉ--ɪ]vb1. to irritate or displease

2. (Historical Terms) to harass with repeated attacks[from Old French anoier, from Late Latin inodiāre to make hateful, from Latin in odiō (esse) (to be) hated, from odium hatred]

annoyer n

an'noy(ÉËnÉ--ɪ)v.t.

1. to disturb or bother in a way that displeases, troubles, or irritates.

2. to molest persistently; harass.

v.i.3. to be bothersome or troublesome.

[1250''1300; Middle English an(n)oien < >an'noy'²er,n.

ThesaurusLegend: Synonyms Related Words Antonyms

Verb1.annoy - cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations; "Mosquitoes buzzing in my ear really bothers me"; "It irritates me that she never closes the door after she leaves"devil, gravel, irritate, nark, rile, vex, nettle, rag, bother, chafe, get at, get toeat into, rankle, grate, fret - gnaw into; make resentful or angry; "The injustice rankled her"; "his resentment festered"chafe - feel extreme irritation or anger; "He was chafing at her suggestion that he stay at home while she went on a vacation"peeve - cause to be annoyed, irritated, or resentfulruffle - trouble or vex; "ruffle somebody's composure"fret - cause annoyance inbeset, chevvy, chevy, chivvy, chivy, harass, harry, hassle, molest, plague, provoke - annoy continually or chronically; "He is known to harry his staff when he is overworked"; "This man harasses his female co-workers"annoyverbirritate, trouble, bore, anger, harry, bother, disturb, provoke, get(informal), bug(informal), needle(informal), plague, tease, harass, hassle(informal), aggravate(informal), badger, gall, madden, ruffle, exasperate, nettle, molest, pester, vex, displease, irk, bedevil, rile, peeve, get under your skin (informal), get on your nerves (informal), nark(Brit., Austral., & N.Z. slang), get up your nose (informal), give someone grief (Brit. & S. African), make your blood boil, piss you off (taboo slang), rub someone up the wrong way (informal), get your goat (slang), get in your hair (informal), get on your wick (Brit. slang), get your dander up (informal), get your back up, incommode, put your back upTry making a note of the things that annoy you.comfort, calm, soothe, console, appease, solace, mollify Translations

annoy (ÉËnoi) verbto make (someone) rather angry or impatient. Please go away and stop annoying me!irriteer, hinderيُزعِج، يُغÙ'ضِبдÑазняirritarzlobit, otravovat¤rgern...rgre; irritere; genereενÎχÎ>>ÏŽmolestar, importunart¼¼tamaاذیت Ú(C)ردن¤rsytt¤¤importuner×'Ö°×--ַר×'Ö´×זचà¤à¤à¤¼à¤¾à¤¨à¤¾, सतानाljutitibosszantmengganggu"n°ainfastidireうるさがらせるì§'ì...'ë‚게 í•ë‹¤erzinti, pykintikaitināt; apgrÅtinātmenggangguergerenergre, plage, sjenereirytowaćØزارÙÙØŒ تÚ(C)Ùیف ÙرÚ(C)ÙÙincomodara enervaÑаздÑажатьhnevaÅ¥, otravovaÅ¥nadlegovatiuzrujatibesv¤ra, irriteraทà¸"ใà¸à¹‰à¸£à¸"à¸à¸²à¸; รบกวà¸canını sıkmak, epeyce ¼zmekä>>¤äººåŽ­ç…(C)набÑидати; дÑатуватиتÚ(C)Ùیف دینا ØŒ Ø"تانا ØŒ ناراض Ú(C)رناl m phiá>>nä½çƒ...恼

anËnoyancenoun1. something which annoys. That noise has been an annoyance to me for weeks!irritasieØ´ÙŽÙŠØ Ù…ÙØ²Ø¹ÙØ¬Ð´ÑазнитеÐ>>irrita§£oobt­Å¾, otravadas rgernisirritationενόχÎ>>ησηmolestiat¼¼tusÙ…Ø§ÛŒÛ Ù…Ø²Ø§Ø­Ù…Øª Ù Øزارvaivad(C)sagr(C)mentמִ×רַ×'चà¤à¤à¤¼smetanjebosszºsggangguan"n...°ifastidioうるさがらせるものê"¨ì¹ê±°ë...¬tai, kas erzina, dirgiklisapgrÅtinājums; traucÄ'jumsgangguanergernisplageutrapienieځÙرÙنهcontrariedade(motiv de) iritareисточник ÑаздÑаженияtrpenienevÅečnostuznemirenjeirritation, pl¥gaสิà¹à¸‡à¸—ีà¹à¸£à¸šà¸à¸§à¸can sıkıcı ÅŸey, baÅŸ belsı惱人çšäº‹æƒ…ÐÑикÑість; неÐÑиÑ--мністьØزار ØŒ ناراضیđiá>>u kh" chá>>‹uçƒ...恼çšäº‹æƒ…

2. the state of being annoyed. He was red in the face with annoyance.ge¯rriteerdheidإنÙ'زِعاجÑздÑазнениеirrita§£ozlost, mrzutostder rger...rgrelse; irritationενόχÎ>>ησηirritaci"n, contrariedadpahameelاذیتharmistuneisuusm(C)contentementרוֹ×'ֶזचà¤à¤à¤¼uzrujavanjebosszºsgkesalgremjairritazioneãã‚‰ã たしさë‚'ì²í•¨susierzinimasaizkaitinājums; ÄgnumstergangguergernisergrelsegniewځÙرÙÙirrita§£osupărareÑаздÑажениеzlosÅ¥, podrždenosÅ¥nezadovoljstvoljutnjaf¶rargelse, irritationà¸à¸§à¸²à¸à¸£à¸"à¸à¸²à¸canı sıkılma, rahatsız olma厭ç…(C)досада; ÑоздÑатуванняبیزاریsá>>± kh" chá>>‹uçƒ...恼

anËnoyedadjectivemade angry. My mother is annoyed with me;He was annoyed at her remarks.ge¯rriteerdمُنÙ'زَعِجÑаздÑазненirritadorozmrzel½, otrven½¤rgerlichirriteretενÎχÎ>>ημένÎÏ‚irritada, contrariadapahaneرنجیده؛ اذیت شدهharmistunutagac(C)מרוּ×'ָזचà¤à¤à¤¼à¤¾ हुआozlovoljenideges, bosszºsterganggu, kesalgramurirritato, infastiditoè…¹ã‚'ç‹ã...たí--ê° ë‚'supykÄssakaitināts; Ägnsmarahboosirritert, forargetpoirytowanyځÙریدÙÛŒaborrecidoenervatÑаздÑажённыйnahnevan½nejevoljenljutf¶rargadทีà¹à¸£à¸"à¸à¸²à¸epeyce kızmış, hayli canı sıkılmışç--Ÿæ°£çšÑоздÑатованийناراضtá>>(C)c giậnç--Ÿæ°--çš

anËnoyingadjectiveannoying habits.irriterendمُزÙ'عِج، مُضايِقдÑазнещirritantenemil½, protivn½¤rgerlichirriterendeενÎχÎ>>ηÏικόςmolesto, irritantet¼¼tuمزاحم؛ اذیت Ú(C)ننده¤rsytt¤v¤aga§antמַר×'Ö´×זचà¤à¤à¤¼dosadanbosszant"menggangguergjandifastidioso, irritanteãã‚‰ãã‚‰ã•ã›ã‚‹ì±ê°ì‹ erzinantiskaitinoÅsmenjengkelkanergerlijkirriterende, plagsomirytujÄ…ceځÙرÙÙ†Ú(C)ÛŒincomodativoener­vantÑаздÑажающийprotivn½nadležendosadanf¶rarglig, retsamà¸à¹à¸²à¸£à¸"à¸à¸²à¸can sıkıcı, sinirlendirici討厭çšÐ´Ñатівний, набÑидÐ>>ивийناراض Ú(C)رنÛ' ÙاÙاkh" chá>>‹u讨厌çš

anËnoyinglyadverbirriterendبِصÙرَØ(C) مُزÙ'عِجَØ(C)ØŒ بِمُضايَقَهдÑазнещоirritantementenemile, protivnÄ›¤rgerlichirriterendeενÎχÎ>>ηÏικάde modo irritantet¼¼tultبطÙر Øزاردهندهharmittavastide mani¨re aga§anteבְּ×...וּרָ×-- מַרְ×'Ö´××–Ö¸×--चà¤à¤à¤¼ के साथdosadnobosszant"ansecara menggangguergilegain modo fastidioso/irritanteうるさく괴ë­ížëŠ--erzinamaikaitinoÅidengan jengkelergerlijkergerligirytujÄ…coد ځÙرÙÙ٠په Ú‰ÙÙincomodativamentesupărătorÑаздÑажающеprotivnenadležnouzrujanof¶rargligt, retsamtอà¸à¹à¸²à¸‡à¸£à¸"à¸à¸²à¸can sıkıcı bir ÅŸekilde討厭å'°Ð½Ð°Ð±ÑидÐ>>ивоناراضگی Ú(C)Û' Ø·Ùر پرkh" chá>>‹u讨厌å'°

annoy '†' يُضايقpodržditirritere¤rgernενÎχÎ>>ÏŽmolestarsuututtaaembªterozlovoljitiirritareうるさがらせるê·ì°®ê²Œ í•ë‹¤ergerenirriteredokuczyćirritarÑаздÑажатьirriteraทà¸"ใà¸à¹‰à¸£à¸"à¸à¸²à¸sinirini bozmakl m kh" chá>>‹u骚扰annoyvt. importunar, fastidiar, molestar.

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Out There

UFO With S-Shaped Fin Photographed Over Netherlands Castle

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Archived Version

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 19:25

Literally faster than the eye could follow, an unusual object was accidentally photographed above the landmark Muiderslot Castle in the Netherlands.

On May 25, Corinne Federer and her mother visited the medieval castle, built in 1285 near Amsterdam. Federer, a supply chain manager for adidas in Amsterdam, and an avid photographer, was shooting High Dynamic Range, or HDR, photos of the castle.

"In order to create HDR images, you take three or more exposures -- this one happened to be five -- and you shoot them all at the same time, because you then overlap the images and it gives you the full spectrum of light, which your camera can't capture but your eyes can," Federer, 43, told The Huffington Post in an exclusive interview.

Check out these detailed images of the Muiderslot Castle UFO:

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 1Faster than the eye could follow, an unusual-looking object was accidentally photographed on May 25, 2013, in the sky above the medieval 13th century Muiderslot Castle in the Netherlands. Corinne Federer took five simultaneous shots (within one second), and two of the exposures revealed what appears to be a tubular-shaped object with a large S-shaped fin, travelling at almost supersonic speed. This first-of-five images was two stops underexposed, and doesn't yet show the UFO.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 2In this second-of-five images, the UFO is still not visible in this second-of-five images. This image is one stop-underexposed in a sequence that snapped five pictures within one second.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 3aIn this normal exposure image, suddenly an unknown object appears in the sky above the castle. The next slide shows the same picture, but with some adjustments made to show more details of the object.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 3bIn this image, the contrast and gray scale settings of the original exposures have been adjusted to further clarify the unexplained object that was photographed by Corinne Federer over the Muiderslot Castle in the Netherlands on May 25, 2013.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 4aThis is a plus-one exposure of the one-second, five-image sequence that now shows the unexplained object on the far left of the screen. Because the UFO can barely be seen, adjustments were made in the contrast to bring more clarity to it in the next slide.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 4bThis monochrome version of the preceding slide, with blacks and shadows maximized to bring out details in the image, shows the UFO more clearly on the far left of the screen. The next slide shows a closer view of the object.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 4cThis slide shows two enlargements of the object that appeared at the extreme left side of the five-image sequence.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - 5This is an overexposed, final shot of the five-image, one-second exposure of the unusual aerial object above the Muiderslot Castle. The object is gone from this image. Former FBI special agent Ben Hansen analyzed the full exposure sequence and strongly suggested that the rapidly moving objects were most likely insects, flying so fast that they were only picked up on two of the five images.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - Higher UFO In The SkyWhile former FBI special agent Ben Hansen was studying the five-image sequence of the Muiderslot Castle UFO, he noticed something else, much higher in the sky that could barely be noticed upon first glance. In this image (which was the second-of-five), the red circle surrounds another object. The next slide brings it much closer in view.

Muiderslot Castle UFO - Higher UFO In The Sky Closer ViewThe image on the right is an extreme close-up of what the red circle is surrounding in the left image. This object was noticed by Ben Hansen, lead investigator of the Syfy Channel's "Fact or Fake: Paranormal Files," while he studied the entire five-image sequence that were taken in the span of one second. Hansen asserts that the alleged UFOs in these images were probably insects.

When Federer reviewed some of the images she had taken, she was startled to see that in one five-image progression, something unusual appeared.

"It was a tubular-shaped object that had an S-shaped fin on it. If it had been any type of missile, it would've had multiple fins, but facing the same direction. We heard nothing, it was completely quiet out. The more I flipped through the frames, it was kind of creepy," Federer recalled. "I've been shooting for quite some time and I've seen other stuff in the news, but I've never seen anything [like this] with my own eye.

"I couldn't wait to get home where I could blow it up and see what was really there. I looked at the image information -- at the shutter speed -- and (the object) was blurred at 1/250th of a second, so it had to be going superfast. The object is not in the frame before or after, so it had to be going really, really fast. I was kind of blown away."

Federer made some adjustments in the gray scale settings of the raw images and boosted the blacks and shadows to produce secondary images that further clarified the mystery object. She then realized that, within the five-image sequence -- keeping in mind that these five pictures were taken within a one-second time frame -- in the image following the appearance of the UFO on the right side, suddenly she saw a portion of another object (or the same one), but on the left side of the exposure.

"The most interesting part of that, for me, is those fins are on the opposite side. At first, I thought the fin side must be a tail, but after looking at it from the second image, it almost looked like the fins were (at) the front and it was turning around and coming back into the frame."

Further intrigued, HuffPost reached out to Ben Hansen, a former FBI special agent, who has used his investigative skills to analyze thousands of videos and photographs of alleged paranormal events.

We asked Hansen, the lead host of Syfy Channel's "Fact or Faked: Paranormal Files," to give us his opinion of the Muiderslot Castle UFO images.

"Having reviewed the raw files, there's no overt indication that the photos have been manipulated with post editing software," he told HuffPost in an email.

"The object's appearance is internally consistent with the rest of the photo. For instance, look at the darker area of the underside of the object compared with the clouds. The shadowing is similar on the underside as well as the lighting on the top of the object and the clouds where the sun is brightest. Having the sun in the frame is helpful because it indicates where shadows should appear. This further supports that the object was photographed 'in-camera' and not added later."

Hansen doesn't agree with Federer's suggestion that the object traveled from left to right and then back again.

"If we were to assume that the protrusions are stabilizing airfoils -- such as might be found on a rocket or jet -- then it would make sense that the larger fins would be placed on the rear of the object and, consequently, we would know its direction," Hansen wrote. "However, the available pixels which blur and separate the protrusions from the main body equally suggest maybe they are NOT airfoils, but some other part of the object that is in rapid motion."

So, what exactly does Hansen think Federer captured in the blink of an eye?

"If I had to place my money on it, I would say that we're looking at insects. We typically see many wing protrusions on insect rod cases, but they do come in the single pair variety, too. It all depends on the shutter speeds and motion of the insects."

Another thing makes this case a little more interesting. While Hansen was closely studying the images captured by Federer, he noticed something else (see above).

"I found another object. To the right of the sun, we see a slender, almost disk-shaped object that appears to have no protrusions. Hmmm."

Federer isn't sure what she photographed over the Muiderslot Castle that day, but offers a personal cosmic view of things.

"When I look at the amazing photography which captures the night sky in long exposures, and you can see how many stars are out there, I think there's absolutely no way that we're alone. So I don't find it unreasonable to believe that there's another habitable planet somewhere that has started exploring space.

"Maybe they're more advanced than we are and they've come by to see what's going on here."

Watch these videos of reported UFOs from around the world:

UFOs Over Michigan -- Jan. 10, 2013This changing sequence of lights was seen over Warren, Mich., on Jan. 10, 2013, moving in patterns similar to balloons or lanterns.

UFO over Moscow -- May 2, 2012This is a slideshow of many videos taken by people around the world who happened to be at the right place and at the right time with a video camera to record unusual lights or objects in the sky -- sometimes at night, other times during the day. Statistically, 95% of UFO sightings are easily explained. How many of these videos do you think represent the 5% of UFOs that can't be explained?

Cincinnati, Ohio -- Sept. 28, 2012Three brightly lit objects over a Cincinnati high school. UFOs or, as some claim: skydivers?

UFO over a Russian city -- June 19, 2012A triangle-shaped UFO over Sydney, Australia -- May 2, 2012Triangular light formation over Tennessee -- April 29, 2012UFOs in triangular pattern over England -- April 26, 2012Diamond-shaped UFO over Pasadena, Calif. -- 2009UFOs over St. Petersburg, Russia -- April 9, 2012UFO video over Las Vegas -- March 21, 2012UFO over Fresno, Calif. -- March 1, 2012UFO over Fresno, Calif. -- February 2011Donut-shaped UFO, Ural Mountains, Russia -- January 2012Triangle pattern of lights over Michigan -- Jan. 9, 2012UFO zips behind a contrail (Location not given) -- Jan. 6, 2012Unusual aerial objects over Campinas, Brazil -- Jan. 3, 2012Odd object falls from sky over Japan -- January 2012

UFO's sighted over British Scientology HQ

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Archived Version

Source: Set You Free News

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 09:31

ANI

Three passenger jets had a close encounter with UFOs above Britain's Scientology HQ, it has been revealed. Their pilots each saw ''two flat, silver discs'' as they lined up to land at Gatwick Airport, and some flew within 100ft, the Sun reported.

Air traffic control staff then spotted a total of six UFOs on their radar before they suddenly vanished. The close encounter above the Church of Scientology HQ in East Grinstead, West Sussex, on December 30 last year lasted a full seven minutes.

Oddly it emerged a day later that Scientologists, famously followed by Tom Cruise, carved a message to aliens in hills in New Mexico, US. Former MoD UFO investigator Nick Pope called the UK sightings ''spectacular,'' adding that the evidence is first rate.

He said that the witnesses are experienced pilots and there is radar evidence to back up their stories. A probe by UK Airprox Board, which examines near misses, failed to find an explanation. Airprox classified the encounter as level D '' meaning it is unexplained.

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Obama is Big Brother and a Bald Faced Liar!

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Source: Activist Post

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Delusional Chris Matthews: ''Obama Has Literally Never Done Anything Wrong''

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Archived Version

Source: Weasel Zippers

Sat, 08 Jun 2013 09:20

Still Tingling'...

Via Townhall:

Chris Matthews, thy delusion knows no bounds. In a month where the veritable pileup of scandals resembles anespecially bad freeway car accident''indeed, on the heels of the PRISM revelation''Matthews maintains that President Obama is as close to a perfect person as we've seen, potentially since Christ. Behold unrighteous indignation, taken to an illogical extreme:

Listening to Matthews talk about Obama sounds more like teenage apologetics of Justin Bieber than sound political analysis. As far as Matthews is concerned, Obama has li-trelly never done anything legally or ethically questionable, and thus the Right's consternation with him is ethnically-based. And yet'...who's the one who forgot about the two African Americans serving in the Senate? Oh right! Matthews.Look, I get standing by your man in his time of hardship, and I suppose in a perverted way, props to him for this adulatory display of loyalty. But really, no. First of all, this is a guy[ed.-Obama] who admitted himself, ''Yeah, I dabbled in blow.'' (Cocaine, for those less streetwise among us.) Which is'...you know. Illegal. Currently, his administration is battling scandals on more fronts that WWI had. Benghazi, hacking journalists, IRS targeting, PRISM'...the ethics are dubious and questionable at best.

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